- A Comparison of Mentorship Attitudes and Attributes Between Civilian and Army Healthcare Leaders. [Journal Article]
- MMMil Med 2018 Nov 13
- CONCLUSIONS: The differences between the Army and civilian samples appear to arise from differences in their respective cultures. The utilization by the Army of formal training programs such as the Army's Basic Officer Leadership Course (BOLC), fill a need provided by mentors in civilian organizations. The common experience of professional training like BOLC is part of what creates and sustains the "thick" culture of the Army. Former Army members making the transition to a civilian career should bear in mind that they are leaving behind a thick culture, and that individual relationships may have greater impact on their future careers than they had experienced in the Army.
- Hormone therapy and carotid intima-media thickness: the thick and thin of it. [Journal Article]
- MMenopause 2018 Nov 12
- Digital humanities as the historian's Trojan horse: Response to commentary in the special section on digital history. [Journal Article]
- HPHist Psychol 2018; 21(4):380-383
- The commentaries by Baldwin (2018), Green (2018), and Porter (2018) on the 2 articles (Burman, 2018; Flis & Van Eck, 2018) in this special section provide a unique perspective on digital humanities a...
The commentaries by Baldwin (2018), Green (2018), and Porter (2018) on the 2 articles (Burman, 2018; Flis & Van Eck, 2018) in this special section provide a unique perspective on digital humanities approaches to history of psychology. Each of the commentators approached the topic through their own lens-Melinda Baldwin as a historian of scientific journals, Christopher Green as a pioneer in digital history of psychology, and Ted Porter as a historian of quantification. In my response, I tried to reply to the 3 comments by critically discussing 4 themes the special section has raised: the relationship between digital history and conventional history, the perspective that takes databases as both sources for historians and objects in history, the relationship between "thick descriptions" and "thin" digital ones, and finally, the role of digital history as a type of a "trading creole" between scientists working in quantified disciplines like scientific psychology and less quantified ones like history. I think the commentators have rightly observed some pitfalls in the uncritical application of digital history. On the other hand, in my response, I argue that the careful use of digital methods, where the user stays in communication with nondigital historians, opens new perspectives for historians of science, historians of psychology, and psychologists themselves. Digital methods are not there to supplant historicist work but to add to it and translate it to new audiences. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
- Optical properties of magnesium nanorods using time dependent density functional theory calculations. [Journal Article]
- PCPhys Chem Chem Phys 2018 Nov 13
- Plasmonic nanostructures made of Earth-abundant and low-cost metals such as aluminum and magnesium have recently emerged as a potential alternative candidate to conventional plasmonic metals such as ...
Plasmonic nanostructures made of Earth-abundant and low-cost metals such as aluminum and magnesium have recently emerged as a potential alternative candidate to conventional plasmonic metals such as gold and silver. Here using computationally efficient time-dependent density-functional theory calculations, we explore optical response modulations of magnesium nanorods via aspect ratio and absolute size variations. We reveal that both the aspect ratio and absolute size of the nanorods are critical for elucidating their optical characteristics. We show that both tuning factors cause significant optical response modulations in the case of thin nanorods (emergence of localized surface plasmon resonances, significant spectral shifting and spectral intensity re-distributions), whereas, very marginal changes in the case of thick nanorods. We believe that our theoretical results would help in the design of magnesium based nano-plasmonic devices.
- The sol-gel transition of ultra-low solid content TEMPO-cellulose nanofibril/mixed-linkage β-glucan bionanocomposite gels. [Journal Article]
- SMSoft Matter 2018 Nov 13
- We present the preparation, morphological analysis, and rheological characterization of ultra-low solid content gels prepared by physically cross-linking TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibrils (TEMPO-C...
We present the preparation, morphological analysis, and rheological characterization of ultra-low solid content gels prepared by physically cross-linking TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibrils (TEMPO-CNF) with the soluble plant-cell-wall polysaccharide, mixed-linkage β-glucan (MLG). Of particular note, gel formation was rapidly induced by very small amounts of MLG (e.g. 0.125% w/v) at extremely low TEMPO-CNF concentration (0.05% w/v), which independently were otherwise fluid and thus easily handled. Rheology of these bionanocomposite gel systems as a function of MLG and TEMPO-CNF concentrations revealed that the critical gel concentration of MLG and TEMPO-CNF followed a power-law relation of the concentration of the other component. Surprisingly, these systems also exhibited an additional transition to thick gels at high TEMPO-CNF and MLG concentrations that was visible only at low frequencies. Cryogenic scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM) imaging of admixture solutions and gels revealed increased network crowding with increasing MLG amounts. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that non-covalent cellulose-MLG interactions, analogous to those occurring within plant cell walls, drive gel formation. The ability to tune gel physical properties simply by controlling CNF (a promising forest bioproduct) and MLG (a readily available agricultural polysaccharide) fractions at very low solid and polymer content opens new possibilities for material applications in diverse industries.
- Monitoring of fluconazole and caspofungin activity against in vivo Candida glabrata biofilms by bioluminescence imaging. [Journal Article]
- AAAntimicrob Agents Chemother 2018 Nov 12
- Candida glabrata can attach to various medical implants and forms thick biofilms despite its inability to switch from-yeast-to hyphae. Current in vivo C. glabrata biofilm models only provide limited ...
Candida glabrata can attach to various medical implants and forms thick biofilms despite its inability to switch from-yeast-to hyphae. Current in vivo C. glabrata biofilm models only provide limited information about colonization and infection and usually require animal sacrifice. To gain real-time information from individual BALB/c mice we developed a non-invasive imaging technique to visualize C. glabrata biofilms in catheter fragments that were subcutaneously implanted on the back of mice. Bioluminescent C. glabrata reporter strains (lucOPT 7/2/4 and lucOPT 8/1/4), free of auxotrophic markers, expressing a codon-optimized firefly luciferase were generated. A murine subcutaneous model was used to follow real-time in vivo biofilm formation in the presence and absence of fluconazole and caspofungin. Fungal load in biofilms was quantified by colony forming unit counts and by bioluminescence imaging (BLI). C. glabrata biofilms formed within the first 24 h, as documented by the increased number of device-associated cells and elevated bioluminescent signal compared to adhesion at the time of implant. The in vivo model allowed monitoring of the anti-biofilm activity of caspofungin against C. glabrata biofilms through bioluminescent imaging from day four after initiation of treatment. Contrarily, signals emitted from biofilms implanted in fluconazole-treated mice was similar to the light emitted from control-treated mice.This study gives insights into real-time development of C. glabrata biofilms under in vivo conditions. BLI proved to be a dynamic, non-invasive and sensitive tool to monitor continuous biofilm formation and activity of antifungal agents against C. glabrata biofilms formed on abiotic surfaces in vivo.
- Correlation of malaria parasitaemia with peripheral blood monocyte to lymphocyte ratio as indicator of susceptibility to severe malaria in Ghanaian children. [Journal Article]
- MJMalar J 2018 Nov 12; 17(1):419
- CONCLUSIONS: The monocyte to lymphocyte ratio obtained correlated positively with the presence of malaria as well as the level of parasitaemia. The outcome of this work implies that monocyte to lymphocyte ratio can be used to predict the level of parasitaemia and together with other factors, the development of severe malaria.
- Nanoscale near-field tomography of surface states on (Bi0.5Sb0.5)2Te3. [Journal Article]
- NLNano Lett 2018 Nov 13
- Three-dimensional topological insulators (TIs) have attracted tremendous interest for their possibility to host massless Dirac fermions in topologically protected surface states (TSSs), which may ena...
Three-dimensional topological insulators (TIs) have attracted tremendous interest for their possibility to host massless Dirac fermions in topologically protected surface states (TSSs), which may enable new kinds of high-speed electronics. However, recent reports have outlined the importance of band bending effects within these materials, which results in an additional two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) with finite mass at the surface. TI surfaces are also known to be highly inhomogeneous on the nanoscale, which is masked in conventional far-field studies. Here, we use near-field microscopy in the mid-infrared spectral range to probe the local surface properties of custom-tailored (Bi0.5Sb0.5)2Te3 structures with nanometer precision in all three spatial dimensions. Applying nano-tomography and nano-spectroscopy, we reveal a few-nm-thick layer of high surface conductivity and retrieve its local dielectric function, without assuming any model for the spectral response. This allows us to directly distinguish between different types of surface states. An intersubband transition within the massive 2DEG formed by quantum confinement in the bent conduction band manifests itself as a sharp surface-bound Lorentzian-shaped resonance. An additional broadband background in the imaginary part of the dielectric function may be caused by the TSS. Tracing the intersubband resonance with nanometer spatial precision, we observe changes of its frequency, likely originating from local variations of doping or/and the mixing ratio between Bi and Sb. Our results highlight the importance of studying the surfaces of these novel materials on the nanoscale to directly access the local optical and electronic properties via the dielectric function.
- Microscopy with ultraviolet surface excitation for rapid slide-free histology. [Journal Article]
- NBNat Biomed Eng 2017; 1:957-966
- Histologic examination of tissues is central to the diagnosis and management of neoplasms and many other diseases, and is a foundational technique for preclinical and basic research. However, commonl...
Histologic examination of tissues is central to the diagnosis and management of neoplasms and many other diseases, and is a foundational technique for preclinical and basic research. However, commonly used bright-field microscopy requires prior preparation of micrometre-thick tissue sections mounted on glass slides, a process that can require hours or days, that contributes to cost, and that delays access to critical information. Here, we introduce a simple, non-destructive slide-free technique that within minutes provides high-resolution diagnostic histological images resembling those obtained from conventional haematoxylin-and-eosin-histology. The approach, which we named microscopy with ultraviolet surface excitation (MUSE), can also generate shape and colour-contrast information. MUSE relies on ~280-nm ultraviolet light to restrict the excitation of conventional fluorescent stains to tissue surfaces, and it has no significant effects on downstream molecular assays (including fluorescence in situ hybridization and RNA-seq). MUSE promises to improve the speed and efficiency of patient care in both state-of-the-art and low-resource settings, and to provide opportunities for rapid histology in research.
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- Manual wheelchair users gradually face fewer postural stability and control challenges with increasing rolling resistance while maintaining a rear-wheel wheelie. [Journal Article]
- HMHum Mov Sci 2018 Nov 09; 62:194-201
- Teaching manual wheelchair users to perform wheelies using various rolling resistances is expected to facilitate learning of this advanced wheelchair skill. However, limited scientific evidence is av...
Teaching manual wheelchair users to perform wheelies using various rolling resistances is expected to facilitate learning of this advanced wheelchair skill. However, limited scientific evidence is available to support this approach. This study aimed to measure and compare postural stability and control requirements when maintaining a stationary wheelie on different rolling resistances. Eighteen manual wheelchair users with a spinal cord injury performed in a random order and maintained four 30-second wheelies on four rolling resistances: natural hard floor (NAT), 5-cm thick soft foam (LOW), 5-cm thick memory foam (MOD), and rear wheels blocked by wooden blocks (HIGH). All wheelies were performed over a large instrumented force plate to continuously record the center of pressure (CoP). To quantify postural stability, resultant and directional time- and frequency-domain CoP measures were computed and compared across all four rolling resistances. All resultant time-domain measures confirmed increased postural stability from NAT to LOW and from MOD to HIGH rolling resistances. Most time-domain measures confirmed a shift in postural control from an anticipatory to a predominantly compensatory strategy, accompanied by increased reliance on proprioceptive feedback, especially from NAT to LOW and from MOD to HIGH rolling resistances. Postural stability gradually increased with various rolling resistances while maintaining a stationary wheelie, whereas the postural control strategy shifted from an anticipatory to a reactive strategy. Blocking the rear wheels is recommended when first teaching this advanced wheelchair skill. Rapid progression on foam and natural surfaces is advocated to refine learning and enhance proper postural control strategies.