- Pharyngeal Swallowing in Older Adults: Kinematic Analysis Using Three-Dimensional Dynamic Computed Tomography. [Journal Article]
- JOJ Oral Rehabil 2018 Aug 20
- CONCLUSIONS: During swallowing, older adults had a longer pharyngeal phase characterized by prolonged velopharyngeal and laryngeal closure. This difference may be a protective mechanism to compensate for age-related weakness. A better understanding of the mechanism by which this adaptation occurs is needed to tailor rehabilitation strategies and to maintain swallowing function during the lifespan. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Yogsothoth knorrus gen. n., sp. n. and Y. carteri sp. n. (Yogsothothidae fam. n., Haptista, Centroplasthelida), with Notes on Evolution and Systematics of Centrohelids. [Journal Article]
- PProtist 2018 Jun 18; 169(5):682-696
- Two closely related new species of centrohelid heliozoans with unusual morphology were studied with light and electron microscopy. Sequences of the 18S rRNA gene were also obtained and secondary stru...
Two closely related new species of centrohelid heliozoans with unusual morphology were studied with light and electron microscopy. Sequences of the 18S rRNA gene were also obtained and secondary structure of 18S rRNA molecule reconstructed. The cells, covered with inner siliceous plate scales formed colonies. The entire colony was surrounded with a thick layer of external scales. Inner scales were tabulate and had a patternless surface, except for the presence of an axial rib. Outer scales had a boat-like (Yogsothoth knorrus gen. nov., sp. nov.) or pot-like (Yogsothoth carteri sp. nov.) shape with an axial rib and numerous conical papillae on the scale surface. Analysis of 18S rRNA gene sequences robustly placed the new taxa within centrohelids, but not in any existing family. Scaled Yogsothoth represents a genetically divergent closest outgroup of Acanthocystida, branching after the supposedly primary non-scaled Marophrys, and together with acanthocystids, forming the novel taxon Panacanthocystida. Reconstruction of presumptive 18S rRNA secondary structure reveals interspecific differences in expansion segments 7 and 9 of Yogsothoth. Analysis of 18S rRNA secondary structure of other centrohelids allowed identification of length increases characteristic for Panacanthocystida location and reconstruction of 18S rRNA elongation in the course of the evolution of this group.
- Gelation of oil-in-water emulsions stabilized by heat-denatured and nanofibrillated whey proteins through ion bridging or citric acid-mediated cross-linking. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Biol Macromol 2018 Aug 17
- This work addresses the fabrication and characterization of gels from emulsions stabilized by heat-denatured and nanofibrillated whey protein isolate (WPI) using citric acid and CaCl2 as cold-gelling...
This work addresses the fabrication and characterization of gels from emulsions stabilized by heat-denatured and nanofibrillated whey protein isolate (WPI) using citric acid and CaCl2 as cold-gelling agents. Nano-thick fibrils and wormlike aggregates were produced by heating of WPI at pH 2.0 and 8.0, respectively. Fibrillated WPI, heat-denatured WPI, and their mixture at a concentration of 65 mg mL-1 and pH 8.0 were used to stabilize oil-in-water emulsions. Emulsions stabilized by fibrillated WPI showed a higher creaming stability than samples stabilized by heat-denatured and mixed fibrillated/heat-denatured WPI. However, they were more polydisperse and had larger droplets. Gelation of emulsions by citric acid through the generation of covalent bonds was confirmed by OPA colorimetric method and FT-IR spectroscopy. Emulsion gels prepared by citric acid-mediated cross-linking were firmer than those formed by CaCl2 and also showed a higher ability to hold water and retain oil. Scanning electron microscopy also demonstrated a more open and porous structure for ion-induced emulsion gels compared to citric acid-induced counterparts. Generally, the results indicated that the citric acid as a new gelling agent and different forms of WPI aggregates can be used in the formulation of edible emulsion gels with modifiable functional properties.
- Measuring the Flight Ability of the Ambrosia Beetle, Platypus Quercivorus (Murayama), Using a Low-Cost, Small, and Easily Constructed Flight Mill. [Journal Article]
- JVJ Vis Exp 2018 Aug 06; (138)
- The ambrosia beetle, Platypus quercivorus (Murayama), is the vector of a fungal pathogen that causes mass mortality of Fagaceae trees (Japanese oak wilt). Therefore, knowing the dispersal capacity ma...
The ambrosia beetle, Platypus quercivorus (Murayama), is the vector of a fungal pathogen that causes mass mortality of Fagaceae trees (Japanese oak wilt). Therefore, knowing the dispersal capacity may help inform trapping/tree removal efforts to prevent this disease more effectively. In this study, we measured the flight velocity and duration and estimated the flight distance of the beetle using a newly developed flight mill. The flight mill is low cost, small, and constructed using commonly available items. Both the flight mill arm and its vertical axis comprise a thin needle. A beetle specimen is glued to one tip of the arm using instant glue. The other tip is thick due to being covered with plastic, thus it facilitates the detection of rotations of the arm. The revolution of the arm is detected by a photo sensor mounted on an infrared LED, and is indicated by a change in the output voltage when the arm passed above the LED. The photo sensor is connected to a personal computer and the output voltage data are stored at a sampling rate of 1 kHz. By conducting experiments using this flight mill, we found that P. quercivorus can fly at least 27 km. Because our flight mill comprises cheap and small ordinary items, many flight mills can be prepared and used simultaneously in a small laboratory space. This enables experimenters to obtain a sufficient amount of data within a short period.
- Linear Atelectasis around the Hilum on Chest Radiography: A Novel Sign of Early Lung Cancer. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Clin Imaging Sci 2018; 8:27
- CONCLUSIONS: Thick perihilar linear atelectasis is a new diagnostic roentgen sign that suggests subsegmental bronchial obstruction. In this patient subgroup, who are otherwise asymptomatic, a persistent linear atelectasis can be due to primary lung cancer.
- Efficacy of artemether-lumefantrine for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Nepal. [Journal Article]
- TDTrop Dis Travel Med Vaccines 2018; 4:9
- CONCLUSIONS: Only one case of late treatment failure was identified in this study. ACT combination using artemether-lumefantrine was still effective for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Nepal. A close monitoring and supervision for ACT resistance is essential for future malaria treatment in Nepal.
- A Homozygous Ancestral SVA-Insertion-Mediated Deletion in WDR66 Induces Multiple Morphological Abnormalities of the Sperm Flagellum and Male Infertility. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Hum Genet 2018 Aug 09
- Multiple morphological abnormalities of the sperm flagellum (MMAF) is a severe form of male infertility defined by the presence of a mosaic of anomalies, including short, bent, curled, thick, or abse...
Multiple morphological abnormalities of the sperm flagellum (MMAF) is a severe form of male infertility defined by the presence of a mosaic of anomalies, including short, bent, curled, thick, or absent flagella, resulting from a severe disorganization of the axoneme and of the peri-axonemal structures. Mutations in DNAH1, CFAP43, and CFAP44, three genes encoding axoneme-related proteins, have been described to account for approximately 30% of the MMAF cases reported so far. Here, we searched for pathological copy-number variants in whole-exome sequencing data from a cohort of 78 MMAF-affected subjects to identify additional genes associated with MMAF. In 7 of 78 affected individuals, we identified a homozygous deletion that removes the two penultimate exons of WDR66 (also named CFAP251), a gene coding for an axonemal protein preferentially localized in the testis and described to localize to the calmodulin- and spoke-associated complex at the base of radial spoke 3. Sequence analysis of the breakpoint region revealed in all deleted subjects the presence of a single chimeric SVA (SINE-VNTR-Alu) at the breakpoint site, suggesting that the initial deletion event was potentially mediated by an SVA insertion-recombination mechanism. Study of Trypanosoma WDR66's ortholog (TbWDR66) highlighted high sequence and structural analogy with the human protein and confirmed axonemal localization of the protein. Reproduction of the human deletion in TbWDR66 impaired flagellar movement, thus confirming WDR66 as a gene associated with the MMAF phenotype and highlighting the importance of the WDR66 C-terminal region.
- Improving High-resolution Impedance Manometry Using Novel Viscous and Super-viscous Substrates in the Supine and Upright Positions: A Pilot Study. [Journal Article]
- JNJ Neurogastroenterol Motil 2018 Aug 18
- CONCLUSIONS: We examined HRiM values using novel standardized viscous and super-viscous substrates in healthy subjects for both supine and upright positions. We found that viscosity and position affected HRiM Chicago metrics and have potential to increase the sensitivity of esophageal manometry.
- A critical review of multifunctional titanium surfaces: new frontiers for improving osseointegration and host response, avoiding bacteria contamination. [Review]
- ABActa Biomater 2018 Aug 16
- Evolution of metal implants progressively shifted the focus from adequate mechanical strength to improved biocompatibility and absence of toxicity and, finally, to fast osseointegration. Recently, ne...
Evolution of metal implants progressively shifted the focus from adequate mechanical strength to improved biocompatibility and absence of toxicity and, finally, to fast osseointegration. Recently, new frontiers and challenges of Ti implants have been addressed to improvement of bioactivity, fighting of bacterial infection and biofilm formation, as well as modulation of inflammation. This is closely related to the clinical demand of multifunctional implants able to simultaneously have a number of specific responses with respect to body fluids, cells (osteoblasts, fibroblasts, macrophages) and pathogenic agents (bacteria, viruses). This complex system of multiple biological stimuli and surface responses is a major arena of the current research on biomaterials and biosurfaces. This review covers the strategies explored to this purpose since 2010 in the case of Ti and Ti alloys, considering that the number of related papers doubled about in the last seven years and no review has comprehensively covered this engaging research area yet. The different approaches followed for producing multifunctional Ti-based surfaces involve the use of thick and thin inorganic coatings, chemical surface treatments, and functionalization strategies coupled with organic coatings.
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- Histopathological, morphological, and molecular characterization of Sarcocystis species in elk (Cervus elaphus) from Pennsylvania, USA. [Journal Article]
- PRParasitol Res 2018 Aug 17
- Sarcocystis sarcocysts are common in many species of domestic and wild animals. Here, we report sarcocystosis in muscles from 91 free range elk (Cervus elaphus) from Pennsylvania, USA, tested by hist...
Sarcocystis sarcocysts are common in many species of domestic and wild animals. Here, we report sarcocystosis in muscles from 91 free range elk (Cervus elaphus) from Pennsylvania, USA, tested by histopathology, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and DNA sequencing. Sarcocysts were detected in hematoxylin and eosin (HE)-stained sections from 83 of 91 (91.2%) elk, including 83/91 (91.2%) tongues and 15/17 (88.2%) hearts. With respect to age, sarcocysts were found in 0/5 calves, 8/9 (88.8%) yearlings, and 75/77 (97.4%) adults. Sarcocysts were identified in 62/69 (89.4%) females and 21/22 (91.2%) males. Associated lesions were mild and consisted of inflammatory foci around degenerate sarcocysts. There were two morphologically distinct sarcocysts based on wall thickness, thin (< 0.5 μm) and thick-walled (> 4.0 μm). Thin-walled sarcocysts had a TEM "type 2" and villar protrusions (vps), identical to Sarcocystis wapiti previously described from elk in western USA. This species was present both in tongue and heart samples and was detected in all infected elk. Thick-walled sarcocysts consisted of three morphologic variants, referred to herein as subkinds A, B, C. Subkind A sarcocysts were rare; only four sarcocysts were found in three elk. Histologically, they had a 5-8-μm thick wall with tufted vp. By TEM, the sarcocyst wall was "type 12" and appeared similar to Sarcocystis sybillensis, previously described from elk in USA. Subkind B, Sarcocystis sp.1 sarcocysts were also rare, found in only 1 elk. These sarcocysts had 6.7-7.3-μm-thick wall with TEM "type 15b" vp. Subkind C Sarcocystis sp.2 sarcocysts were more common (22/91). Morphologically, the sarcocyst wall was 6.1-6.8 μm thick and contained "type 10b" vp. Comparisons of ribosomal DNA loci with published sequences indicated all sarcocysts were similar to what has previously been isolated from cervid hosts across the northern hemisphere. Phylogenetic analysis placed the thin-walled S. wapiti within a strongly supported clade with S. linearis and S. taeniata, while the thick-walled cysts were very closely related to S. truncata, S. elongata, S. silva, and S. tarandi. Further sequencing is needed to produce molecular diagnostics to distinguish among these species. North American elk are hosts to multiple Sarcocystis species with diverse morphology, deriving from two separate evolutionary lineages.