- Physiological and molecular mechanism of defense in cotton against Verticillium dahliae. [Review]
- PPPlant Physiol Biochem 2018 Feb 13; 125:193-204
- Cotton, a natural fiber producing crop of huge importance for textile industry, has been reckoned as the backbone in the economy of many developing countries. Verticillium wilt caused by Verticillium...
Cotton, a natural fiber producing crop of huge importance for textile industry, has been reckoned as the backbone in the economy of many developing countries. Verticillium wilt caused by Verticillium dahliae reflected as the most devastating disease of cotton crop in several parts of the world. Average losses due to attack of this disease are tremendous every year. There is urgent need to develop strategies for effective control of this disease. In the last decade, progress has been made to understand the interaction between cotton-V. dahliae and several growth and pathogenicity related genes were identified. Still, most of the molecular components and mechanisms of cotton defense against Verticillium wilt are poorly understood. However, from existing knowledge, it is perceived that cotton defense mechanism primarily depends on the pre-formed defense structures including thick cuticle, synthesis of phenolic compounds and delaying or hindering the expansion of the invader through advanced measures such as reinforcement of cell wall structure, accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), release of phytoalexins, the hypersensitive response and the development of broad spectrum resistance named as, systemic acquired resistance (SAR). Investigation of these defense tactics provide valuable information about the improvement of cotton breeding strategies for the development of durable, cost effective, and broad spectrum resistant varieties. Consequently, this management approach will help to reduce the use of fungicides and also minimize other environmental hazards. In the present paper, we summarized the V. dahliae virulence mechanism and comprehensively discussed the cotton molecular mechanisms of defense such as physiological, biochemical responses with the addition of signaling pathways that are implicated towards attaining resistance against Verticillium wilt.
- Pitfalls in assessing chorioamnionicity: novel observations and literature review. [Review]
- AJAm J Obstet Gynecol 2018 Feb 17
- Accurate diagnosis of chorioamnionicity in multiple pregnancies is the key to appropriate clinical management of multiple gestation. Although prenatal ultrasound assessment of chorioamnionicity is we...
Accurate diagnosis of chorioamnionicity in multiple pregnancies is the key to appropriate clinical management of multiple gestation. Although prenatal ultrasound assessment of chorioamnionicity is well established and highly accurate if performed in early pregnancy, exceptions and artifacts arise from anatomic variations in multiple pregnancies and unusual sonographic features do exist. We have summarized our own experiences and reports from the literature on these pitfalls as follows: (1) Discordant fetal sex in monochorionic pregnancies due to sex chromosome abnormalities, genital malformation in one fetus, or dizygotic twins forming a monochorionic placenta; (2) Separate placental masses in monochorionic pregnancies due to bipartite placenta; (3) False negative and false positive λ sign can arise for various reasons, and in partial monochorionic / dichorionic placentas both T and λ sign may co-exist; (4) Intrauterine synechia appearing as a thick and echogenic intrauterine septum may lead to erroneous diagnosis of dichorionic twins; (5) Errors in ascertaining amnionicity by the visualization of thin inter-twin amniotic membranes and the number of yolk sacs. The ultrasound techniques to reduce inaccuracy in prenatal determination of chorioamnionicity, and the use of single nucleotide polymorphisms based on non-invasive prenatal test to determine zygosity are also reviewed.
- Analysis of saliva samples in patients with Prader-Willi syndrome. [Journal Article]
- JBJ Biol Regul Homeost Agents 2018 Jan-Feb; 32(2 Suppl. 1):107-111
- Patients affected by Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS) usually show orofacial dysfunction, poor oral hygiene, severe tooth wear, generalized caries and thick sticky saliva. The aim of this study was to eva...
Patients affected by Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS) usually show orofacial dysfunction, poor oral hygiene, severe tooth wear, generalized caries and thick sticky saliva. The aim of this study was to evaluate molecular/ionic changings in PWS patients compared to controls, as well as unstimulated salivary flow rate (SFR); 7 patients with a mean age of 20.0±5.45 years were enrolled in the study group (PWS group) and 5 patients with a mean age of 22.6±3.05 years, in the control group. Results showed a greater Na+ (p=0.003), Cl+ (p=0.004) and P (p=0.001) concentration in saliva of PWS group as well as a greater concentration of secretory IgA (p=0.003) with a reduction of SFR (p=0.004) compared to controls. A Spearman’s analysis (based on the SFR of both groups) revealed an inverse correlation with Na (rho=-0.747), Cl (rho=-0.723), P (rho=-0.637) and sIgA (rho=-0.707) concentration and SFR, when linear regression model was performed only P and SFR were interdependent (β=-0.748; p=0.005).
- Muscles and fascial elements of the antebrachium and manus of the African elephant (Loxodonta africana, Blumenbach 1797): starring comparative and functional considerations. [Journal Article]
- AHAnat Histol Embryol 2018 Feb 19
- The structure of the limbs of elephants is unusual among mammals. In African elephants (Loxodonta africana, Blumenbach 1797), the front limbs serve to support the greatest part of the body mass of th...
The structure of the limbs of elephants is unusual among mammals. In African elephants (Loxodonta africana, Blumenbach 1797), the front limbs serve to support the greatest part of the body mass of the largest land animal. In this study, we present new and detailed anatomical data regarding muscular and specific fascial structures of the lower front limb which were examined by means of standard anatomical and histological techniques. The muscles and tendons of the forearm (antebrachium) and hand (manus) are tightly surrounded by thick, highly elastic fascial layers which fuse with the lacertus (lac.) fibrosus and the so-called ligamentum (lig.) humeroulnare. A well-developed musculus (m.) brachioradialis occupies the proximolateral aspect of the forearm and its tendon inserts together with the lac. fibrosus on the os carpi intermedium. The lac. fibrosus, the lig. humeroulnare and the m. flexor carpi radialis reveal a large proportion of elastic fibres. These three structures may play an important role in storing strain energy thus promoting energy-saving locomotion. On the palmar aspect of the carpus, metacarpus and digits, short flexor, abductor, adductor, lumbricales and interossei muscles are present, whereas supinator muscles are absent in all specimens. The short muscles of the hand together with specific dorsal tendons enable precise movements of specific toes.
- Templated synthesis of atomically-thin Ag nanocrystal catalysts in the interstitial space of a layered silicate. [Journal Article]
- CCChem Commun (Camb) 2018 Feb 20
- Enclosing functional nanoparticles in stable inorganic supports is important for generating ultra-stable catalytic active sites with good performance and material utilization efficiency. Here we desc...
Enclosing functional nanoparticles in stable inorganic supports is important for generating ultra-stable catalytic active sites with good performance and material utilization efficiency. Here we describe a simple method to synthesize ultra-thin Ag nanocrystals with dimensions that are defined by the ∼1.4 nm 2D interlayer separating a layered silicate nanostructure. We call the particles "nanoplates" because they are <1.4 nm thick in one direction and their in-plane dimensions are defined by reaction time. The layered silicate is pillared with dialkylurea, which serves both as a reducing agent for the Ag precursor and immobilizes the Ag nanoplates in the interstitial nanospace. The supported Ag nanoplates showed catalytic activity for hydrolysis of NH3BH3and generation of H2at room temperature. These supported Ag nanocatalysts had performance much higher than spherical Ag nanoparticles. They, moreover, had performance and stability comparable to costly supported Pt nanoparticles.
- Photonic-crystal exciton-polaritons in monolayer semiconductors. [Journal Article]
- NCNat Commun 2018 Feb 19; 9(1):713
- Semiconductor microcavity polaritons, formed via strong exciton-photon coupling, provide a quantum many-body system on a chip, featuring rich physics phenomena for better photonic technology. However...
Semiconductor microcavity polaritons, formed via strong exciton-photon coupling, provide a quantum many-body system on a chip, featuring rich physics phenomena for better photonic technology. However, conventional polariton cavities are bulky, difficult to integrate, and inflexible for mode control, especially for room-temperature materials. Here we demonstrate sub-wavelength-thick, one-dimensional photonic crystals as a designable, compact, and practical platform for strong coupling with atomically thin van der Waals crystals. Polariton dispersions and mode anti-crossings are measured up to room temperature. Non-radiative decay to dark excitons is suppressed due to polariton enhancement of the radiative decay. Unusual features, including highly anisotropic dispersions and adjustable Fano resonances in reflectance, may facilitate high temperature polariton condensation in variable dimensions. Combining slab photonic crystals and van der Waals crystals in the strong coupling regime allows unprecedented engineering flexibility for exploring novel polariton phenomena and device concepts.
- Adhesion and relaxation of a soft elastomer on surfaces with skin like roughness. [Journal Article]
- JMJ Mech Behav Biomed Mater 2018 Jan 31; 80:303-310
- For designing new skin adhesives, the complex mechanical interaction of soft elastomers with surfaces of various roughnesses needs to be better understood. We systematically studied the effects of a ...
For designing new skin adhesives, the complex mechanical interaction of soft elastomers with surfaces of various roughnesses needs to be better understood. We systematically studied the effects of a wide set of roughness characteristics, film thickness, hold time and material relaxation on the adhesive behaviour of the silicone elastomer SSA 7-9800 (Dow Corning). As model surfaces, we used epoxy replicas obtained from substrates with roughness ranging from very smooth to skin-like. Our results demonstrate that films of thin and intermediate thickness (60 and 160 µm) adhered best to a sub-micron rough surface, with a pull-off stress of about 50 kPa. Significant variations in pull-off stress and detachment mechanism with roughness and hold time were found. In contrast, 320 µm thick films adhered with lower pull-off stress of about 17 kPa, but were less sensitive to roughness and hold time. It is demonstrated that the adhesion performance of the silicone films to rough surfaces can be tuned by tailoring the film thickness and contact time.
- Probing the chemistry of adhesion between a 316L substrate and spin-on-glass coating. [Journal Article]
- LLangmuir 2018 Feb 19
- Hydrogen silsesquioxane ([HSiO3/2]n) based "spin-on-glass" has been deposited on 316L substrate and cured in Ar/H2 gas atmosphere at 600 ºC to form a continuous surface coating with sub-micrometer th...
Hydrogen silsesquioxane ([HSiO3/2]n) based "spin-on-glass" has been deposited on 316L substrate and cured in Ar/H2 gas atmosphere at 600 ºC to form a continuous surface coating with sub-micrometer thickness. The coating functionality depends primarily on the adhesion to the substrate, which is largely affected by the chemical interaction at the interface between the coating and the substrate. We have investigated this interface by transmission electron microscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy. The analysis identified a 5-10 nm thick interaction zone containing signals from O, Si, Cr and Fe. Analysis of the energy loss near edge structure of the present elements identified predominantly signal from [SiO4]4- units together with Fe2+, Cr2+ and traces of Cr3+. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy images of the interface region confirm a crystalline Fe2SiO4 interfacial region. In agreement with computational thermodynamics, it is proposed that the spin-on-glass forms a chemically bonded silicate-rich interaction zone with the substrate. It was further suggested that this zone is composed of a corundum-type oxide at the substrate surface, followed by an olivine-structure intermediate phase and a spinel-type oxide in the outer regions of the interfacial zone.
- Epitaxial growth of flat antimonene monolayer: a new honeycomb analogue of graphene. [Journal Article]
- NLNano Lett 2018 Feb 19
- Group-V elemental monolayers were recently predicted to exhibit exotic physical properties like nontrivial topological properties, or quantum anomalous Hall effect, which would make them very suitabl...
Group-V elemental monolayers were recently predicted to exhibit exotic physical properties like nontrivial topological properties, or quantum anomalous Hall effect, which would make them very suitable for applications in next-generation electronic devices. The free-standing group-V monolayer materials usually have a buckled honeycomb form, in contrast with the flat graphene monolayer. Here, we report epitaxial growth of atomically thin flat honeycomb monolayer of group-V element antimony on a Ag(111) substrate. Combined study of experiments and theoretical calculations verify the formation of a uniform and single-crystalline antimonene monolayer without atomic wrinkles, as a new honeycomb analogue of graphene monolayer. Directional bonding between adjacent Sb atoms and weak antimonene-substrate interaction are confirmed. The realization and investigation of flat antimonene honeycombs extends the scope of two-dimensional atomic-thick structures and provides a promising way to tune topological properties for future technological applications.
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- Trichoscopic Features of Linear Morphea on the Scalp. [Journal Article]
- SASkin Appendage Disord 2018; 4(1):31-33
- Linear scleroderma en coup de sabre (LSCS) is the most common form of morphea on the scalp and its trichoscopic features have not been described yet. We report 2 adult women with LSCS with distinct d...
Linear scleroderma en coup de sabre (LSCS) is the most common form of morphea on the scalp and its trichoscopic features have not been described yet. We report 2 adult women with LSCS with distinct dermoscopic findings. They both had an atrophic well-defined linear patch of alopecia on the frontotemporal scalp. Dermoscopy showed loss of follicular openings on a whitish skin surface; scattered black dots, broken hairs, and pili torti; and short thick linear and branching tortuous vessels on the periphery of the lesion. Pathology confirmed the diagnosis of LSCS in the 2 cases. This description of dermoscopic features in LSCS on the scalp may help in the early diagnosis of the disease.