- The Global Allergy and Asthma European Network (GALEN rhinosinusitis cohort: a large European cross-sectional study of chronic rhinosinusitis patients with and without nasal polyps. [Journal Article]
- RRhinology 2018 Jun 17
- CONCLUSIONS: This study provides detailed information that facilitates studying CRS and its main phenotypes. However, patient distribution of this study does not necessarily reflect disease distribution in the general population.
- TSLP regulates eotaxin-1 production by nasal epithelial cells from patients with eosinophilic CRSwNP. [Journal Article]
- RRhinology 2018 Jun 17
- CONCLUSIONS: TSLP regulated eotaxin-1 production in HNECs via JAK1/2-STAT3 signaling, which might contribute to the eosinophilic inflammation of eCRSwNP.
- C3a receptor antagonism as a novel therapeutic target for chronic rhinosinusitis. [Journal Article]
- MIMucosal Immunol 2018 Jun 15
- Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is an inflammatory disease with an unknown etiology. Recent studies have implicated the complement system as a potential modulator of disease immunop...
Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is an inflammatory disease with an unknown etiology. Recent studies have implicated the complement system as a potential modulator of disease immunopathology. We performed proteomic pathway enrichment analysis of differentially increased proteins, and found an enrichment of complement cascade pathways in the nasal mucus of individuals with CRSwNP as compared to control subjects. Sinonasal mucus levels of complement 3 (C3) correlated with worse subjective disease severity, whereas no significant difference in systemic C3 levels could be determined in plasma samples. Given that human sinonasal epithelial cells were the predominate sinonasal source of C3 and complement anaphylatoxin 3a (C3a) staining, we focused on their role in in vitro studies. Baseline intracellular C3 levels were higher in CRSwNP cells, and following exposure to Aspergillus fumigatus (Af) extract, they released significantly more C3 and C3a. Inhibition of complement 3a receptor (C3aR) signaling led to a decrease in Af-induced C3 and C3a release, both in vitro and in vivo. Finally, we found in vivo that C3aR deficiency or inhibition significantly reduced inflammation and CRS development in a mouse model of Af-induced CRS. These findings demonstrate that local sinonasal complement activation correlates with subjective disease severity, and that local C3aR antagonism significantly ameliorates Af-induced CRS in a rodent model.
- Nasal Cytology: Methodology with application to clinical practice and research. [Journal Article]
- CEClin Exp Allergy 2018 Jun 15
- Nasal cytology is an easy, cheap, non-invasive and point-of-care method to assess nasal inflammation and disease-specific cellular features. By means of nasal cytology it is possible to distinguish b...
Nasal cytology is an easy, cheap, non-invasive and point-of-care method to assess nasal inflammation and disease-specific cellular features. By means of nasal cytology it is possible to distinguish between different inflammatory patterns that are typically associated with specific diseases (i.e.: allergic and non allergic rhinitis). Its use is particularly relevant when other clinical information, such as signs, symptoms, time-course and allergic sensitizations, are not enough to recognize which of the different rhinitis phenotypes is involved; for example, it is only by means of nasal cytology that it is possible to distinguish, among the non allergic rhinitis, those characterized by eosinophilic (NARES), mastcellular (NARMA), mixed eosinophilic-mastcellular (NARESMA) or neutrophilic (NARNE) inflammation. Despite its clinical usefulness, cheapness, non-invasiveness and easiness, nasal cytology is still underused and this is at least partially due to the fact that, as far as now, there is not a consensus or an official recommendation on its methodological issues. We here review the scientific literature about nasal cytology, giving recommendations on how to perform and interpret nasal cytology. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Interactions between dendritic cells and T lymphocytes in pathogenesis of nasal polyps. [Journal Article]
- ETExp Ther Med 2018; 15(6):5167-5172
- The aim of the present study was to investigate the functional status of dendritic cells (DCs) in nasal polyps (NP) and their interactions with T lymphocytes. The interactions between DC and T lympho...
The aim of the present study was to investigate the functional status of dendritic cells (DCs) in nasal polyps (NP) and their interactions with T lymphocytes. The interactions between DC and T lymphocytes in the pathogenesis of NP was also studied. The expression of cluster of differentiation (CD)1a and CD83 in NP was detected using immunohistochemistry and the ratio of CD83 DC/CD1a+DC was counted. The distribution of DCs in NP and normal inferior turbinate mucosa (nITM) was evaluated using double immunostaining (CD1a/CD40) and low illumination fluorescence microscopy. The number of CD1a+ cells, CD83+ cells and CD1a/CD40-dual positive cells in was significantly higher in NP tissues compared with nITM. Furthermore, the density of DCs observed in NP was significantly greater than that observed in nITM. The ratio of CD83 DC/CD1a+DC in NP was significantly higher compared with in nITM tissues. The results of the present study revealed significant infiltration of DCs in NP, with the majority being mature DCs. DCs are able to interact with T cells via the CD40/CD40L costimulatory factor, thus serving an important role in the development and progression of NP.
- 5-Oxo-ETE from Nasal Epithelial Cells Upregulates Eosinophil Cation Protein by Eosinophils in Nasal Polyps in vitro. [Journal Article]
- IAInt Arch Allergy Immunol 2018 Jun 13; :1-9
- CONCLUSIONS: 5-Oxo-ETE produced by nasal epithelial cells may play a role in the formation and development of NP.
- Endocannabinoid receptor CB2R is significantly expressed in aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease: a pilot study. [Journal Article]
- IFInt Forum Allergy Rhinol 2018 Jun 13
- CONCLUSIONS: The endocannabinoid system is an emerging immunomodulatory network that may be involved in AERD. This is the first study of CB2R in sinonasal disease, showing significantly increased transcription in nasal polyps from subjects with AERD. Additional study is warranted to further evaluate the contribution and therapeutic potential of this novel finding in chronic rhinosinusitis.
- Sex difference in counts of α4 and α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the nasal polyps of adults with or without exposure to tobacco smoke. [Journal Article]
- JLJ Laryngol Otol 2018 Jun 11; :1-4
- CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to cigarette tobacco smoke may induce increased counts of α4 and α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in nasal polyps of adults, with lower counts in males than females without exposure to tobacco smoke.
- Increased phosphorylation of eNOS in nasal polyps of chronic rhinosinusitis patients can be diminished by 1,8-cineol. [Journal Article]
- NONitric Oxide 2018 Jun 06; 78:89-94
- CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrated for the first time that nasal polyps exhibit an increased phosphorylation of eNOS, which could be important for vascular permeability and the associated edema and elevated inflammation. Additionally, we detected that 1,8-cineol affects the eNOS phosphorylation significantly and thus its activation. This could be important to handle the elevated inflammation and edema formation by regulating the vascular permeability.
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- Mucus T helper 2 biomarkers predict chronic rhinosinusitis disease severity and prior surgical intervention. [Journal Article]
- IFInt Forum Allergy Rhinol 2018 Jun 08
- CONCLUSIONS: The Th2-associated cytokines, IL-5 and IL-13, are detectable in sinonasal mucus and their levels can be used to define Th2-high and Th2-low CRS. Identification of Th2-high and Th2-low endotypes using mucus-based biomarkers could facilitate stratification of CRS subgroups and guide personalized therapies.