- Pentoxifylline prevents post-traumatic stress disorder induced memory impairment. [Journal Article]
- BRBrain Res Bull 2018 Mar 17
- Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a disabling prevalent and difficult-to-treat psychiatric disorder, which can develop after the exposure to severe traumatic events such as those occurring duri...
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a disabling prevalent and difficult-to-treat psychiatric disorder, which can develop after the exposure to severe traumatic events such as those occurring during wars and natural disasters. Pentoxifylline (PTX) is a potent antioxidant, which has an important role in prevention of cognitive dysfunctions. In the present study, the effect of PTX on memory impairment induced by PTSD was investigated using the rat animal model. PTSD-like behavior was induced in animals using a single-prolonged stress (SPS) rat model of PTSD (2 h restrain, 20 min forced swimming, 15 min rest, 1-2 min diethyl ether exposure). PTX was administered intraperitoneally at a dose of 100 mg/kg/day. Spatial learning and memory were assessed using the radial arm water maze (RAWM). Changes in oxidative stress biomarkers, brain derived neuroptrophic factor (BDNF), and epigenetics (histones) in the hippocampus following treatments were measured using enzymatic assays. The result revealed that SPS impaired both short- and long- term memory (P < 0.05). Use of PTX prevented memory impairment induced by SPS. Furthermore, PTX normalized SPS induced changes in the hippocampus GSH/GSSG ratio, activity of catalase, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), BDNF, and certain histones levels. In conclusion, the SPS model of PTSD-like behavior induced memory impairment, whereas PTX prevented this impairment possibly through normalizing antioxidant mechanisms, BDNF and epigenetic changes in the hippocampus.
- Co-occurring patterns of post-traumatic stress disorder and depression among flood victims: A latent profile analysis. [Journal Article]
- JHJ Health Psychol 2018 Mar 01; :1359105318763505
- This study examined the co-occurring patterns of post-traumatic stress disorder and depression. A sample of 187 victims completed self-report questionnaires after a major flood disaster. Results indi...
This study examined the co-occurring patterns of post-traumatic stress disorder and depression. A sample of 187 victims completed self-report questionnaires after a major flood disaster. Results indicated four classes: low symptoms group (49.7%), mild comorbid symptoms group (24.1%), serious comorbid symptoms group (3.2%), and medium comorbid symptoms group (23.0%). Male victims were less likely and older victims were more likely to belong to the medium comorbid symptoms group; victims with more serious trauma exposure and those using more maladaptive cognition emotional regulation strategies were more likely to belong to both the mild and medium comorbid symptoms groups.
- Beyond residential mobility: A broader conceptualization of instability and its impact on victimization risk among children. [Journal Article]
- CAChild Abuse Negl 2018 Mar 17; 79:485-494
- Predictability in a child's environment is a critical quality of safe, stable, nurturing relationships and environments, which promote wellbeing and protect against maltreatment. Research has focused...
Predictability in a child's environment is a critical quality of safe, stable, nurturing relationships and environments, which promote wellbeing and protect against maltreatment. Research has focused on residential mobility's effect on this predictability. This study augments such research by analyzing the impact of an instability index-including the lifetime destabilization factors (LDFs) of natural disasters, homelessness, child home removal, multiple moves, parental incarceration, unemployment, deployment, and multiple marriages--on childhood victimizations. The cross-sectional, nationally representative sample of 12,935 cases (mean age = 8.6 years) was pooled from 2008, 2011, and 2014 National Surveys of Children's Exposure to Violence (NatSCEV). Logistic regression models controlling for demographics, socio-economic status, and family structure tested the association between excessive residential mobility, alone, and with LDFs, and past year childhood victimizations (sexual victimization, witnessing community or family violence, maltreatment, physical assault, property crime, and polyvictimization). Nearly 40% of the sample reported at least one LDF. Excessive residential mobility was significantly predictive of increased odds of all but two victimizations; almost all associations were no longer significant after other destabilizing factors were included. The LDF index without residential mobility was significantly predictive of increased odds of all victimizations (AOR's ranged from 1.36 to 1.69), and the adjusted odds ratio indicated a 69% increased odds of polyvictimization for each additional LDF a child experienced. The LDF index thus provides a useful alternative to using residential moves as the sole indicator of instability. These findings underscore the need for comprehensive supports and services to support stability for children and families.
- Yemen in a Time of Cholera: Current Situation and Challenges. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Trop Med Hyg 2018 Mar 19
- Since early 2015, Yemen has been in the throes of a grueling civil war, which has devastated the health system and public services, and created one of the world's worst humanitarian disasters. The co...
Since early 2015, Yemen has been in the throes of a grueling civil war, which has devastated the health system and public services, and created one of the world's worst humanitarian disasters. The country is currently facing a cholera epidemic the world's largest on record, surpassing one million (1,061,548) suspected cases, with 2,373 related deaths since October 2016. Cases were first confirmed in Sana'a city and then spread to almost all governorates except Socotra Island. Continued efforts are being made by the World Health Organization and international partners to contain the epidemic through improving water, sanitation and hygiene, setting up diarrhea treatment centers, and improving the population's awareness about the disease. The provision of clean water and adequate sanitation is imperative as an effective long-term solution to prevent the further spread of this epidemic. Cholera vaccination campaigns should also be conducted as a preventive measure.
- Spatially disaggregated population estimates in the absence of national population and housing census data. [Journal Article]
- PNProc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2018 Mar 19
- Population numbers at local levels are fundamental data for many applications, including the delivery and planning of services, election preparation, and response to disasters. In resource-poor setti...
Population numbers at local levels are fundamental data for many applications, including the delivery and planning of services, election preparation, and response to disasters. In resource-poor settings, recent and reliable demographic data at subnational scales can often be lacking. National population and housing census data can be outdated, inaccurate, or missing key groups or areas, while registry data are generally lacking or incomplete. Moreover, at local scales accurate boundary data are often limited, and high rates of migration and urban growth make existing data quickly outdated. Here we review past and ongoing work aimed at producing spatially disaggregated local-scale population estimates, and discuss how new technologies are now enabling robust and cost-effective solutions. Recent advances in the availability of detailed satellite imagery, geopositioning tools for field surveys, statistical methods, and computational power are enabling the development and application of approaches that can estimate population distributions at fine spatial scales across entire countries in the absence of census data. We outline the potential of such approaches as well as their limitations, emphasizing the political and operational hurdles for acceptance and sustainable implementation of new approaches, and the continued importance of traditional sources of national statistical data.
- Commonalities between Disaster and Climate Change Risks for Health: A Theoretical Framework. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Environ Res Public Health 2018 Mar 16; 15(3)
- Disasters and climate change have significant implications for human health worldwide. Both climate change and the climate-sensitive hazards that result in disasters, are discussed in terms of direct...
Disasters and climate change have significant implications for human health worldwide. Both climate change and the climate-sensitive hazards that result in disasters, are discussed in terms of direct and indirect impacts on health. A growing body of literature has argued for the need to link disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation. However, there is limited articulation of the commonalities between these health impacts. Understanding the shared risk pathways is an important starting point for developing joint strategies for adapting to, and reducing, health risks. Therefore, this article discusses the common aspects of direct and indirect health risks of climate change and climate-sensitive disasters. Based on this discussion a theoretical framework is presented for understanding these commonalities. As such, this article hopes to extend the current health impact frameworks and provide a platform for further research exploring opportunities for linked adaptation and risk reduction strategies.
- Expanding Understanding of Response Roles: An Examination of Immediate and First Responders in the United States. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Environ Res Public Health 2018 Mar 16; 15(3)
- 2017 was a record year for disasters and disaster response in the U.S. Redefining and differentiating key response roles like "immediate responders" and "first responders" is critical. Traditional fi...
2017 was a record year for disasters and disaster response in the U.S. Redefining and differentiating key response roles like "immediate responders" and "first responders" is critical. Traditional first responders are not and cannot remain the only cadre of expected lifesavers following a mass casualty event. The authors argue that the U.S. needs to expand its understanding of response roles to include that of the immediate responders, or those individuals who find themselves at the incident scene and are able to assist others. Through universal training and education of the citizenry, the U.S. has the opportunity increase overall disaster resiliency and community outcomes following large-scale disasters. Such education could easily be incorporated into high school curriculums or other required educational experiences in order to provide all persons with the knowledge, skills, and basic abilities needed to save lives immediately following a disaster.
- Acute exposure to methylmercury chloride induces fast changes in swimming performance, cognitive processes and oxidative stress of zebrafish (Danio rerio) as reference model for fish community. [Journal Article]
- JTJ Trace Elem Med Biol 2018; 47:115-123
- Fishes are the first group of vertebrates that respond when the environment is contaminated with pollutants resulted from anthropogenic activities. The development of the toxicity tests is bringing n...
Fishes are the first group of vertebrates that respond when the environment is contaminated with pollutants resulted from anthropogenic activities. The development of the toxicity tests is bringing new evidence about the toxicological effects of the pollutants upon the life forms. Behavioural abnormalities in the swimming performance and cognitive processes were well associated with the response of organisms to pollutants from environment. The aim of the paper was to study the behavioural changes of zebrafish (memory, swimming performances and aggression) and oxidative stress (superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde) during 32 h of acute exposure with methylmercury (II) chloride to measure its neurotoxicity effects upon fish community. The experiments from this study tested and measured the fish community response to methylmercury concentrations (1 μg L-1and 15 μg L-1) in the first hours after it contamination based on zebrafish model. The changes of the behaviour in the case of a fish species may lead in the end to their population reduction based on less reproductive success, lower food resource exploitation and problems in the predator avoidance. The behavioural tests described in the present study can be applied to measure the neurotoxicity of other metals compounds, to do plans and protocols for avoiding future ecological disasters. The behavioural changes of zebrafish exposed to methylmercury (II) chloride were similar to mammal models and they will have applications in future research.
- Human resources for health: A narrative review of adequacy and distribution of clinical and nonclinical human resources in hospitals of Iran. [Review]
- IJInt J Health Plann Manage 2018 Mar 15
- CONCLUSIONS: With respect to the study findings, planning to compensate for staff shortages and achieving personnel standard levels as well as providing the grounds for training the heads of wards for proper human resource management and planning would lead to an increase in the efficiency and effectiveness of hospital activities.
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- Disaster-related communication preferences of homeless and nonhomeless VA patients. [Journal Article]
- JEJ Emerg Manag 2018 Jan/Feb; 16(1):49-59
- CONCLUSIONS: H and NH patients prefer similar communication modes for receiving updates about the impact of natural disasters on VA healthcare services. Findings suggest that a multimodal communication strategy that incorporates phone, TV, text, e-mail, and radio will help Veterans Affairs (VA) reach its diverse patient population during natural disasters. Dissemination of messages via online modes, while rated less helpful, may augment the number of patients reached.