- Layered Double Hydroxides Precursor as Chloride Inhibitor: Synthesis, Characterization, Assessment of Chloride Adsorption Performance. [Journal Article]
- MMaterials (Basel) 2018 Dec 13; 11(12)
- In this study, the chloride adsorption behaviors of CaAl-Cl LDH precursors with various Ca:Al ratios were investigated. The optimal chloride ion removal rate was 87.06% due to the formation of hydroc...
In this study, the chloride adsorption behaviors of CaAl-Cl LDH precursors with various Ca:Al ratios were investigated. The optimal chloride ion removal rate was 87.06% due to the formation of hydrocalumite. The chloride adsorption products of CaAl-Cl LDH precursors were further characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis and atomic structure analysis, the adsorption mechanism was considered to be co-precipitate process. The chloride adsorption behaviors of cementitious materials blended with CaAl-Cl LDH precursors were further investigated. Leaching test according to Test Code for Hydraulic Concrete (SL352-2006) was performed to testify the stability of chloride ions in the mortar. The results show that more than 98.3% chloride ions were immobilized in cement mortar blended with CaAl-Cl LDH precursor and cannot be easily released again. The inhibition performance of steel in the electrolytes with/without CaAl LDH precursor was investigated by using electrochemical measurements. The results indicate that CaAl LDH precursor can effectively protect the passive film on steel surface by chloride adsorption. Considering the high anion exchange capacities of the LDHs, synthesized chloride adsorbent precursor can be applied as new inhibitors blended in cementitious materials to prevent the chloride-induced deterioration. Moreover, the application of chloride adsorption on CaAl-Cl LDH could also be of interest for the application of seawater blended concrete.
- Guidelines for the Treatment of PTSD Using Clinical EFT (Emotional Freedom Techniques). [Review]
- HHealthcare (Basel) 2018 Dec 12; 6(4)
- Clinical EFT (Emotional Freedom Techniques) is an evidence-based method that combines acupressure with elements drawn from cognitive and exposure therapies. The approach has been validated in more th...
Clinical EFT (Emotional Freedom Techniques) is an evidence-based method that combines acupressure with elements drawn from cognitive and exposure therapies. The approach has been validated in more than 100 clinical trials. Its efficacy for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been investigated in a variety of demographic groups including war veterans, victims of sexual violence, the spouses of PTSD sufferers, motor accident survivors, prisoners, hospital patients, adolescents, and survivors of natural and human-caused disasters. Meta-analyses of EFT for anxiety, depression, and PTSD indicate treatment effects that exceed those of both psychopharmacology and conventional psychotherapy. Studies of EFT in the treatment of PTSD show that (a) time frames for successful treatment generally range from four to 10 sessions; (b) group therapy sessions are effective; (c) comorbid conditions such as anxiety and depression improve simultaneously; (d) the risk of adverse events is low; (e) treatment produces physiological as well as psychological improvements; (f) patient gains persist over time; (g) the approach is cost-effective; (h) biomarkers such as stress hormones and genes are regulated; and (i) the method can be adapted to online and telemedicine applications. This paper recommends guidelines for the use of EFT in treating PTSD derived from the literature and a detailed practitioner survey. It has been reviewed by the major institutions providing training or supporting research in the method. The guidelines recommend a stepped-care model, with five treatment sessions for subclinical PTSD, 10 sessions for PTSD, and escalation to intensive psychotherapy or psychopharmacology or both for nonresponsive patients and those with developmental trauma. Group therapy, social support, apps, and online and telemedicine methods also contribute to a successful treatment plan.
- Nephrology in Bosnia and Herzegovina: impact of the 1992-95 war. [Journal Article]
- CKClin Kidney J 2018; 11(6):803-809
- It has now been more than two decades since the end of the 1992-95 war in Bosnia and Herzegovina. This may well be the proper time to provide the nephrology community with an appraisal of the care of...
It has now been more than two decades since the end of the 1992-95 war in Bosnia and Herzegovina. This may well be the proper time to provide the nephrology community with an appraisal of the care of patients with chronic kidney disease in the pre-war, war and post-war periods in the European transitional country. This report on nephrology in Bosnia and Herzegovina draws attention to the hurdles faced for three turbulent years on that burdensome path of providing quality care, and the chance it offered in developing a successful transplant programme while facing the dreadful chaos of war and a migrant crisis. The perception of war and natural disasters is quite different, from the victim's point of view, from the standardized and well-arranged healthcare systems in the developed world. The guidelines, written in peace, are extremely useful, but are often hard to follow during natural disasters or barbarous wars. Each of the periods described had its specificities as well as its good and bad sides. Despite the unquestionable destructive nature of the war, it was a catalyst for nephrology in Bosnia and Herzegovina to move forward.
- The Heterogeneity of Global Pediatric Surgery: Defining Needs and Opportunities Around the World. [Journal Article]
- WJWorld J Surg 2018 Dec 06
- CONCLUSIONS: Country-level research and stakeholder engagement are needed to better understand the heterogeneity of local needs and drive policy changes that contribute to sustainable reforms. Key to these efforts will be improved financing, access to and quality of pediatric surgical care.
- Crisis on the game board - a novel approach to teach medical students about disaster medicine. [Journal Article]
- GJGMS J Med Educ 2018; 35(4):Doc46
- Introduction: Every year, natural and other disasters cause significant loss of life around the world. This calls for an improved response from, among others, the health professions to strengthen dis...
Introduction: Every year, natural and other disasters cause significant loss of life around the world. This calls for an improved response from, among others, the health professions to strengthen disaster medicine, whether relating to prevention, emergency response or recovery. It includes both knowledge and competencies, such as planning, coordination, and communication. Simulations can be used to acquire these competencies. Project description: In 2016, the German Medical Students' Association founded the project "Disaster Medicine" with the goal of educating and connecting medical students interested in the topic. AFTERSHOCK, a board game simulating early disaster response after an earthquake, was utilized for workshops. It highlights the need for interagency cooperation and the challenges of responding to disasters in dynamic and highly complex settings. Seven workshops were facilitated between October 2016 and December 2017. A survey was conducted to assess participant satisfaction and the design of the workshop. Results: 89 German medical students participated and 74 (83 %) responded with written evaluation. Students generally reported moderate to low levels of previous knowledge. The event produced very positive feedback, with participants overwhelmingly finding the simulation to be a useful or very useful way to learn about the challenges of humanitarian assistance and disaster relief. Qualitative feedback included requests for more theoretical background information and highlighted the need for small group sizes. Discussion and Conclusion: Board games such as AFTERSHOCK are well-suited for medical education and enjoy high rates of acceptance among students. To ensure deeper and longer-term learning, they should be accompanied by theoretical coursework.
- Safeguarding older adults with dementia, depression, and delirium in a temporary disaster shelter. [Journal Article]
- NFNurs Forum 2018 Dec 09
- Natural disasters impact people of every age in the communities where they occur, with older adults being a vulnerable subset of the population. Most disaster shelter volunteer nurses are experienced...
Natural disasters impact people of every age in the communities where they occur, with older adults being a vulnerable subset of the population. Most disaster shelter volunteer nurses are experienced in addressing common health needs of older adult clients such as diabetes, hypertension, and pulmonary disease. These nurses also have the requisite training to respond to more acute medical events, including the symptoms of a heart attack or stroke. They provide care and comfort to those suffering from the distress, anxiety, and fear caused by disasters. However, they may be less adept at triaging and caring for older adults with mental health conditions such as delirium, depression, or dementia. The trauma associated with a disaster and relocation will challenge cognitive abilities in those with dementia, may exacerbate existing depression, or lead to the onset of delirium, which is a medical emergency. Older adults experiencing these conditions are at risk for harm and deterioration with serious short and long-term consequences. Since disaster shelter volunteer health care staff may not be well-versed in distinguishing between dementia, depression, or delirium, behavior observation, and safety considerations are critical determinants of whether it is possible to support the older adult in the shelter environment or it is necessary to transition to a higher level of care.
- Estimation of the National Burden of Disease and Vulnerable Population Associated with Natural Disasters in Korea: Heavy Precipitation and Typhoon. [Journal Article]
- JKJ Korean Med Sci 2018 Dec 03; 33(49):e314
- CONCLUSIONS: The intensity of torrential rain or typhoon was the strongest determinant of the burden of disease from natural disasters in Korea. Population vulnerable may vary depending on the nature and strength of the disasters.
- Health Consequences of an Armed Conflict in Zamboanga, Philippines Using a Syndromic Surveillance Database. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Environ Res Public Health 2018 Nov 29; 15(12)
- The Zamboanga armed conflict was a 19-day long encounter in the Philippines in 2013 that displaced 119,000 people from their homes. This study describes the health consequences of this complex emerge...
The Zamboanga armed conflict was a 19-day long encounter in the Philippines in 2013 that displaced 119,000 people from their homes. This study describes the health consequences of this complex emergency in different age groups, time periods, and health facilities using data from Surveillance in Post Extreme Emergencies and Disasters (SPEED). This is a descriptive study of the SPEED database spanning 196 days of observation post-disaster and 1065 SPEED reports from 49 health facilities. Evacuation centers and village health centers, both primary care facilities, had the highest number of consults. Common infections and noncommunicable diseases were the most common reasons for consultations, namely, acute respiratory infections, fever, watery diarrhea, skin disease, and hypertension. Infections can be associated with environmental conditions in displaced populations, while hypertension has a high prevalence in the country and implies long-term care. Conflict-related injuries and deaths were not frequently observed due to the volatile situation that influenced health-seeking behavior as well as possible reporting gaps. In conclusion, in complex emergencies, as in natural disasters, wherein early alert and warning for potential outbreaks is crucial, SPEED can assist decision makers on response and recovery interventions. Linkages between SPEED and other surveillance and reporting systems need to be explored.
- Hope for the Best, Prepare for the Worst-An Assessment of Flood Preparedness at Primary Health Care Facilities in Central Vietnam. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Environ Res Public Health 2018 Nov 29; 15(12)
- Background: Floods affect over 85 million people every year and are one of the deadliest types of natural disasters. The health effects of floods are partly due to a loss of access to health care. Th...
Background: Floods affect over 85 million people every year and are one of the deadliest types of natural disasters. The health effects of floods are partly due to a loss of access to health care. This loss can be limited with proper flood preparedness. Flood preparedness is especially needed at the primary health care (PHC) level. Flood preparedness assessments can be used to identify vulnerable facilities and help target efforts. The existing research on PHC flood preparedness is limited. We aimed to assess the flood preparedness of PHC facilities in a flood-prone province in central Vietnam. Methods: Based on flood experience, the PHC facilities in the province were grouped as "severe" (n = 23) or "non-severe" (n = 129). Assessments were conducted during monsoon season at five facilities from each group, using a pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire. Data were checked against official records when possible. Results: Nine of the ten facilities had a flood plan and four received regular flood preparedness training. Six facilities reported insufficient preparedness support. Half of the facilities had additional funding available for flood preparedness, or in case of a flood. Flood preparedness training had been received by 21/28 (75%) of the staff at the facilities with severe flood experience, versus 15/25 (52%) of the staff at the non-severe experience facilities. Conclusions: Our results suggest that the assessed PHC facilities were not sufficiently prepared for the expected floods during monsoon season. PHC flood preparedness assessments could be used to identify vulnerable facilities and populations in flood-prone areas. More research is needed to further develop and test the validity and reliability of the questionnaire.
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- Disaster Management in a Nephrology Service: Lessons Learned from Hurricane Maria. [Journal Article]
- BPBlood Purif 2018 Dec 05; :1-6
- CONCLUSIONS: A comprehensive emergency response plan should be developed, shared and discussed with the team and the patients prior to the hurricane. The needs of the staff should not be ignored to ensure their ability to participate as responders. Physical damage to facilities, lack of basic services, shortage of disposable products, and the inability to get to treatment centers are the most common threats. Preemptive dialysis can avoid serious complications. A contingency plan to move patients to another center should be prearranged in case the unit is rendered nonfunctional after the storm. Patients must receive preventive education about fluid and dietary restrictions and the possible use of potassium binding drugs if they cannot reach a dialysis unit. A list of alternative drugs that could be used if patients are not able to fill their medications is required. The Internet and social media proved to be an invaluable communication tool. A registry of patients with updated contact information, as well as contact information for relatives and a physical address where an emergency rescue team can be dispatched is essential. Water safety should be reinforced. Key Message: Our experience showed us that preparing for the worst is not enough. Advanced planning of a streamlined response is the best tactic to decrease harm.