- StatPearls [BOOK]
- BOOKStatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL)
- Select serotonin receptor (5-HT3) antagonists block serotonin both peripherally, on gastrointestinal (GI) vagal nerve terminals, and centrally in the chemoreceptor trigger zone. This results in power...
Select serotonin receptor (5-HT3) antagonists block serotonin both peripherally, on gastrointestinal (GI) vagal nerve terminals, and centrally in the chemoreceptor trigger zone. This results in powerful antiemetic effects. Currently, there are four 5-HT3 receptor antagonists on the market, which are FDA-approved for the prevention of nausea and vomiting in children and adults related to chemotherapy use, radiation therapy, and the effects of postoperative anesthesia. Dolasetron is also FDA-approved for the treatment of postoperative nausea and vomiting in adults and children. There are a number of formulations providing clinicians and patients many options for effective dose administration. The most common adverse effects include headaches, fatigue, and constipation. Rarely, 5-HT3 receptor antagonists can cause QT prolongation if administered concomitantly with other QT-prolonging medications or in patients with a history of congenital, long-QT syndrome. There are also documented cases of serotonin syndrome in susceptible patient populations. There is also the concern for masking symptoms of bowel obstruction in the elderly or postoperative patient. An overdose of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists is rare and no fatal dose has been established. Treatment is largely supportive in these cases. Overall, select serotonin receptor antagonists are an effective antiemetic class with a wide therapeutic index and mild side effect profile.
- StatPearls [BOOK]
- BOOKStatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL)
- Noroviruses are nonenveloped, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA viruses belonging to the Caliciviridae viral family. The virus was first identified and named “Norwalk virus” when it was discovered ...
Noroviruses are nonenveloped, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA viruses belonging to the Caliciviridae viral family. The virus was first identified and named “Norwalk virus” when it was discovered as the cause of a 1968 outbreak of gastroenteritis in Norwalk, Ohio. Norovirus is a common cause of acute gastrointestinal illness worldwide. In developed countries with rotavirus vaccine programs, norovirus surpasses rotavirus as the most common cause of gastroenteritis in children. Common symptoms of norovirus infection include nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. These could lead to clinically significant dehydration, requiring hospitalizations. In addition to clinical effects, norovirus also has a major financial impact in developed nations.
- Optimal prophylaxis of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting for moderately emetogenic chemotherapy: a meta-analysis. [Journal Article]
- FOFuture Oncol 2018 Jul 18
- CONCLUSIONS: NK-1RA is recommended to use in carboplatin-based chemotherapy, not oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy.
- Xenon-anaesthesia and beyond: pros-contras. [Journal Article]
- MAMinerva Anestesiol 2018 Jul 17
- Xenon is a colourless and odourless noble gas, licensed for human use as an anaesthetic gas as well as a radiological marker. The MAC of this gas is about 63% but Xenon anaesthesia is associated with...
Xenon is a colourless and odourless noble gas, licensed for human use as an anaesthetic gas as well as a radiological marker. The MAC of this gas is about 63% but Xenon anaesthesia is associated with fast recovery of cognitive function and cardiovascular stability. Nevertheless, Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) incidence for xenon anaesthesia is very high. Xenon has been reported to have cytoprotective effects that may have therapeutic values in both CNS protection, and in organ graft preservation. Currently, there are few studies about the effect of Xenon on ischaemia reperfusion injury of transplantable organs and insufficient clinical data upon its effect on intracranial and cerebral perfusion pressure. We shortly review pros and contras of Xenon, as an anaesthetic agent.
- Clinical Effects of Piribedil in Adjuvant Treatment of Parkinson's Disease: A Meta-Analysis. [Journal Article]
- OMOpen Med (Wars) 2018; 13:270-277
- CONCLUSIONS: Piribedil combined with Levodopa in adjuvant treatment of PD is more effective than Levodopa alone without increasing the drug related toxicity.
- Pyogenic Liver Abscess Caused by Methicillin-Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus in a 21-Year-Old Male. [Journal Article]
- CRCase Reports Hepatol 2018; 2018:9868701
- Liver abscesses are the most common types of visceral abscesses. Pyogenic liver abscesses, a particular type of liver abscesses, are uncommonly encountered. We present a rare case of pyogenic liver a...
Liver abscesses are the most common types of visceral abscesses. Pyogenic liver abscesses, a particular type of liver abscesses, are uncommonly encountered. We present a rare case of pyogenic liver abscess caused by methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus in a young man. A 21-year- old man presented from prison to the hospital with fever, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain for five days. Labs were significant for leukocytosis with predominant neutrophilia and elevated liver enzymes. CT abdomen with contrast revealed an 8.4 cm multiloculated right hepatic mass extending to the kidney. Patient was started on broad spectrum antibiotics, given septic presentation. Peripheral blood cultures returned positive for methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA). The culture from percutaneous drainage also revealed MSSA. He received a total of four weeks of IV Nafcillin therapy along with drainage of his abscess via percutaneous catheter. Follow-up revealed clinical resolution. This case highlights the importance of obtaining an aspirate from the liver abscess to better guide treatment strategy. Clinicians must consider broadening antibiotic coverage to include gram-positive organisms if the patient presents with severe illness and risk factors for Staphylococcus aureus infections.
- Low-dose dexamethasone with fosaprepitant and palonosetron to prevent cisplatin-induced nausea and vomiting in head and neck cancer patients. [Journal Article]
- AOActa Otolaryngol 2018 Jul 17; :1-5
- CONCLUSIONS: The efficacy of low-dose dexamethasone with fosaprepitant and palonosetron was not inferior to that of the standard dose dexamethasone in the highly emetogenic cisplatin-based treatment for head and neck cancer patients.
- Correction: Association of nefopam use with postoperative nausea and vomiting in gynecological patients receiving prophylactic ramosetron: A retrospective study. [Published Erratum]
- PlosPLoS One 2018; 13(7):e0201084
- [This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0199930.].
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0199930.].
- [Effect of transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation on postoperative analgesia of ureteroscopic holmium laser lithotripsy]. [Journal Article]
- ZZZhongguo Zhen Jiu 2018 Jul 12; 38(7):711-5
- CONCLUSIONS: TEAS can relieve the pain and reduce the total amount of analgesic medicine, the levels of substance causing pain and the incidence of adverse reactions after ureteroscopic holmium laser lithotripsy.
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- [Effect of moxibustion on prevention and treatment of nausea and vomiting caused by cisplatin in lung cancer]. [Journal Article]
- ZZZhongguo Zhen Jiu 2018 Jul 12; 38(7):695-9
- CONCLUSIONS: Moxibustion combined with 5-HT receptor antagonist can obviously reduce the rates and degrees of nausea and vomiting caused by cisplatin chemotherapy in patients with lung cancer, which are better than simple 5-HT receptor antagonist, without apparent adverse reactions.