- Crystalline electric field study in putative topologically trivial rare-earth doped YPdBi compound. [Journal Article]
- JPJ Phys Condens Matter 2019 Jul 19
- Topological states of matter have attracted a lot of attention recently due to their intriguing physical properties and potential applications. In particular, the family of half-Heusler compounds RMT…
Topological states of matter have attracted a lot of attention recently due to their intriguing physical properties and potential applications. In particular, the family of half-Heusler compounds RMT (R = rare earth, M = Pt, Pd or Au, and T = Bi, Sb, Pb or Sn) has been predicted to display tunable topological properties via their cubic unit cell volume and/or the charges of the M and T atoms. In this work, we report electron spin resonance (ESR), along with complementary macroscopic experiments, in the putative topologically trivial rare-earth doped (Gd, Nd and Er) YPdBi. From magnetic susceptibility data analysis constrained by ESR results, we were able to extract the fourth (A4) and sixth (A6) order crystal field parameters (CFP) for YPdBi and compared them with those already reported to YPtBi, which is known as a topologically nontrivial compound. We observed that the sign of the CFP changes systematically from YPdBi to YPtBi, possibly due to the inversion of the valence and conduction bands at the Fermi level. The enhanced spin-orbit coupling in YPtBi, when compared to YPdBi, induces the band inversion that drives the system to a nontrivial topological state. This band inversion likely has an effect on the effective charges surrounding the magnetic dopants that are probed by the CFP.
- Surface-enhanced Raman scattering studies of Cu/Cu2O Core-shell NPs obtained by laser ablation. [Journal Article]
- SASpectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2019 Jul 09; 223:117379
- In order to perform SERS (surface-enhanced Raman scattering) measurements, spherical Cu/Cu2O core-shell NPs with a rather rough rugged surface and well-defined crystallographic structures were fabric…
In order to perform SERS (surface-enhanced Raman scattering) measurements, spherical Cu/Cu2O core-shell NPs with a rather rough rugged surface and well-defined crystallographic structures were fabricated using nanosecond Ce: Nd YAG pulsed laser ablation in liquid (PLAL). Raman, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and TEM imaging of the prepared NPs reveal the existence of additional minority CuO phase, not determined earlier through XRD patterns. The SERS activity of Cu/Cu2O core-shell NPs substrates was investigated by using crystal violet (CV) and methylene blue (MB) as the analyte molecules under 532 nm excitation wavelength irradiation. The effect of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) from Cu core contributing to the electromagnetic enhancement and Cu2O shell with a rough surface which itself contributes to chemical enhancement with adsorbed analyte molecule is due to a high overall SERS enhancement. The intensities of the totally and non-totally symmetric modes were used to calculate the degree of charge-transfer. The results demonstrate that the LSPR enhancement dominates charge-transfer resonance contribution in SERS of Cu/Cu2O-CV and Cu/Cu2O -MB systems. The reproducibility of the prepared SERS substrates was investigated and the SERS signals intensity variation was <28%.
- Development of a target-free high throughput screening platform for the discovery of anti-leishmanial compounds. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Antimicrob Agents 2019 Jul 16
- Leishmania parasites are the causative agents of a wide spectrum of human diseases. The clinical manifestations of leishmaniasis range from self-healing skin lesions to fatality. The WHO has declared…
Leishmania parasites are the causative agents of a wide spectrum of human diseases. The clinical manifestations of leishmaniasis range from self-healing skin lesions to fatality. The WHO has declared leishmaniasis a Category I Neglected Tropical Disease. This disease represents a major international health challenge, affecting 12 million people per year and with nearly 310 million people at risk. The first-line chemotherapies used to treat leishmaniasis are intravenous pentavalent antimonials; however, these drugs are highly toxic. Oral treatment options such as paromomycin and miltefosine have been used more as incidences of disease relapse and drug resistance to antimonials develop, emphasizing the importance of identifying new chemotherapies. We developed a novel, target-free fluorometric high-throughput screen (HTS), with an average Z-score of 0.73 +/- 0.13, to identify small molecules with anti-leishmanial activity. Screening of 10,000 small molecules from the ChemBridge DIVER-set™ library cassette #5 yielded 210 compounds that killed 80 percent of parasites, resulting in a hit rate of 2.1 percent. One hundred nine (109) molecular scaffolds were represented within the hit compounds; one scaffold that exhibits potent anti-leishmanial activity was 2,4-diaminoquinazoline (2,4-DAQ). Host cell toxicity was determined prior to in vitro infection of human THP-1 macrophages with L. donovani mCherry expressing promastigotes; successful drug treatment was considered when the IC50 was less than 10μM. BALB/C mice were infected with L. major mCherry promastigotes and treated with small molecules that were successful during in vitro infections. Several small molecules tested were equally efficacious at resolving CL lesions in mice as known antimonial treatments.
- Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Lichen Planus of the Esophagus. [Journal Article]
- ATAnn Thorac Surg 2019 Jul 16
- Cancer arising in lichen planus of the esophagus (LPE) is extremely rare. We report 2 elderly female patients with LPE who developed squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Both underwent laparoscopic ischemi…
Cancer arising in lichen planus of the esophagus (LPE) is extremely rare. We report 2 elderly female patients with LPE who developed squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Both underwent laparoscopic ischemic gastric preconditioning followed 2 weeks later by 3-field esophagectomy. Final pathological stages were carcinoma-in-situ and pT3N2, respectively. No adjuvant therapy was given. The patient with in-situ cancer has no evidence of recurrence at 24 months. The 2nd patient opted to follow up locally and died 8 months later. LPE should be closely monitored for malignant degeneration. Esophagectomy should be considered when malignancy is detected.
- Handgrip Strength Is Associated with Poorer Cognitive Functioning in Aging Americans. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Alzheimers Dis 2019 Jul 12
- CONCLUSIONS: Measurement of handgrip strength is a simple, risk-stratifying method for helping healthcare providers determine poorer cognitive functioning. Interventions aiming to prevent or delay cognitive dysfunction should also implement measures of handgrip strength as an assessment tool for determining efficacy.
- The effect of Nd:YAG laser therapy on cutaneous leishmaniasis compared to intralesional meglumine antimoniate. [Journal Article]
- PDPostepy Dermatol Alergol 2019; 36(2):227-231
- CONCLUSIONS: The alternative method of laser use in the treatment of patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis can lead to complete recovery of patients in shorter time and with less complications.
- Highly purified fucosylated chondroitin sulfate oligomers with selective intrinsic factor Xase complex inhibition. [Journal Article]
- CPCarbohydr Polym 2019 Oct 15; 222:115025
- Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (FCS) oligosaccharides of specific molecular weight have shown potent anticoagulant activities with selectivity towards intrinsic factor Xase complex. However, the pre…
Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (FCS) oligosaccharides of specific molecular weight have shown potent anticoagulant activities with selectivity towards intrinsic factor Xase complex. However, the preparation of FCS oligosaccharides by traditional methods requires multiple purification steps consuming large amounts of time and significant resources. The current study focuses on developing a method for the rapid preparation of FCS oligomers from sea cucumber Pearsonothuria graeffei having 6-18 saccharide residues. The key steps controlling molecular weight (Mw) and purity of these FCS oligomers were evaluated. Structural analysis showed the resulting FCS oligomers were primarily l-Fuc3,4diS-α1,3-d-GlcA-β1,3-(d-GalNAc4,6diS-β1,4-[l-Fuc3,4diS-α1,3-]d-GlcA-β1,3-)nd-anTal-ol4,6diS (n = 1˜5) accompanied by partial de-fucosylation and/or de-sulfation. In vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrate that these FCS oligomers selectively inhibit intrinsic factor Xase complex and exhibit remarkable antithrombotic activity without hemorrhagic and hypotension side effects. This method is suitable for large-scale preparation of FCS oligosaccharides as clinical anticoagulants.
- Misclassification of the actual causes of death and its impact on analysis: A case study in non-small cell lung cancer. [Journal Article]
- LCLung Cancer 2019; 134:16-24
- CONCLUSIONS: In lung cancer, LC-CID may be severely underestimated due to under-reporting of lung cancer deaths, particularly among older patients or those with late-stage disease. Future studies that involve such subpopulations should present the corrected LC-CIDs based on plausible misclassification rates alongside the observed LC-CIDs.
- Genetic Analyses of Tanzanian Local Chicken Ecotypes Challenged with Newcastle Disease Virus. [Journal Article]
- GGenes (Basel) 2019 Jul 17; 10(7)
- Newcastle Disease (ND) is a continuing global threat to domestic poultry, especially in developing countries, where severe outbreaks of velogenic ND virus (NDV) often cause major economic losses to h…
Newcastle Disease (ND) is a continuing global threat to domestic poultry, especially in developing countries, where severe outbreaks of velogenic ND virus (NDV) often cause major economic losses to households. Local chickens are of great importance to rural family livelihoods through provision of high-quality protein. To investigate the genetic basis of host response to NDV, three popular Tanzanian chicken ecotypes (regional populations) were challenged with a lentogenic (vaccine) strain of NDV at 28 days of age. Various host response phenotypes, including anti-NDV antibody levels (pre-infection and 10 days post-infection, dpi), and viral load (2 and 6 dpi) were measured, in addition to growth rate. We estimated genetic parameters and conducted genome-wide association study analyses by genotyping 1399 chickens using the Affymetrix 600K chicken SNP chip. Estimates of heritability of the evaluated traits were moderate (0.18-0.35). Five quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with growth and/or response to NDV were identified by single-SNP analyses, with some regions explaining ≥1% of genetic variance based on the Bayes-B method. Immune related genes, such as ETS1, TIRAP, and KIRREL3, were located in regions associated with viral load at 6 dpi. The moderate estimates of heritability and identified QTL indicate that NDV response traits may be improved through selective breeding of chickens to enhance increased NDV resistance and vaccine efficacy in Tanzanian local ecotypes.
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- Laser induced breakdown optical emission spectroscopic study of silicon plasma. [Journal Article]
- SASpectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2019 Jul 09; 223:117374
- The laser induced breakdown optical emission spectroscopy technique has been employed for the analysis of silicon sample in the atmospheric air. Laser irradiance of 1 × 1011 Wcm-2 was created on spec…
The laser induced breakdown optical emission spectroscopy technique has been employed for the analysis of silicon sample in the atmospheric air. Laser irradiance of 1 × 1011 Wcm-2 was created on specimen of silicon sample surface to generate the plasma plume by using the fundamental of Nd:YAG laser pulse. This laser produced silicon plasma was captured through the LIBS 2000 Spectrometer for the subsequent analysis of silicon sample. The electron temperature of silicon plasma is estimated to be 7500 K to 4000 K while electron number density of silicon plasma lies 3.2 × 1017 to 1.8 × 1017. In spatially resolved laser induced plasma and this temperature of silicon plasma has been estimated from the Boltzmann plot method to be in local thermodynamic equilibrium, and electron number density of silicon plasma has been estimated from the Stark width broadening at λ ~ 288.1 nm respectively. Observed result in spatially resolved laser plasma which shows the recombination rate of plasma plume along the direction of expansion. Which also affects on the temperature and density of silicon plasma besides the intensity decreasing factor with distance in silicon ionic and neutrals transition lines is discussed.