- StatPearls [BOOK]
- BOOKStatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL)
- Hypertrichosis is defined as excessive hair growth anywhere on the body in either males or females. It is important to distinguish hypertrichosis from hirsutism, which is a term reserved for females ...
Hypertrichosis is defined as excessive hair growth anywhere on the body in either males or females. It is important to distinguish hypertrichosis from hirsutism, which is a term reserved for females who grow an excessive amount of terminal hairs in androgen-dependent sites. There are several ways of classifying hypertrichosis. These are based on distribution (generalized vs. localized), the age of onset (congenital versus acquired), and the type of hair (vellus versus terminal). Forms of generalized hypertrichosis include, but are not limited to, congenital generalized hypertrichosis (which is further divided into congenital hypertrichosis lanuginosa, universal hypertrichosis, and hypertrichosis universalis congenita), prepubertal hypertrichosis, acquired generalized hypertrichosis, and acquired hypertrichosis lanuginosa. They each differ in their etiology and clinical findings. Forms of localized hypertrichosis include, but are not limited to, congenital localized hypertrichosis (congenital nevi, plexiform neurofibromas, Becker melanosis/nevus, nevoid hypertrichosis, spinal dysraphism, and the hair collar sign), localized hypertrichosis in hereditary and acquired systemic disease, and acquired localized hypertrichosis. An understanding of lanugo, vellus, and terminal hair is integral in evaluating a patient with presumed hypertrichosis. Lanugo hair is fine, non-pigmented hair that covers the normal fetus. It is often several centimeters long. By the first few weeks of life, lanugo hair should be replaced by vellus hair on the body and terminal hair on the scalp. Vellus hair is lightly pigmented, fine, short hair, often referred to as “peach fuzz” that is found on the face, arms, stomach, and legs. Terminal hair is coarse, thick hair that is found on the scalp, underarms, and pubic area. In men, terminal hair is also found on the face. During puberty, vellus hair is replaced with terminal hair in androgen-dependent sites under the influence of testosterone.
- Dermoscopic evaluation of melanocytic nevi changes after photoepilation techniques: a prospective study. [Journal Article]
- JEJ Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2018 Dec 06
- CONCLUSIONS: Although malignant modifications of nevi after photo-epilation have not been described, the clinical and dermoscopic changes we observed suggest to extend the follow for more than 24 months, as the potential long term adverse effects of photo-epilation on melanocytic nevi are unknown. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Pigmented skin lesions displaying regression features: dermoscopy and reflectance confocal microscopy criteria for diagnosis. [Journal Article]
- EDExp Dermatol 2018 Dec 02
- Melanomas and nevi displaying regression features can be difficult to differentiate. To describe reflectance confocal microscopy features in benign and malignant pigmented skin lesions characterized ...
Melanomas and nevi displaying regression features can be difficult to differentiate. To describe reflectance confocal microscopy features in benign and malignant pigmented skin lesions characterized by regression features in dermoscopy. Methods: Observational retrospective study. Inclusion criteria were presence of dermoscopic features of regression; availability of clinical, dermoscopic and RCM imaging; definite histopathologic diagnosis. The study sample comprised 217 lesions; 108 (49.8%) melanomas and 109 were benign lesions, of which 102 (47.0%) nevi and 7 (3.2%) lichen planus like keratosis (lplk). Patients with melanoma were significantly older than those with benign lesions (61.9±15.4 vs. 46.1±14.8; p<0.001) and a higher proportion of melanomas displayed dermoscopic regression structures in more than 50% of lesion surface (n=83/108; 76.9%; p<0.001). On RCM examination, pagetoid cells were significantly more reported in melanoma group, than in benign lesions (86.1% vs. 59.6%; p<0.001) and were more frequently widespread distributed (65.6% vs. 20.0%; p<0.001) and both dendritic and roundish (36.6% vs. 15.4%; p<0.001) in shape. Aspecific architecture at the dermo-epidermal junction (DEJ) was more commonly seen among melanomas than benign lesions (23.1% vs. 11.9%; p=0.002) with higher presence of dendritic and both dendritic and roundish atypical cells at the DEJ (28.7% vs. 18.3% and 19.4% vs. 3.7%; p<0.001, respectively). Focal pagetoid infiltration and ringed or clod patterns were more commonly seen in benign lesion. In conclusion, the correct interpretation of regressing lesions remains a challenge, assessing carefully the extent and characteristics of architectural and cytologic atypia on RCM is an additional piece of the complex puzzle of melanoma diagnosis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- A diagnostically-challenging case of melanoma ex blue nevus with comprehensive molecular analysis, including the 23-gene expression signature (myPath Melanoma). [Case Reports]
- JCJ Cutan Pathol 2018 Dec 02
- Melanoma ex blue nevus (MEBN) is a rare, aggressive, and potentially lethal neoplasm. Distinguishing MEBN from an atypical cellular blue nevus can be very challenging. We report a diagnostically diff...
Melanoma ex blue nevus (MEBN) is a rare, aggressive, and potentially lethal neoplasm. Distinguishing MEBN from an atypical cellular blue nevus can be very challenging. We report a diagnostically difficult case of MEBN with lymph node metastases, in which single nucleotide polymorphism array and fluorescence in situ hybridization were used to arrive at the correct diagnosis. It was also analyzed by the recently-introduced proprietary 23-gene expression signature test (myPath Melanoma, Myriad Genetics Inc.). To our knowledge, this is the second reported case of MEBN analyzed by the 23-gene expression signature, which provided a false negative result. More studies are needed to assess the sensitivity and specificity of this test in various melanocytic proliferations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Giant congenital facial melanocytic nevus. [Journal Article]
- OJOman J Ophthalmol 2018 Sep-Dec; 11(3):265-266
- Giant Congenital Melanocytic Nevus (GCMNs) is mostly reported in area of trunk followed by limbs and head. Their incidence is <1:20,000 newborns It derives attention due to its association with malig...
Giant Congenital Melanocytic Nevus (GCMNs) is mostly reported in area of trunk followed by limbs and head. Their incidence is <1:20,000 newborns It derives attention due to its association with malignant melanoma.The risk of developing malignant melanoma is between 5 to 10%.We report a case of twelve year old boy with hyperpigmented lesion on face.
- Spontaneous Regression of Large Congenital Melanocytic Nevi, With a Halo Rim in 17 Children With Large Scalp and Trunk Nevi During 45 Years: A Review of the Literature. [Journal Article]
- CPedClin Pediatr (Phila) 2018 Dec 03; :9922818816421
- CONCLUSIONS: A conservative approach to management of children with CMN, large and small, is safe, cost-effective, and results in excellent quality of life and cosmetic outcomes. Dermoscopy, a simple in-office procedure, can reassure the examiner that the congenital nevus is benign. A halo rim was present in 12 (80%) of 15 scalp CMN. The presence of a halo rim appears predictive of future regression of a CMN in the scalp or trunk.
- [miR-122-5p inhibits the proliferation of melanoma cells by targeting NOP14]. [Journal Article]
- NFNan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao 2018 Nov 30; 38(11):1360-1365
- CONCLUSIONS: miR-122-5p expression is upregulated in melanoma tissues, indicating its involvement in the development of melanoma. miR-122-5p inhibits the proliferation of SK-MEL-110 and A-375 cells possibly by affecting the cycle through NOP14.
- Segmental epidermal nevus and mucosal neuromas associated with PIK3CA-related overgrowth spectrum disorder. [Journal Article]
- JCJAAD Case Rep 2018; 4(10):1080-1082
- Bilateral Iris Mammillations in Amblyopic Eyes without Oculodermal Melanocytosis or Neurofibromatosis. [Journal Article]
- CRCase Rep Ophthalmol Med 2018; 2018:2534042
- CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of bilateral iris mammillations in Japan. Our case emphasizes that iris mammillations can occur even without ocular melanocytosis or systemic diseases.
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- Identification of the potential prognostic genes of human melanoma. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Cell Physiol 2018 Nov 30
- The melanoma is one of the most dangerous forms of skin diseases. It may spread to other parts of the body and cause serious illness and death. Early detection and diagnosis are crucial. However, the...
The melanoma is one of the most dangerous forms of skin diseases. It may spread to other parts of the body and cause serious illness and death. Early detection and diagnosis are crucial. However, the systemic expression analysis for the different staging of melanoma is still lacking to date. In this study, we analyzed the gene expression profiles of the different staging of melanoma by the differential expression analysis and random forest analysis. First, the results of the principal component analysis showed that the clustering of primary tumor samples, normal samples, and pigment nevus samples got closer, while the clustering of tumor metastatic samples and normal samples was far away. Moreover, the gene expression of tumor metastasis stage and the initial stage had obvious differences. Almost 426 genes identified had differential expression. The functional enrichment of differentially expressed genes was associated with the epidermal cell differentiation, epidermis development, and the keratinocyte differentiation. Taken together, our findings identified the differentially expressed signatures between primary melanoma and metastatic melanoma. Our results would provide the potential mechanisms of melanoma.