- [TREATMENT OBSERVATION OF NASAL TIP DEFECTS RECONSTRUCTED BY BILOBED FLAPS AFTER GAINT NEVI EXCISION]. [Journal Article]
- ZXZhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi 2016 Nov 08; 30(11):1373-1375
- CONCLUSIONS: One-stage bilobed flap reconstruction for nasal tip defects after giant nevus resection is one of the effective, safe, and aesthetic surgery methods.
- Transformation of nevus to melanoma, or not? [Journal Article]
- IJIndian J Ophthalmol 2018; 66(6):745
- Dermoscopic changes in melanocytic nevi covered with both opaque tape and sunscreen cream during narrowband ultraviolet B therapy. [Journal Article]
- DPDermatol Pract Concept 2018; 8(2):132-139
- CONCLUSIONS: Sunscreen in combination with opaque tape may contribute to some dermoscopic changes in melanocytic nevi, including decrease in size and loss of structure.
- Dermoscopy of a Spark's nevus. [Journal Article]
- DPDermatol Pract Concept 2018; 8(2):126-128
- Spark's nevus is a particular type of melanocytic nevus that on histology shows features of both Spitz's and Clark's nevus. Clinically, it is an asymmetric, irregular, multicolored, pigmented lesion ...
Spark's nevus is a particular type of melanocytic nevus that on histology shows features of both Spitz's and Clark's nevus. Clinically, it is an asymmetric, irregular, multicolored, pigmented lesion that is not clearly distinguishable from melanoma or dysplastic (Clark's) nevus. Dermoscopic features have not been described yet, and one could speculate that they are similar to those of Clark's nevi because the histopathologic architecture of Spark's nevus is similar to that of a Clark's nevus, resembling Spitz's nevi in the epithelioid morphology of melanocytes. We present a 32-year-old woman with a Spark's nevus, who upon dermoscopy showed a pronounced atypical network with accentuation of the blue veil and mostly peripheral dots.
- Morphologic characteristics of nevi associated with melanoma: a clinical, dermatoscopic and histopathologic analysis. [Journal Article]
- DPDermatol Pract Concept 2018; 8(2):104-108
- CONCLUSIONS: From a histomorphologic point of view, the majority of melanomas arise de novo. If melanomas develop in a preexisting nevus, they usually occur in association with a "superficial" or "superficial and deep" congenital nevus.
- Screening for malignant melanoma-a critical assessment in historical perspective. [Journal Article]
- DPDermatol Pract Concept 2018; 8(2):89-103
- Screening for melanoma has been advocated for many years because early detection and excision have been regarded as the most important measure to lower mortality from that neoplasm. In the past decad...
Screening for melanoma has been advocated for many years because early detection and excision have been regarded as the most important measure to lower mortality from that neoplasm. In the past decade, concern has been raised by epidemiologists that screening might result in excision chiefly of "inconsequential cancer," i.e., melanomas that would never have progressed into life-threatening tumors, a phenomenon referred to by the misleading term "overdiagnosis." Without any firm evidence, that speculation has been embraced worldwide, and incipient melanomas have been trivialized. At the same time, efforts at early detection of melanoma have continued and have resulted in biopsy of pigmented lesions at a progressively earlier stage, such as lesions with a diameter of only 2, 3, or 4 mm. Those tiny lesions often lack sufficient criteria for clinical and histopathologic diagnosis, the result being true overdiagnoses, i.e., misdiagnoses of melanocytic nevi as melanoma. This is especially true if available criteria for histopathologic diagnosis are diminuished even further by incomplete excision of lesions. The reliability of histopathologic diagnosis is far higher in excisional biopsies of lesions that were given some more time to develop changes that make them recognizable. Biopsy of pigmented lesions with a diameter of 6 mm has been found to result in a far higher yield of melanomas. In addition to better clinical judgment, slight postponement of biopsies bears the promise of substantial improvement of the reliability of histopathologic diagnosis, and of alleviating true overdiagnoses.
- Cutaneous Manifestations of Tuberous Sclerosis. [Journal Article]
- ADActa Dermatovenerol Croat 2018; 26(1):73-74
- Dear Editor, Tuberous sclerosis (TS) is an autosomal dominant multisystem disease, which occurs due to genetically determined hyperplasia of ectodermal and mesodermal cells. Clinical manifestations p...
Dear Editor, Tuberous sclerosis (TS) is an autosomal dominant multisystem disease, which occurs due to genetically determined hyperplasia of ectodermal and mesodermal cells. Clinical manifestations present on the skin and in the nervous system, kidneys, heart, and other organs. Recent studies estimate the incidence of TS at 1/6000 to 1/10,000 live births, and a prevalence in the general population of approximately 1 in 20,000 (1). There are two different genetic loci responsible for TS: 9q34 (TSC1-hamartin) and 16p13.3 (TSC2-tuberin) (2). Cutaneous manifestations occur in about 96% of patients (3). Neurological disorders occur in 50% of patients in the form of seizures and motor and psychomotor symptomatology (4). A 19-year-old male patient was hospitalized for clinical and diagnostic evaluation in February 2016 year in Clinic for Nephrology, Clinical Center of Montenegro, Podgorica, Montenegro. Polycystic kidney changes were verified by ultrasound when the patient was three years old, with the presence of several calcified nodules in lateral ventricles and supraventricularly in the brain as well as the existence of several hypopigmented maculae on the skin. During the last hospitalization in February 2016, the following tests were performed: cranial magnet resonance imaging (MRI) findings showed the existence of visible changes in the signal in the form of ectopic tuber tissue in the region of the cortex and subcortical white matter of the brain, but without neurological and psychomotor abnormalities; ultrasound of the urinary tract showed that both kidneys were enlarged with multiple cysts, with dominant cysts at the lower pole of the right kidney with a size of 55 mm and at the upper pole of the left kidney, approximately 40 mm. Reduced functional capacity of kidneys was found on dynamic scintigraphy, slightly more in the left kidney (41%) compared with the right (59%). Electroencephalography, X-ray of the lungs and heart, and echocardiography were also performed, but without any pathological findings. Dermatological examination found numerous fibroma up to 0.5 cm in diameter, the largest located nasolabially, periorally, and on the chin skin (Figure 1) at the age of seven, whereas a fibroma and several white maculae were present from birth on the skin of the forehead. They were now also present on the skin of the trunk and on the upper and lower extremities (Figure 2), accompanied by surrounding minor changes in the form of confetti-like maculae. A subungual fibroma was present on the third finger of the right hand. Collagen nevus (shagreen patch) (5), i.e. a subepidermal fibrosis as a mildly elevated, palm-sized area is also characteristic of TS, which is described in literature, in most cases in the lumbosacral region. In our case, such a fibrosis about 3 cm in diameter, and with the consistency of an orange peel, was discovered on the right shoulder. Subungual fibromas (Koenen tumors) (6), which can develop in adolescence, were present in our patient on the third finger of the right hand. The diagnosis of TS was established based on genetic testing, physical examination, ultrasound-verified polycystic kidney disease and reduced global renal functions, intracranial MRI, many hypomelanotic changes, and angiofibromas found with dermatological examination (7). There is no specific therapeutic approach for TS, and the treatment is symptomatic. Angiofibromas of the skin can be removed by dermabrasion or laser. Recent data show a good therapeutic effect of applying 0.1% rapamycin (8), which leads to a reduction of angiofibromas in patients with TS. On dermatological follow up after five weeks of application of tacrolimus, angiofibromas of the face were in regression. Some studies suggest the simultaneous topical applications of both of those drugs (9). In adolescents and adults of reproductive age, genetic counseling is recommended (10).
- Tatami Mats: A Source of Pitted Keratolysis in a Martial Arts Athlete? [Journal Article]
- ADActa Dermatovenerol Croat 2018; 26(1):68-70
- Dear Editor, Pitted keratolysis (PK), also known as keratosis plantaris sulcatum, is a non-inflammatory, bacterial, superficial cutaneous infection, characterized by many discrete superficial crateri...
Dear Editor, Pitted keratolysis (PK), also known as keratosis plantaris sulcatum, is a non-inflammatory, bacterial, superficial cutaneous infection, characterized by many discrete superficial crateriform ''pits'' and erosions in the thickly keratinized skin of the weight-bearing regions of the soles of the feet (1). The disease often goes unnoticed by the patient, but when it is noticed it is because of the unbearable malodor and hyperhidrosis of the feet, which are socially unacceptable and cause great anxiety to many of the patients. PK occurs worldwide, with the incidence rates varying based on the environment and occupation. The prevalence of this condition does not differ significantly based on age, sex, or race. People who sweat profusely or wash excessively, who wear occlusive footwear, or are barefoot especially in hot and humid weather are extremely prone to this condition (2). Physicians commonly misdiagnose it as tinea pedis or plantar warts. Treatment is quite simple and straightforward, with an excellent expected outcome if treated properly. We report a case of a 32-year-old male patient with skin changes of approximately one-year duration diagnosed as plantar verrucae, who was referred to our Department for cryotherapy. The patient presented with asymptomatic, malodorous punched-out pits and erosions along with hyperkeratotic skin on the heel and metatarsal region of the plantar aspect of both feet. The arches, toes, and sides of the feet were spared (Figure 1). Except for these skin changes, the patient was healthy and denied any other medical issues. He was an athlete active in martial arts and had a history of sweating of feet and training barefoot on the tatami mat for extended periods of time. The diagnosis of PK was established based on the clinical findings (crateriform pitting and malodor), negative KOH test for hyphae, and a history of prolonged sweating in addition to contact of the skin with tatami mats, which are often a source of infection if hygiene measures are not adequately implemented. Swabs could have been helpful to identify causative organisms, but they were not crucial for the diagnosis and treatment. The patient was prescribed with general measures to prevent excessive sweating (cotton socks, open footwear, and proper hygiene), antiseptic potassium permanganate foot soaks followed by clindamycin 1% and benzoyl peroxide 5% in a gel vehicle twice daily. At the one-month follow-up visit, the skin changes, hyperhidrosis, and malodor were entirely resolved (Figure 2). Pitted keratolysis is common among athletes (3,4). The manifestations of PK are due to a superficial cutaneous infection caused by several bacterial Gram-positive species including Corynebacterium species, Kytococcus sedentarius, Dermatophilus congolensis, Actynomices keratolytica, and Streptomyces that proliferate and produce proteinase and sulfur-compound by-products under appropriate moist conditions (5-7). Proteinases digest the keratin and destroy the stratum corneum, producing the characteristic skin findings, while sulfur compounds (sulfides, thiols, and thioesters) are responsible for the malodor. Athletes and soldiers who wear occlusive footwear for prolonged periods of time or even barefooted people that sweat extensively and spend time on wet surfaces such as laborers, farmers, and marine workers are more prone to this problem (3,4,8-11). Martial arts athletes are at greater risk of skin infections due to the constant physical contact that can lead to transmission of viral, bacterial, and fungal pathogens directly but also indirectly through contact with the mat and the skin flora of an another infected individual. A national survey of the epidemiology of skin infections among US high school athletes conducted by Ashack et al. supported the prevalent theory that contact sports are associated with an increased risk of skin infections. In this study, wrestling had the highest skin infection rate of predominantly bacterial origin (53.8%), followed by tinea (35.7%) and herpetic lesions (6.7%), which is consistent with other literature reporting (12). Being barefoot on the tatami mat in combination with excessive sweating and non-compliance with hygiene measures makes martial arts athletes more susceptible to skin infections, including PK. The diagnosis is clinical, by means of visual examination and recognition of the characteristic odor. Dermoscopy can be useful, revealing abundant pits with well-marked walls that sometimes show the bacterial colonies (13). Cultures, if taken, show Gram-positive bacilli or coccobacilli. Because of the ease of diagnosis on clinical findings, biopsy of pitted keratolysis is rarely performed. Skin scraping is often performed to exclude tinea pedis, which is one of the main differential diagnosis, the others including verrucae, punctate palmoplantar keratoderma, keratolysis exfoliativa, circumscribed palmoplantar hypokeratosis, and basal cell nevus syndrome. If unrecognized and left untreated, skin findings and smelly feet can last for many years. Sometimes, if unrecognized, PK can be mistreated with antifungals, or even with aggressive treatment modalities such as cryotherapy. Appropriate treatment includes keeping feet dry with adequate treatment of hyperhidrosis, preventive measures, and topical antibiotic therapy. Topical forms of salicylic acid, sulfur, antibacterial soaps, neomycin, erythromycin, mupirocin, clindamycin and benzoyl peroxide, clotrimazole, imidazoles, and injectable botulinum toxin are all successful in treatment and prevention of PK (14,15). Topical antibiotics are the first line of medical treatment, among which fusidic acid, erythromycin 1% (solution or gel), mupirocin 2%, or clindamycin are the most recommended (14). As in our case, a fixed combination of two approved topical drugs - clindamycin 1%-benzoyl peroxide 5% gel, had been already demonstrated by Vlahovich et al. as an excellent treatment option with high adherence and no side-effect (16). The combined effect of this combination showed signiﬁcantly greater effect due to the bactericidal and keratolytic properties of benzoyl peroxide. Additionally, this combination also lowers the risk of resistance of causative microorganisms to clindamycin. Skin infections are an important aspect of sports-related adverse events. Due to the interdisciplinary nature, dermatologists are not the only ones who should be aware of the disease, but also family medicine doctors, sports medicine specialists, and occupational health doctors who should educate patients about the etiology of the skin disorder, adequate prevention, and treatment. Athletes must enforce the disinfecting and sanitary cleaning of the tatami mats and other practice areas. Keeping up with these measures could significantly limit the spread of skin infections that can infect athletes indirectly, leading to significant morbidity, time loss from competition, and social anxiety as well.
- Role of In Vivo Reflectance Confocal Microscopy in the Analysis of Melanocytic Lesions. [Journal Article]
- ADActa Dermatovenerol Croat 2018; 26(1):64-67
- Worldwide melanoma incidence and mortality are increasing (1). Despite the ongoing research, advanced melanoma is still incurable; therefore, the most appropriate solution seems to be early detection...
Worldwide melanoma incidence and mortality are increasing (1). Despite the ongoing research, advanced melanoma is still incurable; therefore, the most appropriate solution seems to be early detection combined with complete surgical excision (2). Since the diagnostic protocol of suspicious lesions includes a complete excision with safety margins (2), the problem of unnecessary scarring is significant. The real challenge in this case is to have a properly formulated diagnosis before acquiring a biopsy. Currently available non-invasive techniques are coherence tomography, digital dermoscopy, and reflectance confocal microscopy. All these techniques allow for a presumptive diagnosis, but the most promising results are provided by reflectance confocal microscopy. Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) is an optical imaging technique that uses a laser diode as a source of coherent monochromatic light which penetrates the tissue and illuminates a single point. Light from the stimulated section is reflected and passes through a filter, thereby forming the image on the detector. This filter enables selective excitation of a particular point on which focus is achieved and rejects reflection from the out-of-focus area, thus obtaining a "confocal" image. Contrast is the result of differences in the refractive index of the cell organelles and microstructures, resulting in white structures on a black background. This technique allows, as opposed to conventional light microscopy, the analysis of sections obtained at a bi- or tri-dimensional level and controlling the depth of the field, permitting out-of-focus artifacts to be eliminated. In dermatology, this technique is useful for both clinical and research purposes. It is the only technique that allows horizontal viewing of the skin up to the superficial dermis (approximately 300 mm, at a cellular level resolution (0.5-1.0 μm in the lateral dimension and 4.0-5.0 μm in the axial dimension) (3). It allows both in vivo and ex vivo diagnosis, while providing the possibility for long-term monitoring. It has proved to be especially valuable for in vivo examinations of melanocytic lesions, whereas melanin and melanosomes are a powerful source of contrast, allowing the individualization of melanocytic cells (4). We report the case of a 65-year-old Caucasian woman who presented to the Dermatology Department of University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy, for the examination of an atypical lesion, of unknown history, localized in the right preauricular area. The patient's personal and family histories were negative for skin malignancies and for other significant medical history. The clinical presentation was highly indicative of malignancy, as it met all the ABCD clinical criteria: an asymmetric papule composed of two areas, one pigmented and another one hypopigmented, with ill-defined borders and a diameter of approximately 2 cm. The dermatoscopic examination revealed an asymmetric multicomponent pattern with atypical network, structureless areas, peripheral irregular globules, and a blue-white veil. Because clinical and dermatoscopic features pointed towards a suspicious lesion which was situated on the face, where unnecessary scarring is unwanted, reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) examination was proposed and performed (VivaScope 3000; MAVIG GmBH, Munich, Germany) (5). It revealed the following features: the epidermis presented a disarranged pattern; the dermo-epidermal junction and superficial dermis presented a meshwork pattern with edged AND non-edged papillae, non-homogenous junctional clusters, dense nests, dense AND sparse nests, and atypical cells in a sparse distribution (Figure 1). Figure 1. (A) Clinical examination of an atypical melanocytic lesion situated at the right preauricular area. (B) Dermatoscopic examination. (C) Confocal examination of dermo-epidermal junction and superficial dermis which reveals a meshwork pattern (yellow circle) with edged AND non-edged papillae, non-homogenous junctional clusters (yellow star), dense nests, dense AND sparse nests (red star) and atypical cells in a sparse distribution (arrow). The clinical and confocal data indicated a malignant melanocytic tumor, so an excisional biopsy with safety margins was performed. The histopathological report indicated superficial spreading melanoma with a Breslow of 0.55 mm and 0 mitosis/mm2. This case illustrates the important role confocal microscopy examination has in the management of melanocytic lesions situated in special areas like the face. Reflectance confocal microscopy is an imaging technique that allows viewing the layers of the skin up to the superficial dermis and therefore turns out to be extremely useful in obtaining a pertinent diagnosis before acquiring a biopsy. According to the data available so far, it was established that reflectance confocal microscopy increases the diagnostic accuracy for melanocytic lesions in both pigmented and hypopigmented lesions. In a study conducted by Borsari et al., reflectance confocal microscopy proved to have a sensibility and specificity of 95.3% and 83.9%, respectively (6). By improving the accuracy of clinical and dermatoscopic diagnosis, the reflectance confocal microscopy technique contributes to increasing the confidence of the clinical and dermatoscopic diagnosis (7). In this regard, confocal reflectance microscopy reduces unnecessary excisions, particularly in cases of damage to cosmetically important areas, such as the face or the neck, simultaneously detecting the malignant lesions that require a surgical approach, as seen in the case presented, where confirmation of the diagnosis by confocal microscopy allowed for a safe excision. In fact, the head and neck are the most appropriate body location for reflectance confocal examination, especially because RCM showed a high diagnostic accuracy for lesions located on sun-damaged skin, as these two areas frequently are (adjusted odds ratio (aOR), 2.13; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.37-3.30; P=.001) (6). Reflectance confocal microscopy is very helpful in the management of special lesions, like facial lentigo maligna melanoma. This type of lesion is considered to be a real challenge for the dermatologist because of its clinical and morphological features that are similar to other lesions such as solar lentigines and pigmented actinic keratoses. In this case, reflectance confocal excels at specificity of the diagnosis, but also at to the ability to define the margins more accurately, permitting a pre-surgical mapping and for possibility of identifying the optimal site for biopsy (8,9). By improving diagnostic ability, reflectance confocal microscopy technique may contribute to the selection of lesions that may be eligible for non-surgical treatment. Facial pigmented non-melanocytic macules like solar lentigo, flat seborrheic keratosis, lichen planus-like keratosis, and pigmented actinic keratosis can mimic a lentigo maligna, or even a lentigo maligna melanoma, but with the help of the RCM, an accurate diagnosis can be established, sparing the patient can be from unwanted facial scars using a non-surgical approach (laser, cryotherapy, imiquimod) (10,11). Furthermore, reflectance confocal microscopy can be a valuable method for the monitoring of a skin lesion over time, especially melanocytic nevi, reducing unnecessary surgical excision, such as for patients with multiple atypical nevi that undergo multiple biopsies (12,13). Like all other diagnostic methods, RCM has its limitations: palmoplantar lesions (due to thickened epidermis), ulcers or crusts on a large lesion, lesions localized in inaccessible regions such as interdigital space, nasal wing (3). To summarize, reflectance confocal microscopy can improve clinical and dermatoscopic diagnosis of melanocytic lesions, detecting the lesions that need an invasive approach and preventing unnecessary excision. It has proven to be very helpful in the management of lentigo maligna and lentigo maligna melanoma, achieving high specificity in the diagnosis and simultaneously allowing an optimal approach. This technique can be a reliable bridge between dermoscopy and histopathology, being able to provide an alternative to histopathological examination. Special mention must be made of the factors that may change the result to a false negative such as hyperkeratosis, ulceration, or bleeding, so any results should be integrated with the rest of the patient's data.
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- Confocal Microscopy in Skin Cancer. [Review]
- CDCurr Dermatol Rep 2018; 7(2):105-118
- Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) enables imaging of skin lesions at cellular level resolution at the bedside (in vivo) or in freshly excised tissue (ex vivo). This article provides an overview o...
Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) enables imaging of skin lesions at cellular level resolution at the bedside (in vivo) or in freshly excised tissue (ex vivo). This article provides an overview of strengths and limitations of non-invasive RCM in skin cancer diagnosis.