- Bouchardatine analogue alleviates NAFLD/NASH in high fat fed mice via blunting ATP synthase activity. [Journal Article]
- BJBr J Pharmacol 2019 May 21
- CONCLUSIONS: R17 has a therapeutic potential for NAFLD/NASH and its molecular mode of action involves the elimination of ER and oxidative stresses possibly via activating the LKB1-AMPK axis by blunting the activity of ATP synthase.
- The effects of oleoylethanolamide, an endogenous PPAR-α agonist, on risk factors for NAFLD: A systematic review. [Review]
- ORObes Rev 2019 May 21
- Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most prevalent chronic liver disease. Recently, some novel compounds have been investigated for the prevention and treatment of NAFLD. Oleoylethanolam…
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most prevalent chronic liver disease. Recently, some novel compounds have been investigated for the prevention and treatment of NAFLD. Oleoylethanolamide (OEA), an endogenous PPAR-α agonist, has exhibited a plethora of pharmacological properties for the treatment of obesity and other obesity-associated metabolic complications. This systematic review was performed with a focus on the effects of OEA on the risk factors for NAFLD. PubMed, Scopus, Embase, ProQuest, and Google Scholar databases were searched up to December 2018 using relevant keywords. All articles written in English evaluating the effects of OEA on the risk factors for NAFLD were eligible for the review. The evidence reviewed in this article illustrates that OEA regulates multiple biological processes associated with NAFLD, including lipid metabolism, inflammation, oxidative stress, and energy homeostasis through different mechanisms. In summary, many beneficial effects of OEA have led to the understanding that OEA may be an effective therapeutic strategy for the management of NAFLD. Although a wide range of studies have demonstrated the most useful effects of OEA on NAFLD and the associated risk factors, further clinical trials, from both in vivo studies and in vitro experiments, are warranted to verify these outcomes.
- Association Between Vitamin D Deficiency and Suspected Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in an Adolescent Population. [Journal Article]
- PGPediatr Gastroenterol Hepatol Nutr 2019; 22(3):233-241
- CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D deficiency was associated with suspected NAFLD, independent of obesity and metabolic syndrome, in adolescents.
- An Overview of the Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trials of Chinese Herbal Medicine Formula Granules. [Review]
- EBEvid Based Complement Alternat Med 2019; 2019:6486293
- CONCLUSIONS: 16 of 19 studies treated by CHM granules only showed positive result in 7 diseases and negative result in 1 disease. 17 of 21 studies treated by combination therapy against conventional therapy showed positive result in 6 diseases and negative result in 3 diseases. However, both the absolute and relative effectiveness of CHM formula granules compared with placebo need to be considered clinically.
- FTY720/Fingolimod Decreases Hepatic Steatosis and Expression of Fatty Acid Synthase in Diet-Induced Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Mice. [Journal Article]
- JLJ Lipid Res 2019 May 20
- Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a leading cause of liver dysfunction, is a metabolic disease that begins with steatosis. Sphingolipid metabolites, particularly ceramide and sphingosine-1-p…
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a leading cause of liver dysfunction, is a metabolic disease that begins with steatosis. Sphingolipid metabolites, particularly ceramide and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), have recently received attention for their potential roles in insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis. FTY720/Fingolimod, a pro-drug for treatment of multiple sclerosis, is phosphorylated in vivo to its active phosphorylated form by sphingosine kinase 2 and has been shown to interfere with the actions of S1P and to inhibit ceramide biosynthesis. Therefore, in this study we investigated the effects of FTY720 in a diet-induced animal model of NAFLD (DIAMOND) that recapitulates the hallmarks of the human disease. Oral administration of FTY720 to these mice fed a high fat diet and sugar water, improved glucose tolerance and reduced steatosis. In addition to decreasing liver triglycerides, FTY720 also reduced hepatic sphingolipid levels, including ceramides, monohexosylceramides, and sphingomyelins, particularly the C16:0, and C24:1 species, as well as S1P and dihydro-S1P. FTY720 administration decreased diet-induced fatty acid synthase (FAS) expression in DIAMOND mice without affecting other key enzymes in lipogenesis. FTY720 had no effect on expression of SREBP-1c, which transcriptionally activates FASN. However, in agreement with the notion that the active phosphorylated form of FTY720 is an inhibitor of histone deacetylases, FTY720-P accumulated in the liver and histone H3K9 acetylation was markedly increased in these mice. Hence, FTY720 might be useful to attenuate FASN expression and triglyceride accumulation associated with steatosis.
- The cGAS-cGAMP-STING Pathway: A Molecular Link Between Immunity and Metabolism. [Journal Article]
- DDiabetes 2019; 68(6):1099-1108
- It has been appreciated for many years that there is a strong association between metabolism and immunity in advanced metazoan organisms. Distinct immune signatures and signaling pathways have been f…
It has been appreciated for many years that there is a strong association between metabolism and immunity in advanced metazoan organisms. Distinct immune signatures and signaling pathways have been found not only in immune but also in metabolic cells. The newly discovered DNA-sensing cGAS-cGAMP-STING pathway mediates type I interferon inflammatory responses in immune cells to defend against viral and bacterial infections. Recent studies show that this pathway is also activated by host DNA aberrantly localized in the cytosol, contributing to increased sterile inflammation, insulin resistance, and the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Potential interactions of the cGAS-cGAMP-STING pathway with mTORC1 signaling, autophagy, and apoptosis have been reported, suggesting an important role of the cGAS-cGAMP-STING pathway in the networking and coordination of these important biological processes. However, the regulation, mechanism of action, and tissue-specific role of the cGAS-cGAMP-STING signaling pathway in metabolic disorders remain largely elusive. It is also unclear whether targeting this signaling pathway is effective for the prevention and treatment of obesity-induced metabolic diseases. Answers to these questions would provide new insights for developing effective therapeutic interventions for metabolic diseases such as insulin resistance, NAFLD, and type 2 diabetes.
- Dietary Carotenoids and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease among US Adults, NHANES 2003⁻2014. [Journal Article]
- NNutrients 2019 May 17; 11(5)
- Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is highly prevalent worldwide. Oxidative stress is thought to be a major mechanism, and previous epidemiological studies found higher serum levels of antioxi…
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is highly prevalent worldwide. Oxidative stress is thought to be a major mechanism, and previous epidemiological studies found higher serum levels of antioxidant carotenoids were associated with reduced risk for development and progression of NAFLD. The objective of this analysis is to examine cross-sectional associations between dietary and serum levels of carotenoids in relation to NAFLD among a nationally representative sample of US adults. We used data from the 2003-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Dietary carotenoid intake was estimated from a 24-hour recall, while serum carotenoids were measured from 2003 to 2006. The NAFLD status was determined based upon US Fatty Liver Index (FLI) value ≥30. Regression models were used to estimate associations between carotenoids and NAFLD by controlling for covariates and adjusting for survey design variables. Overall, 33% of participants were classified as having NAFLD. Intake of all carotenoids, with the exception of lycopene, was lower among those with NAFLD. This association was significant for the highest quartiles of intake of α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, and lutein/zeaxanthin. For serum measures, the highest level of all carotenoids was associated with significantly reduced odds of NAFLD. In conclusion, higher intake and serum levels of most carotenoids were associated with lower odds of having NAFLD. Identification of such modifiable lifestyle factors provide an opportunity to limit or prevent the disease and its progression.
- Fast Morphological Gallbladder Changes Triggered by a Hypercholesterolemic Diet. [Journal Article]
- AHAnn Hepatol 2018 Sep - Oct; 17(5):857-863
- CONCLUSIONS: Cholesterol overloads not only trigger hepatic damage, but also affect the gallbladder significantly.
- Thyroid Function and Risk of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Euthyroid Subjects. [Journal Article]
- AHAnn Hepatol 2018 Sep - Oct; 17(5):779-788
- CONCLUSIONS: Among the euthyroid population, FT3 and TSH levels were positively associated with the risk of NAFLD.
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- Salidroside and Curcumin Formula Prevents Liver Injury in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Rats. [Journal Article]
- AHAnn Hepatol 2018 Sep - Oct; 17(5):769-778
- CONCLUSIONS: SC formula could ameliorate the injury caused by high fat diet. The effect was likely mediated via its influence on insulin resistance, lipid peroxidation injury and AMPK signaling pathway.