- The Effect of Inhalant Organic Dust on Bone Health. [Review]
- CACurr Allergy Asthma Rep 2018 Feb 22; 18(3):16
- Agriculture remains a major economic sector globally, and workers experience high rates of chronic inflammatory lung and musculoskeletal diseases. Whereas obstructive pulmonary diseases are known ris...
Agriculture remains a major economic sector globally, and workers experience high rates of chronic inflammatory lung and musculoskeletal diseases. Whereas obstructive pulmonary diseases are known risk factors for bone loss, the underlying relationship between lung inflammation and bone health is not well known.
- Urban-Rural County and State Differences in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease - United States, 2015. [Journal Article]
- MMMMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2018 Feb 23; 67(7):205-211
- Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) accounts for the majority of deaths from chronic lower respiratory diseases, the third leading cause of death in the United States in 2015 and the fourth ...
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) accounts for the majority of deaths from chronic lower respiratory diseases, the third leading cause of death in the United States in 2015 and the fourth leading cause in 2016.* Major risk factors include tobacco exposure, occupational and environmental exposures, respiratory infections, and genetics.†State variations in COPD outcomes (1) suggest that it might be more common in states with large rural areas. To assess urban-rural variations in COPD prevalence, hospitalizations, and mortality; obtain county-level estimates; and update state-level variations in COPD measures, CDC analyzed 2015 data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), Medicare hospital records, and death certificate data from the National Vital Statistics System (NVSS). Overall, 15.5 million adults aged ≥18 years (5.9% age-adjusted prevalence) reported ever receiving a diagnosis of COPD; there were approximately 335,000 Medicare hospitalizations (11.5 per 1,000 Medicare enrollees aged ≥65 years) and 150,350 deaths in which COPD was listed as the underlying cause for persons of all ages (40.3 per 100,000 population). COPD prevalence, Medicare hospitalizations, and deaths were significantly higher among persons living in rural areas than among those living in micropolitan or metropolitan areas. Among seven states in the highest quartile for all three measures, Arkansas, Kentucky, Mississippi, and West Virginia were also in the upper quartile (≥18%) for rural residents. Overcoming barriers to prevention, early diagnosis, treatment, and management of COPD with primary care provider education, Internet access, physical activity and self-management programs, and improved access to pulmonary rehabilitation and oxygen therapy are needed to improve quality of life and reduce COPD mortality.
- Physiological responses to arm versus leg activity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review protocol. [Journal Article]
- BOBMJ Open 2018 Feb 21; 8(2):e019942
- Compared with healthy older adults, people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have reduced capacity and increased symptoms during leg and arm activities. While the mechanisms underlyin...
Compared with healthy older adults, people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have reduced capacity and increased symptoms during leg and arm activities. While the mechanisms underlying limitations and symptoms during leg activities have been investigated in detail, limitations and symptoms during arm activities are not well understood, and the potential differences between physiological responses of leg and arm activities have not been systematically synthesised. Determining physiological responses and symptoms of arm activities compared with physiological responses and symptoms of leg activities will help us understand the mechanisms behind the difficulties that people with COPD experience when performing physical activities, and determine how exercise training should be prescribed. Thus, the aim of this systematic review is to compare the physiological responses and symptoms during activities involving the arms relative to activities involving the legs in people diagnosed with COPD.
- [DGP Interstitial Lung Disease Patient Questionnaire]. [Journal Article]
- PPneumologie 2018 Feb 21
- CONCLUSIONS: The newly developed questionnaire can facilitate the diagnosis in patients with suspicion on interstitial lung disease in clinical routine.
- Associations between Ambient Particulate Matter and Nitrogen Dioxide and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases in Adults and Effect Modification by Demographic and Lifestyle Factors. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Environ Res Public Health 2018 Feb 19; 15(2)
- This study was undertaken to investigate the associations between chronic exposure to particulate matter of medium aerodynamic diameter ≤10 or ≤2.5 µm (PM10or PM2.5) and nitrogen dioxide (NO₂) levels...
This study was undertaken to investigate the associations between chronic exposure to particulate matter of medium aerodynamic diameter ≤10 or ≤2.5 µm (PM10or PM2.5) and nitrogen dioxide (NO₂) levels and lung function and to examine a possible change in these relationships by demographic and lifestyle factors. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was defined using the Global Initiative for COPD criteria (forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) of <70%). Associations of lung function and COPD with PM10or PM2.5or NO₂ were examined using linear and logistic regression analyses among 1264 Korean adults. The highest tertiles of PM2.5(≥37.1 μg/m³) and NO₂ (≥53.8 μg/m³) exposure were significantly associated with COPD (highest versus lowest tertile of PM2.5: adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.79, 95% CI: 1.02-3.13; highest versus lowest tertile of NO₂: adjusted OR = 1.83, 95% CI: 1.04-3.21). A 10 μg/m³ increase in PM10concentration was associated with a 1.85 L (95% CI -3.65 to -0.05) decrease in FEV1 and a 1.73 L (95% CI -3.35 to -0.12) decrease in FVC, with the strongest negative association among older people and those with less education. Reduced lung function was associated with PM2.5exposure in subjects with no physical activity. This study provides evidence that exposure to ambient air pollution has adverse effects on lung function in adults.
- Occupational exposure to pesticides is associated with differential DNA methylation. [Journal Article]
- OEOccup Environ Med 2018 Feb 19
- CONCLUSIONS: We show for the first time that occupational exposure to pesticides is genome-wide associated with differential DNA methylation. Further research should reveal whether this differential methylation plays a role in the airway disease pathogenesis induced by pesticides.
- A Large-Scale Multi-ancestry Genome-wide Study Accounting for Smoking Behavior Identifies Multiple Significant Loci for Blood Pressure. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Hum Genet 2018 Feb 13
- Genome-wide association analysis advanced understanding of blood pressure (BP), a major risk factor for vascular conditions such as coronary heart disease and stroke. Accounting for smoking behavior ...
Genome-wide association analysis advanced understanding of blood pressure (BP), a major risk factor for vascular conditions such as coronary heart disease and stroke. Accounting for smoking behavior may help identify BP loci and extend our knowledge of its genetic architecture. We performed genome-wide association meta-analyses of systolic and diastolic BP incorporating gene-smoking interactions in 610,091 individuals. Stage 1 analysis examined ∼18.8 million SNPs and small insertion/deletion variants in 129,913 individuals from four ancestries (European, African, Asian, and Hispanic) with follow-up analysis of promising variants in 480,178 additional individuals from five ancestries. We identified 15 loci that were genome-wide significant (p < 5 × 10-8) in stage 1 and formally replicated in stage 2. A combined stage 1 and 2 meta-analysis identified 66 additional genome-wide significant loci (13, 35, and 18 loci in European, African, and trans-ancestry, respectively). A total of 56 known BP loci were also identified by our results (p < 5 × 10-8). Of the newly identified loci, ten showed significant interaction with smoking status, but none of them were replicated in stage 2. Several loci were identified in African ancestry, highlighting the importance of genetic studies in diverse populations. The identified loci show strong evidence for regulatory features and support shared pathophysiology with cardiometabolic and addiction traits. They also highlight a role in BP regulation for biological candidates such as modulators of vascular structure and function (CDKN1B, BCAR1-CFDP1, PXDN, EEA1), ciliopathies (SDCCAG8, RPGRIP1L), telomere maintenance (TNKS, PINX1, AKTIP), and central dopaminergic signaling (MSRA, EBF2).
- Cleaning at Home and at Work in Relation to Lung Function Decline and Airway Obstruction. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Respir Crit Care Med 2018 Feb 16
- CONCLUSIONS: Women cleaning at home or working as occupational cleaners had accelerated decline in lung function, suggesting that exposures related to cleaning activities may constitute a risk to long-term respiratory health.
- Disease characteristics and management of hospitalised adolescents and adults with community-acquired pneumonia in China: a retrospective multicentre survey. [Journal Article]
- BOBMJ Open 2018 02 15; 8(2):e018709
- CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrated the overuse of health resources in CAP management, indicating that there is potential for improvement and substantial savings to healthcare systems in China.
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- Low uptake of palliative care for COPD patients within primary care in the UK. [Journal Article]
- EREur Respir J 2018; 51(2)
- Mortality and symptom burden from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer are similar but there is thought to be an inequality in palliative care support (PCS) between diseases. ...
Mortality and symptom burden from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer are similar but there is thought to be an inequality in palliative care support (PCS) between diseases. This nationally representative study assessed PCS for COPD patients within primary care in the UK.This was a cohort study using electronic healthcare records (2004-2015). Factors associated with receiving PCS were assessed using logistic regression for the whole cohort and deceased patients.There were 92 365 eligible COPD patients, of which 26 135 died. Only 7.8% of the whole cohort and 21.4% of deceased patients received PCS. Lung cancer had a strong association with PCS compared with other patient characteristics, including Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stage and Medical Research Council Dyspnoea score (whole cohort, lung cancer: OR 14.1, 95% CI 13.1-15; deceased patients, lung cancer: OR 6.5, 95% CI 6-7). Only 16.7% of deceased COPD patients without lung cancer received PCS compared with 56.5% of deceased patients with lung cancer. In patients that received PCS, lung cancer co-diagnosis significantly increased the chances of receiving PCS before the last month of life (1-6versus≤1 month pre-death: risk ratio 1.4, 95% CI 1.3-1.7).Provision of PCS for COPD patients in the UK is inadequate. Lung cancer, not COPD, was the dominant driver for COPD patients to receive PCS.