- Airflow obstruction among ever-employed U.S. adults aged 18-79 years by industry and occupation: NHANES 2007-2008 to 2011-2012. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Ind Med 2018 Dec 05
- CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of airflow obstruction varies by industry and occupation. Industries and occupations with increased risk were identified using the most current NHANES data including detailed occupations and spirometry.
- Mitochondrial functioning abnormalities observed in blood platelets of chronic smoke-exposed guinea pigs - a pilot study. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis 2018; 13:3707-3717
- CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest increased proton and electron leak and decreased electron transfer system capacity in platelets from chronic smoke-exposed animals. These observations may also indicate that platelets play an important role in the pathobiology of COPD and its comorbidities and may serve as a background for possible therapeutic targeting. However, these preliminary outcomes should be further validated in studies based on larger samples.
- [COPD due to Occupational Noxae]. [Journal Article]
- PPneumologie 2018 Dec 03
- The chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterised by mainly non-reversible bronchial obstruction with airflow limitation. Typically, it exhibits a progressive course. It is one of the...
The chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterised by mainly non-reversible bronchial obstruction with airflow limitation. Typically, it exhibits a progressive course. It is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In addition to dominating causative smoking and environmental exposures (especially biomass smoke from cooking with open fire stoves), about 15 % are due to occupational exposure. Relatively rare cases (ca. 6 %) do not show an external noxious influence. Occupational causes are frequently not recognised because a detailed occupational history has not been taken. This is especially evident by the discrepancy in the identified COPD prevalences and incidences shown in many studies on the one hand and relatively low numbers in the official statistics on reports, acknowledgements and compensations of the disorder on the other hand. Whether occupational exposures to inhalative noxae are - in addition to non-occupational factors (e. g. smoking) - causative according to legal definitions is frequently a challenging question. Respective decisions of social courts in litigations are presented.
- Clinical relevance of guanine-derived urinary biomarkers of oxidative stress, determined by LC-MS/MS. [Journal Article]
- RBRedox Biol 2018 Nov 26; 20:556-565
- A reliable and fast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of three oxidized nucleic acid damage products in urine, 8-oxoguanine (...
A reliable and fast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of three oxidized nucleic acid damage products in urine, 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoGua), 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodGuo) and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanosine (8-oxoGuo). We applied this method to assess the effect of various urine workup procedures on the urinary concentrations of the oxidized nucleic acid products. Our results showed that frozen urine samples must be warmed (i.e., to 37 °C) to re-dissolve any precipitates prior to analysis. We showed that common workup procedures, such as thawing at room temperature or dilution with deionized water, are not capable of releasing fully the oxidized nucleic acid products from the precipitates, and result in significant underestimation (up to ~ 100% for 8-oxoGua, ~ 86% for both 8-oxodGuo and 8-oxoGuo). With this method, we further assessed and compared the ability of the three oxidized nucleic acid products, as well as malondialdehyde (MDA, a product of lipid peroxidation), to biomonitor oxidative stress in vivo. We measured a total of 315 urine samples from subjects with burdens of oxidative stress from low to high, including healthy subjects, patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and patients on mechanical ventilation (MV). The results showed that both the MV and COPD patients had significantly higher urinary levels of 8-oxoGua, 8-oxodGuo, and 8-oxoGuo (P < 0.001), but lower MDA levels, compared to healthy controls. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed that urinary 8-oxoGuo is the most sensitive biomarker for oxidative stress with area under the curve (AUC) of 0.91, followed by 8-oxodGuo (AUC: 0.80) and 8-oxoGua (AUC: 0.76). Interestingly, MDA with AUC of 0.34 failed to discriminate the patients from healthy controls. Emerging evidence suggests a potential clinical utility for the measurement of urinary 8-oxoGuo, and to a lesser extent 8-oxodGuo, which is strongly supported by our findings.
- Impact of occupational exposure on human microbiota. [Journal Article]
- COCurr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 2018 Nov 29
- CONCLUSIONS: An emerging body of literature shows that work-related exposures can change the human microbiome. The health effects of these changes are currently not well studied. If work exposures lead to disease through alterations in the human microbiome, exposure cessation without addressing changes to the human microbiome may be ineffective for disease prevention and treatment.
- Outcomes after Lung Transplantation for Patients with Occupational Lung Diseases. [Journal Article]
- CTClin Transplant 2018 Dec 02; :e13460
- Occupational lung diseases (OLD) including silicosis, asbestosis, and pneumoconiosis progress to end stage lung disease requiring lung transplantation (LT). Prognosis and treatment of OLDs are poorly...
Occupational lung diseases (OLD) including silicosis, asbestosis, and pneumoconiosis progress to end stage lung disease requiring lung transplantation (LT). Prognosis and treatment of OLDs are poorly understood and a paucity of data exists regarding LT outcomes. Additionally, transplant operative complexity for patients with OLD is high. A single center retrospective review of all single and bilateral LT recipients between May 2005 and Oct 2016 was performed. Patients were grouped by OLD, and nearest neighbor matching was performed at a ratio of 1:3 cases to controls. Thirty cases were matched to 88 controls. Seventeen patients (57%) with OLD required intraoperative support with either extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) or cardiopulmonary bypass (p=0.02), and 5 (17%) required delayed chest closure (p=0.05) which was more frequent than matched controls. In addition, operative time was significantly longer in patients with OLD (p=0.03). Despite these factors, there were no significant differences in immediate post-operative outcomes including mechanical ventilator support, post-operative ECMO, and tracheostomy. Chronic lung allograft dysfunction and long-term survival were also similar between cases and controls. OLDs should not preclude LT. The operation should be performed at experienced centers. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Management of broncholithiasis. [Review]
- JTJ Thorac Dis 2018; 10(Suppl 28):S3419-S3427
- Broncholithiasis is a condition in which calcified material has entered the tracheobronchial tree, at times causing airway obstruction and inflammation. Broncholiths generally originate as calcified ...
Broncholithiasis is a condition in which calcified material has entered the tracheobronchial tree, at times causing airway obstruction and inflammation. Broncholiths generally originate as calcified material in mediastinal lymph nodes that subsequently erode into adjacent airways, often as a result of prior granulomatous infection. Disease manifestations range from asymptomatic stones in the airway to life-threatening complications, including massive hemoptysis and post-obstructive pneumonia. Radiographic imaging, particularly computed tomography scanning of the chest, is integral in the evaluation of suspected broncholithiasis and can be helpful to assess involvement of adjacent structures, including vasculature, prior to any planned intervention. Management strategies largely depend on the severity of disease. Observation is warranted in asymptomatic cases, while therapeutic bronchoscopy and surgical interventions may be necessary for cases involving complications. Bronchoscopic extraction is often feasible in cases in which the broncholith is freely mobile within the airway, whereas partially-embedded broncholiths represent additional challenges. Surgical intervention is indicated for advanced cases deemed not amenable to endoscopic management. Complex cases involving complications such as massive hemoptysis and/or bronchomediastinal fistula formation are best managed with a multidisciplinary approach, utilizing expertise from fields such as pulmonology, radiology, and thoracic surgery.
- New Spirometry Indices for Detecting Mild Airflow Obstruction. [Journal Article]
- SRSci Rep 2018 Nov 30; 8(1):17484
- The diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) relies on demonstration of airflow obstruction. Traditional spirometric indices miss a number of subjects with respiratory symptoms or st...
The diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) relies on demonstration of airflow obstruction. Traditional spirometric indices miss a number of subjects with respiratory symptoms or structural lung disease on imaging. We hypothesized that utilizing all data points on the expiratory spirometry curves to assess their shape will improve detection of mild airflow obstruction and structural lung disease. We analyzed spirometry data of 8307 participants enrolled in the COPDGene study, and derived metrics of airflow obstruction based on the shape on the volume-time (Parameter D), and flow-volume curves (Transition Point and Transition Distance). We tested associations of these parameters with CT measures of lung disease, respiratory morbidity, and mortality using regression analyses. There were significant correlations between FEV1/FVC with Parameter D (r = -0.83; p < 0.001), Transition Point (r = 0.69; p < 0.001), and Transition Distance (r = 0.50; p < 0.001). All metrics had significant associations with emphysema, small airway disease, dyspnea, and respiratory-quality of life (p < 0.001). The highest quartile for Parameter D was independently associated with all-cause mortality (adjusted HR 3.22,95% CI 2.42-4.27; p < 0.001) but a substantial number of participants in the highest quartile were categorized as GOLD 0 and 1 by traditional criteria (1.8% and 33.7%). Parameter D identified an additional 9.5% of participants with mild or non-recognized disease as abnormal with greater burden of structural lung disease compared with controls. The data points on the flow-volume and volume-time curves can be used to derive indices of airflow obstruction that identify additional subjects with disease who are deemed to be normal by traditional criteria.
- NIOSH's Respiratory Health Division: 50 years of science and service. [Journal Article]
- AEArch Environ Occup Health 2018 Dec 02; :1-15
- The year 2017 marked the 50th anniversary of NIOSH's Respiratory Health Division (RHD). RHD began in 1967 as the Appalachian Laboratory for Occupational Respiratory Diseases (ALFORD), with a focus on...
The year 2017 marked the 50th anniversary of NIOSH's Respiratory Health Division (RHD). RHD began in 1967 as the Appalachian Laboratory for Occupational Respiratory Diseases (ALFORD), with a focus on coal workers' pneumoconiosis. ALFORD became part of NIOSH in 1971 and added activities to address work-related respiratory disease more generally. Health hazard evaluations played an important role in understanding novel respiratory hazards such as nylon flock, diacetyl, and indium-tin oxide. Epidemiologic and laboratory studies addressed many respiratory hazards, including coal mine dust, silica, asbestos, cotton dust, beryllium, diesel exhaust, and dampness and mold. Surveillance activities tracked the burden of diseases and enhanced the quality of spirometry and chest radiography used to screen workers. RHD's efforts to improve scientific understanding, inform strategies for prevention, and disseminate knowledge remain important now and for the future.
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- Transient receptor potential ion channels mediate adherens junctions dysfunction in a toluene diisocyanate-induced murine asthma model. [Journal Article]
- TSToxicol Sci 2018 Dec 04
- Disruption of epithelial cell-cell junctions is essential for the initiation and perpetuation of airway inflammation in asthma. We've previously reported compromised epithelial barrier integrity in a...
Disruption of epithelial cell-cell junctions is essential for the initiation and perpetuation of airway inflammation in asthma. We've previously reported compromised epithelial barrier integrity in a toluene diisocyanate (TDI)-induced occupational asthma model. This study is aimed to explore the role of transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) and transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) in the dysfunction of adherens junctions in TDI-induced asthma. Mice were sensitized and challenged with TDI for a chemical-induced asthma model. Selective blockers of TRPV4 (GSK2193874, 5 and 10 mg/kg) and TRPA1 (HC030031, 10 and 20 mg/kg) were intraperitoneally given to the mice. Immunohistochemistry revealed different expression pattern of TRPV4 and TRPA1 in lung. TDI exposure increased TRPV4 expression in the airway, which can be suppressed by GSK2193874, while treatment with neither TDI alone nor TDI together with HC030031 led to changes of TRPA1 expression in the lung. Blocking either TRPV4 or TRPA1 blunted TDI-induced airway hyperreactivity, airway neutrophilia and eosinophilia, as well as Th2 responses in a dose-dependent manner. At the same time, membrane levels of E-cadherin and β-catenin were significantly decreased after TDI inhalation, which were inhibited by GSK2193874 or HC030031. Moreover, GSK2193874 and HC030031 also suppressed serine phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase 3β, tyrosine phosphorylation of β-catenin, as well as activation and nuclear transport of β-catenin in mice sensitized and challenged with TDI. Our study suggested that both TRPV4 and TRPA1 contribute critically to E-cadherin and β-catenin dysfunction in TDI-induced asthma, proposing novel therapeutic targets for asthma.