- Air pollution exposure during pregnancy and symptoms of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder in children in Europe. [Journal Article]
- EEpidemiology 2018 Jun 19
- CONCLUSIONS: There was no evidence for an increase in risk of ADHD symptoms with increasing prenatal air pollution levels in children aged 3 to 10 years.
- Recruitment of patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) for research. [Journal Article]
- NPNPJ Prim Care Respir Med 2018 Jun 19; 28(1):21
- Databases of electronic health records (EHR) are not only a valuable source of data for health research but have also recently been used as a medium through which potential study participants can be ...
Databases of electronic health records (EHR) are not only a valuable source of data for health research but have also recently been used as a medium through which potential study participants can be screened, located and approached to take part in research. The aim was to assess whether it is feasible and practical to screen, locate and approach patients to take part in research through the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD). This is a cohort study in primary care. The CPRD anonymised EHR database was searched to screen patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) to take part in a research study. The potential participants were contacted via their General Practitioner (GP) who confirmed their eligibility. Eighty two practices across Greater London were invited to the study. Twenty-six (31.7%) practices consented to participate resulting in a pre-screened list of 988 patients. Of these, 632 (63.7%) were confirmed as eligible following the GP review. Two hundred twenty seven (36%) response forms were received by the study team; 79 (34.8%) responded 'yes' (i.e., they wanted to be contacted by the research assistant for more information and to talk about enrolling in the study), and 148 (65.2%) declined participation. This study has shown that it is possible to use EHR databases such as CPRD to screen, locate and recruit participants for research. This method provides access to a cohort of patients while minimising input needed by GPs and allows researchers to examine healthcare usage and disease burden in more detail and in real-life settings.
- Similar and Differential Canonical Pathways and Biological Processes Associated With Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube and Asbestos-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis: A 1-Year Postexposure Study. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Toxicol 2018 Jan 01; :1091581818779038
- Respiratory exposure to multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) or asbestos results in fibrosis; however, the mechanisms to reach this end point may be different. A previous study by our group identifie...
Respiratory exposure to multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) or asbestos results in fibrosis; however, the mechanisms to reach this end point may be different. A previous study by our group identified pulmonary effects and significantly altered messenger RNA (mRNA) signaling pathways following exposure to 1, 10, 40, and 80 µg MWCNT and 120 µg crocidolite asbestos on mouse lungs over time at 1-month, 6-month, and 1-year postexposure following pulmonary aspiration. As a continuation to the above study, this current study took an in-depth look at the signaling pathways involved in fibrosis development at a single time point, 1 year, and exposure, 40 µg MWCNT, the lowest exposure at which fibrosis was pathologically evident. The 120 µg asbestos exposure was included to compare MWCNT-induced fibrosis with asbestos-induced fibrosis. A previously validated computational model was used to identify mRNAs with expression profiles matching the fibrosis pathology patterns from exposed mouse lungs. mRNAs that matched the pathology patterns were then input into ingenuity pathway analysis to determine potential signaling pathways and physiological disease functions inherent to MWCNT and asbestos exposure. Both MWCNT and asbestos exposure induced changes in mouse lungs regarding gene expression, cell proliferation, and survival, while MWCNT uniquely induced alterations in pathways involved in oxidative phosphorylation, mitochondrial dysfunction, and transcription. Asbestos exposure produced unique alterations in pathways involved in sustained inflammation. Although typically considered similar due to scale and fiber-like appearance, the different compositional properties inherent to either MWCNT or asbestos may play a role in their ability to induce fibrosis after pulmonary exposure.
- Novel genetic associations for blood pressure identified via gene-alcohol interaction in up to 570K individuals across multiple ancestries. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2018; 13(6):e0198166
- Heavy alcohol consumption is an established risk factor for hypertension; the mechanism by which alcohol consumption impact blood pressure (BP) regulation remains unknown. We hypothesized that a geno...
Heavy alcohol consumption is an established risk factor for hypertension; the mechanism by which alcohol consumption impact blood pressure (BP) regulation remains unknown. We hypothesized that a genome-wide association study accounting for gene-alcohol consumption interaction for BP might identify additional BP loci and contribute to the understanding of alcohol-related BP regulation. We conducted a large two-stage investigation incorporating joint testing of main genetic effects and single nucleotide variant (SNV)-alcohol consumption interactions. In Stage 1, genome-wide discovery meta-analyses in ≈131K individuals across several ancestry groups yielded 3,514 SNVs (245 loci) with suggestive evidence of association (P < 1.0 x 10-5). In Stage 2, these SNVs were tested for independent external replication in ≈440K individuals across multiple ancestries. We identified and replicated (at Bonferroni correction threshold) five novel BP loci (380 SNVs in 21 genes) and 49 previously reported BP loci (2,159 SNVs in 109 genes) in European ancestry, and in multi-ancestry meta-analyses (P < 5.0 x 10-8). For African ancestry samples, we detected 18 potentially novel BP loci (P < 5.0 x 10-8) in Stage 1 that warrant further replication. Additionally, correlated meta-analysis identified eight novel BP loci (11 genes). Several genes in these loci (e.g., PINX1, GATA4, BLK, FTO and GABBR2) have been previously reported to be associated with alcohol consumption. These findings provide insights into the role of alcohol consumption in the genetic architecture of hypertension.
- Lung disease associated with occupational styrene exposure. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Ind Med 2018 Jun 13
- Despite reports of pulmonary toxicity due to styrene, guidelines on acceptable styrene exposure levels have been based on risk of cancer and central nervous system and liver toxicity and not on respi...
Despite reports of pulmonary toxicity due to styrene, guidelines on acceptable styrene exposure levels have been based on risk of cancer and central nervous system and liver toxicity and not on respiratory effects. Many reports have linked exposure to styrene vapor in occupational settings to various forms of non-malignant pulmonary disorders including bronchiolitis, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, and occupational asthma. We report two cases in which the same tasks performed in a single workplace resulted in exposure to styrene vapor with subsequent development of acute respiratory symptoms associated with impaired gas exchange and imaging and histopathologic findings consistent with bronchiolitis and organizing pneumonia. Both patients gradually recovered once their workplace exposure to styrene was terminated. Clinicians, employers, and insurers should be aware of the potential for pulmonary toxicity from exposure to styrene.
- Acute effects of combined exercise and oscillatory positive expiratory pressure therapy on sputum properties and lung diffusing capacity in cystic fibrosis: a randomized, controlled, crossover trial. [Journal Article]
- BPBMC Pulm Med 2018 Jun 14; 18(1):99
- CONCLUSIONS: The additional use of the Flutter® to moderate intensity interval cycling exercise has no measurable effect on the viscoelastic properties of sputum compared to moderate intensity continuous cycling alone. Elevations in diffusing capacity represent an acute exercise-induced effect not sustained post-exercise.
- Epidemiology of nontuberculous mycobacterial infections in the U.S. Veterans Health Administration. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2018; 13(6):e0197976
- CONCLUSIONS: In VHA, pulmonary NTM disease is commonly associated with COPD, with the highest rates in the southeastern US. After adjustment, NTM patients had more clinic visits and greater mortality compared to matched patients.
- Childhood Respiratory Risk Factor Profiles, Their Interactions and Mediators, and Middle-age Lung Function: A Prospective Cohort Study from the 1st to 6th Decade. [Journal Article]
- AAAnn Am Thorac Soc 2018 Jun 12
- CONCLUSIONS: Profiles of childhood respiratory risk factors predict middle-age lung function and COPD risk. Adult active asthma is a dominant mediator in associations between childhood asthma-related risk profiles and middle-age lung function/COPD. Specifically, children with frequent asthma attacks and allergies, especially if they also become adult smokers, are the most vulnerable group that should be targeted for interventions.
- Determinants of persistent asthma in young adults. [Journal Article]
- ECEur Clin Respir J 2018; 5(1):1478593
- Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate determinants for the prognosis of asthma in a population-based cohort of young adults. Design: The study was a nine-year clinical follow up of 239 as...
Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate determinants for the prognosis of asthma in a population-based cohort of young adults. Design: The study was a nine-year clinical follow up of 239 asthmatic subjects from an enriched population-based sample of 1,191 young adults, aged 20-44 years, who participated in an interviewer-administered questionnaire and clinical examination at baseline in 2003-2006. From the interview, an asthma score was generated as the simple sum of affirmative answers to five main asthma-like symptoms in order to analyse symptoms of asthma as a continuum. The clinical examination comprised spirometry, bronchial challenge or bronchodilation, and skin prick test. Results: Among the 239 individuals with asthma at baseline 164 (69%) had persistent asthma at follow up, while 68 (28%) achieved remission of asthma and seven (3%) were diagnosed with COPD solely. Determinants for persistent asthma were use of medication for breathing within the last 12 months: Short-acting beta-adrenoceptor agonists (SABA) only (OR 3.39; 95%CI: 1.47-7.82) and inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and/or long-acting beta-adrenoceptor agonists (LABA) (8.95; 3.87-20.69). Stratified by age of onset determinants for persistence in individuals with early-onset asthma (age less than 16 years) were FEV₁ below predicted (7.12; 1.61-31.50), asthma score at baseline (2.06; 1.15-3.68) and use of ICS and/or LABA within 12 months (9.87; 1.95-49.98). In individuals with late-onset asthma the determinant was use of ICS and/or LABA within 12 months (6.84; 2.09-22.37). Conclusions: Pulmonary function below predicted, severity of disease expressed by asthma score and use of ICS and/or LABA were all determinants for persistent early-onset asthma, whereas only use of ICS and/or LABA was a determinant in late-onset asthma. A high asthma score indicated insufficient disease control in a substantial proportion of these young adults.
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- Outdoor air pollution, green space, and cancer incidence in Saxony: a semi-individual cohort study. [Journal Article]
- BPBMC Public Health 2018 Jun 08; 18(1):715
- CONCLUSIONS: In addition to the studies carried out so far, this study was able to provide evidence that higher ambient AP levels increase the risk of mouth and throat cancer as well as of NMSC and that a higher residential green space level might have a protective effect for NMSC in areas with low to moderate UV intensity. Nevertheless, we cannot rule out residual confounding by socioeconomic or smoking status.