- Lofexidine versus diazepam for the treatment of opioid withdrawal syndrome: A double-blind randomized clinical trial in Singapore. [Journal Article]
- JSJ Subst Abuse Treat 2018; 91:1-11
- CONCLUSIONS: Lofexidine was at least as effective as diazepam in reducing the opioid withdrawal syndrome and increased treatment retention. In addition to its non-addictive and non-abuse properties, lofexidine has several clinical advantages over diazepam. The use of lofexidine is recommended when opioid-assisted medications are not available.
- Ultrasound-Guided Percutaneous Peripheral Nerve Stimulation: Neuromodulation of the Sciatic Nerve for Postoperative Analgesia Following Ambulatory Foot Surgery, a Proof-of-Concept Study. [Journal Article]
- RAReg Anesth Pain Med 2018 Jun 13
- CONCLUSIONS: This proof-of-concept study demonstrates that percutaneous sciatic nerve PNS is feasible for ambulatory foot surgery and suggests that this modality provides analgesia and decreases opioid requirements following hallux valgus procedures. However, lead dislodgement and fracture are concerns.
- Emotion recognition and its relation to prefrontal function and network in heroin plus nicotine dependence: a pilot study. [Journal Article]
- NNeurophotonics 2018; 5(2):025011
- Many patients with substance use disorders (SUDs) live in a stressful environment, and comorbidity is not uncommon. Understanding the neural mechanisms underlying heroin and nicotine dependences and ...
Many patients with substance use disorders (SUDs) live in a stressful environment, and comorbidity is not uncommon. Understanding the neural mechanisms underlying heroin and nicotine dependences and their relationships to social cognition could facilitate behavioral therapy efficacy. We aimed to provide a translational approach that leads to identifying potential biomarkers for opioid use disorder (OUD) susceptibility during recovery. We examined the clinical characters and the relationships between theory of mind (ToM) and executive functions in three groups: heroin plus nicotine-dependent (HND) patients who had remained heroin abstinent ( ≥ 3 months), nicotine-dependent (ND) subjects, and healthy controls (C). The domains included emotion recognition, inhibition, shifting, updating, access, and processing speed. Resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC), ToM task-induced functional connectivity, and brain networks were then explored among 21 matched subjects using functional near-infrared spectroscopy. HND enhanced the severities of anxiety, depression, and hyperactivity. Inhibition domain was impaired in both HND and ND. No impairment in domains of emotion recognition, access, and update was observed. HND demonstrated enhanced rsFC in the medial prefrontal cortex and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and decreased ToM-induced connectivity across the PFC. The right superior frontal gyrus in the OFC (oSFG; x = 22 , y = 77 , and z = 6 ) was associated with working memory and emotion recognition in HND. Using a neuroimaging tool, these results supported the prominent reward-deficit-and-stress-surfeit hypothesis in SUDs, especially OUD, after protracted withdrawal. This may provide an insight in identifying potential biomarkers related to a dynamic environment.
- Corrected QT Interval Prolongation in Hospitalized Pediatric Patients Receiving Methadone. [Journal Article]
- PCPediatr Crit Care Med 2018 Jun 11
- CONCLUSIONS: In hospitalized pediatric patients receiving methadone, corrected QT interval prolongation was common, but no episodes of torsades de pointes were documented. Risk factors that have been identified in adults were not associated with prolongation in our study population.
- Developmental Disorders and Medical Complications Among Infants with Subclinical Intrauterine Opioid Exposures. [Journal Article]
- PHPopul Health Manag 2018 Jun 12
- The objective was to compare diagnosis rates representing developmental outcomes and medical complications between infants with intrauterine opioid exposures who did not receive pharmacologic treatme...
The objective was to compare diagnosis rates representing developmental outcomes and medical complications between infants with intrauterine opioid exposures who did not receive pharmacologic treatment for neonatal abstinence syndrome at the time of birth and infants for whom no exposure to substances of abuse were detected. This retrospective, descriptive study included approximately 95% of Hamilton County, Ohio resident births in 2014 and 2015. Universal maternal drug test results, performed at the time of birth, were documented and linked to electronic health records representing pediatric primary and subspecialty follow-up care as well as urgent care, emergency care, and inpatient services provided by Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center through 2017, when all children were at least 24 months old. Diagnosis rates were compared between drug exposure groups using chi-square tests. Among infants born at >34 weeks gestation and without other complex clinical conditions, infants with subclinical opioid exposures (N = 473) were more likely than infants with no drug exposures (N = 14,933) to be diagnosed with behavioral or emotional disorders (3.0% vs 1.1%, P = 0.0008), developmental delay (15.6% vs 7.6%, P < 0.0001), speech disorder (10.1% vs 6.5%, P = 0.001), or strabismus (3.4% vs 1.0%, P < 0.0001), and more likely to be exposed to the hepatitis C virus (6.8% vs 0.1%, P < 0.0001). Increased diagnosis rates among all opioid exposed infants, regardless of withdrawal severity, may warrant the additional allocation of resources for screening and follow-up. Awareness of the increased risk for certain developmental delays and medical conditions is critical to early intervention and treatment supporting improved outcomes.
- Identification, Management, and Transition of Care for Patients With Opioid Use Disorder in the Emergency Department. [Review]
- AEAnn Emerg Med 2018 Jun 04
- Because of a soaring number of opioid-related deaths during the past decade, opioid use disorder has become a prominent issue in both the scientific literature and lay press. Although most of the foc...
Because of a soaring number of opioid-related deaths during the past decade, opioid use disorder has become a prominent issue in both the scientific literature and lay press. Although most of the focus within the emergency medicine community has been on opioid prescribing-specifically, on reducing the incidence of opioid prescribing and examining alternative pain treatment-interest is heightening in identifying and managing patients with opioid use disorder in an effective and evidence-based manner. In this clinical review article, we examine current strategies for identifying patients with opioid use disorder, the treatment of patients with acute opioid withdrawal syndrome, approaches to medication-assisted therapy, and the transition of patients with opioid use disorder from the emergency department to outpatient services.
- Mu-opioid antagonists for opioid-induced bowel dysfunction in people with cancer and people receiving palliative care. [Review]
- CDCochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 Jun 05; 6:CD006332
- CONCLUSIONS: In this update, the conclusions for naldemedine are new. There is moderate-quality evidence to suggest that, taken orally, naldemedine improves bowel function over two weeks in people with cancer and OIBD but increases the risk of adverse events. The conclusions on naloxone and methylnaltrexone have not changed. The trials on naloxone did not assess laxation at 24 hours or over two weeks. There is moderate-quality evidence that methylnaltrexone improves bowel function in people receiving palliative care in the short term and over two weeks, and low-quality evidence that it does not increase adverse events. There is a need for more trials including more evaluation of adverse events. None of the current trials evaluated effects in children.
- Inhibition of Histone Deacetylases Attenuates Morphine Tolerance and Restores MOR Expression in the DRG of BCP Rats. [Journal Article]
- FPFront Pharmacol 2018; 9:509
- The easily developed morphine tolerance in bone cancer pain (BCP) significantly hindered its clinical use. Increasing evidence suggests that histone deacetylases (HDACs) regulate analgesic tolerance ...
The easily developed morphine tolerance in bone cancer pain (BCP) significantly hindered its clinical use. Increasing evidence suggests that histone deacetylases (HDACs) regulate analgesic tolerance subsequent to continuous opioid exposure. However, whether HDACs contribute to morphine tolerance in the pathogenesis of BCP is still unknown. In the current study, we explored the possible engagement of HDACs in morphine tolerance during the pathogenesis of BCP. After intra-tibia tumor cell inoculation (TCI), we found that the increased expression of HDACs was negatively correlated with the decreased expression of MOR in the DRG following TCI. The paw withdrawal threshold (PWT) and percentage maximum possible effects (MPEs) decreased rapidly in TCI rats when morphine was used alone. In contrast, the concomitant use of SAHA and morphine significantly elevated the PWT and MPEs of TCI rats compared to morphine alone. Additionally, we found that SAHA administration significantly elevated MOR expression in the DRG of TCI rats with or without morphine treatment. Moreover, the TCI-induced increase in the co-expression of MOR and HDAC1 in neurons was significantly decreased after SAHA administration. These results suggest that HDACs are correlated with the downregulation of MOR in the DRG during the pathogenesis of BCP. Inhibition of HDACs using SAHA can be used to attenuate morphine tolerance in BCP.
- Serum BDNF levels in patients with opioid dependence during the early withdrawal period: A case control study. [Journal Article]
- NLNeurosci Lett 2018 May 31; 681:100-104
- CONCLUSIONS: The results from the study provide further insights into the relationship of BDNF levels and opioid dependence.
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- Treadmill exercise attenuates the severity of physical dependence, anxiety, depressive-like behavior and voluntary morphine consumption in morphine withdrawn rats receiving methadone maintenance treatment. [Journal Article]
- NLNeurosci Lett 2018 May 30; 681:73-77
- This study was designed to examine whether treadmill exercise would attenuate the severity of physical dependence, methadone-induced anxiety, depression and voluntary morphine consumption in morphine...
This study was designed to examine whether treadmill exercise would attenuate the severity of physical dependence, methadone-induced anxiety, depression and voluntary morphine consumption in morphine withdrawn rats receiving methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). The rats were chronically treated with bi-daily doses (10 mg/kg, at 12 h intervals) of morphine for 14 days. The exercising rats receiving MMT were forced to run on a motorized treadmill for 30 days during morphine withdrawal. Then, rats were tested for the severity of morphine dependence, the elevated plus-maze (EPM), sucrose preference test (SPT) and voluntary morphine consumption using a two-bottle choice (TBC) paradigm. The results showed that naloxone- precipitated opioid withdrawal signs were decreased in exercising morphine-dependent rats receiving MMT than sedentary rats. Also, the exercising morphine-dependent rats receiving MMT exhibited an increased time on open arms, preference for sucrose and a lower morphine preference ratio than sedentary rats. We conclude that treadmill exercise decreased the severity of physical dependence, anxiety/depressive-like behaviors and also the voluntary morphine consumption in morphine withdrawn rats receiving MMT. Thus, exercise may benefit in the treatment of addicts during MMT.