- Prevalence of HIV-related oral manifestations and their association with HAART and CD4+ T cell count: a review. [Journal Article]
- JBJ Biol Regul Homeost Agents 2018 Jan-Feb; 32(2 Suppl. 1):51-59
- HIV infection is one of the major health problem of the last decades. This disease causes a chronic infection that can lead to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). According to the Global AIDS ...
HIV infection is one of the major health problem of the last decades. This disease causes a chronic infection that can lead to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). According to the Global AIDS update, released in 2016 by HIV department of World Health Organization (WHO) and by the Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), at the end of 2015, 36.7 million people were infected by HIV: 34.9 million of these were adults and 1.8 million were children under 15 years of age. The same report shows that during 2015, 2.1 million of new infection cases have occurred all over the world and about 1.1 million people have died for HIV. The aim of this short review is to up-date of the main HIV-related oral manifestations and their correlation with HAART (Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy) and CD4+ T-cell count. Despite that more than 20 years have elapsed, this classification still remains valid: even today, group 1 lesions are found in the majority of HIV-positive patients with oral manifestations. Group 1 includes the following conditions: oral candidiasis (pseudomembranous candidiasis, erythematous candidiasis, angle cheilitis), oral hairy leukoplakia, periodontal diseases (necrotizing gingivitis, necrotizing periodontitis, linear gingival erythema), Kaposi’s sarcoma, and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Melanotic hyperpigmentation, HSV infection and HPV infection, which are included in group 2, are also common. Oral candidiasis, oral hairy leukoplakia, Kaposi’s sarcoma and HSV infection are the lesions that have seen the major drop in their incidence after the HAART introduction. The increase in CD4+ T-cell count is not significantly correlated to the decrease of every type of oral lesions, but it is statistically significant only in relation to oral candidiasis (p-value less than 0.001). Oral lesions are an important sign of immunodepression and with the introduction of HAART their incidence has strongly decreased, particularly in urban areas. Nevertheless, developing countries still have a high prevalence of these manifestations because of the persistence of many risk factors, like the difficulty to access treatment, poor oral hygiene, low socioeconomic status and late diagnosis.
- Prevalence of Periodontitis and Soft Tissue Lesions among Human Immunodeficiency Virus-positive Patients on Antiretroviral Therapy in Raichur Taluk, Karnataka, India. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Contemp Dent Pract 2018 Jan 01; 19(1):42-46
- CONCLUSIONS: The present study highlights the poor condition of the oral health of these patients and their unmet dental needs.
- Oral lesions associated with human immunodeficiency virus in 75 adult patients: a clinical study. [Journal Article]
- JKJ Korean Assoc Oral Maxillofac Surg 2017; 43(6):388-394
- CONCLUSIONS: There was no correlation between the CD4+/CD8+ cell ratio and the presence of oral lesions. The severity of the lesions was more pronounced when the CD4+ cell count was less than 200 cells/mm3.
- Experimental Oral Herpes Simplex Virus-1 (HSV-1) Co-infection in Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV)-Infected Rhesus Macaques. [Journal Article]
- FMFront Microbiol 2017; 8:2342
- Herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 (HSV-1/2) similarly initiate infection in mucosal epithelia and establish lifelong neuronal latency. Anogenital HSV-2 infection augments the risk for sexual human immunod...
Herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 (HSV-1/2) similarly initiate infection in mucosal epithelia and establish lifelong neuronal latency. Anogenital HSV-2 infection augments the risk for sexual human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission and is associated with higher HIV viral loads. However, whether oral HSV-1 infection contributes to oral HIV susceptibility, viremia, or oral complications of HIV infection is unknown. Appropriate non-human primate (NHP) models would facilitate this investigation, yet there are no published studies of HSV-1/SIV co-infection in NHPs. Thus, we performed a pilot study for an oral HSV-1 infection model in SIV-infected rhesus macaques to describe the feasibility of the modeling and resultant immunological changes. Three SIV-infected, clinically healthy macaques became HSV-1-infected by inoculation with 4 × 108 pfu HSV-1 McKrae on buccal, tongue, gingiva, and tonsils after gentle abrasion. HSV-1 DNA was shed in oral swabs for up to 21 days, and shedding recurred in association with intra-oral lesions after periods of no shedding during 56 days of follow up. HSV-1 DNA was detected in explant cultures of trigeminal ganglia collected at euthanasia on day 56. In the macaque with lowest baseline SIV viremia, SIV plasma RNA increased following HSV-1 infection. One macaque exhibited an acute pro-inflammatory response, and all three animals experienced T cell activation and mobilization in blood. However, T cell and antibody responses to HSV-1 were low and atypical. Through rigorous assessesments, this study finds that the virulent HSV-1 strain McKrae resulted in a low level HSV-1 infection that elicited modest immune responses and transiently modulated SIV infection.
- Factors associated with dental caries, periodontitis and intra-oral lesions in individuals with HIV / AIDS. [Journal Article]
- ACAIDS Care 2017 Nov 10; :1-8
- This study aimed to investigate the factors associated with oral diseases in individuals with HIV/AIDS. A cross sectional study was carried out which included 312 individuals registered in the Specia...
This study aimed to investigate the factors associated with oral diseases in individuals with HIV/AIDS. A cross sectional study was carried out which included 312 individuals registered in the Specialized Care Services for HIV/AIDS in three municipalities of the State of Bahia: Feira de Santana, Santo Antonio de Jesus and Juazeiro, Brazil. Socioeconomic-demographic characteristics related to life style and to dental caries, periodontitis and intra-oral mucosal lesions were investigated in patients with HIV/AIDS infection. Prevalence Ratio with 95% Confidence Interval and significance level of 5% were employed for the statistical analysis. The majority of the individuals evaluated were male with a mean age (± standard deviation) of 41.5 ± 11.3 years, and a mean time of HIV infection diagnosis (± standard deviation) of 5.2 ± 4.4 years. The presence of dental caries was observed in 78.7% of the sample, periodontitis in 25.4% and 36.2% showed intra-oral lesions. Oral health status showed a statistically significant association with the following variables: gender, age, schooling level, current occupation, family income, past and current smoking, antiretroviral use time, latest viral burden dosage, latest CD4-positive T lymphocyte count, use of complete/partial dental prosthesis, need for dental prosthesis, and use of dental floss. With the exception of those factors directly related to HIV/AIDS i.e., antiretroviral use time, latest viral burden dosage and latest CD4-positive T lymphocyte count, the factors associated with oral diseases in this population were the same as those associated with oral diseases in the non-HIV/AIDS population.
- Correlation of mucocutaneous manifestations of HIV-infected patients in an ART center with CD4 counts. [Journal Article]
- IJIndian J Dent Res 2017 Sep-Oct; 28(5):549-554
- CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed maximum mucocutaneous lesions in the CD4 count range of 200-500. Nail changes accounted for the most common cutaneous manifestation with 53%, and pigmentation accounted for the most common oral manifestation with 39%. Mucocutaneous manifestations can arouse one to suspect the diagnosis of HIV infection in an otherwise healthy unwary patient. They can serve as a dependable marker of HIV disease.
- Predictors of HPV incidence and clearance in a cohort of Brazilian HIV-infected women. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2017; 12(10):e0185423
- Persistent infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) is necessary for the development of precursor lesions and cervical cancer. HPV infection among women living with HIV/AIDS (WLHA) occu...
Persistent infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) is necessary for the development of precursor lesions and cervical cancer. HPV infection among women living with HIV/AIDS (WLHA) occurs more frequently, presents a higher rate of persistent infections and an earlier progression to cancer. We aimed to evaluate HR-HPV prevalence, incidence and clearance, and its association with HIV viral suppression, immunological response and other risk factors among WLHA followed at an STD/HIV reference center. This was a cohort study conducted at a reference center for STD/AIDS in Northeastern Brazil from September 2013 to September 2015. Follow-up visits were conducted at 6 and 12 months after enrolment, where socio-epidemiological data were obtained. Cervical samples were collected for conventional cytology and HPV DNA research (PCR COBAS® Roche) in addition to blood samples for CD4+ T lymphocyte count and HIV viral load. We prospectively evaluated 333 women. HR-HPV DNA prevalence was 33.3% at baseline. HPV-16 was present in 5.1%, HPV-18 in 3.9% and 29.4% WLHA had other HR-HPV (31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, 66 and 68). The HR-HPV incidence during the follow-up was 10.8%, at the 6-month visit was 7.7% and at the 12-month visit was 3.7%. Variables associated with HR-HPV incidence were: nulliparity, combined oral contraceptive use and detectable HIV viral load. The HR-HPV clearance rate was 41.7% and was associated with age >30 years and lymphocyte T CD4 count >500 cells/mm3 at enrolment. These findings contribute to the knowledge about a group of women that need more careful HPV screening and describe the association between an efficient immunological response and HIV viral suppression with lower incidence and increased clearance of HR-HPV.
- Human immunodeficiency virus-associated cystic lymphoid hyperplasia: An immunohistochemical description. [Journal Article]
- IJIndian J Pathol Microbiol 2017 Jul-Sep; 60(3):336-340
- CONCLUSIONS: The immunohistochemical description of CD20, CD3, CD4, and CD8 provides an understanding of CLH pathogenesis. CLH of parotid lymph nodes in confirmed HIV-positive patients with 100% specificity with HIV p24 antibody validates the strong association of CLH with HIV and AIDS. The CD4:CD8 ratio was ~1:1; however, increased CD8 expression within IF areas may indicate possible HIV-related CLH as compared to other cystic parotid lesions.
- An unusual case of bacillary angiomatosis in the oral cavity of an AIDS patient who had no concomitant tegumentary lesions - case report and review. [Case Reports]
- RIRev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 2017 Aug 24; 59:e59
- Bacillary angiomatosis (BA) is an angioproliferative disease of immunocompromised patients that usually presents as vascular tumors in the skin and subcutaneous tissues. It is caused by chronic infec...
Bacillary angiomatosis (BA) is an angioproliferative disease of immunocompromised patients that usually presents as vascular tumors in the skin and subcutaneous tissues. It is caused by chronic infections with either Bartonella henselae or B. quintana. Oral cavity BA is exceedingly rare and even rarer without simultaneous cutaneous disease. We report herein the case of a 51-year-old HIV-infected man who presented severe odynophagia and an eroded lesion on the hard palate that progressed to an oronasal fistula. No cutaneous lesions were recorded. Doxycycline led to complete resolution. To the best of our knowledge, only six previous cases of oral BA without tegumentary disease have been previously reported and none of them progressed to fistula.
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- Oropharyngeal candidiasis prevalence among HIV-infected patients at the teaching hospital of Treichville (Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire). [Journal Article]
- JMJ Mycol Med 2017; 27(4):549-553
- CONCLUSIONS: Oropharyngeal candidiasis is frequent among HIV-infected patients. Better and early management of this vulnerable population should allow for a reduction in the high prevalence observed.