- KSHV viral load and Interleukin-6 in HIV-associated pediatric Kaposi sarcoma-Exploring the role of lytic activation in driving the unique clinical features seen in endemic regions. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Cancer 2018 Sep 11
- Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is among the most common childhood malignancies in central, eastern, and southern Africa. Although its unique clinical features have been established, biological mechanisms relate...
Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is among the most common childhood malignancies in central, eastern, and southern Africa. Although its unique clinical features have been established, biological mechanisms related to the causative agent, KS-associated herpes-virus (KSHV), have yet to be explored in children. We performed a prospective observational pilot study to explore associations between KSHV viral load (VL), human interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-10 levels, and clinical characteristics of 25 children with KS in Lilongwe, Malawi from June 2013-August 2015. The median age was 6.4 years. Lymphadenopathy was the most common site of KS involvement (64%), followed by skin and oral mucosa (44% each), woody edema (12%), and pulmonary (8%). Baseline samples for plasma KSHV VL, IL-6 and IL-10 analyses were available for 18/25 patients (72%) at time of KS diagnosis. KSHV VL was detectable at baseline in 12/18 (67%) patients, the median baseline IL-6 level was 8.53 pg/mL (range 4.31-28.33), and the median baseline IL-10 level was 19.53 pg/mL (range 6.91-419.69). Seven (39%) patients presented with an IL-6 level > 10 pg/mL (exceeding twice the upper limit of normal). Detectable KSHV VL was significantly associated with lymphadenopathic KS (p = 0.004), while having undetectable KSHV VL was associated with a higher likelihood of presenting with hyperpigmented skin lesions (p = 0.01). Detectable KSHV VL and elevated IL-6 levels are present in a subset of children with KS. Lytic activation of KSHV and associated elevation in KSHV VL may contribute to the unique clinical manifestations of pediatric KS in KSHV-endemic regions of Africa.
- Current trends in opportunistic infections in children living with HIV/AIDS in a tertiary care hospital in Northern India. [Journal Article]
- IJIndian J Sex Transm Dis AIDS 2017 Jul-Dec; 38(2):142-146
- A prospective cohort study was undertaken from November 2010 to March 2012 at Kalawati Saran Children's Hospital (KSCH), Lady Hardinge Medical College (LHMC), New Delhi. The study included all HIV po...
A prospective cohort study was undertaken from November 2010 to March 2012 at Kalawati Saran Children's Hospital (KSCH), Lady Hardinge Medical College (LHMC), New Delhi. The study included all HIV positive children aged between 0-15 years that were registered in the anti-retroviral therapy (ART) centre during the study period. HIV +ve children enrolled at the ART centre were started on ART on the basis of CD4counts (National/NACO guidelines).
- Correlating CD4 count with mucocutaneous manifestations in HIV-positive patients: A prospective study. [Journal Article]
- IJIndian J Sex Transm Dis AIDS 2017 Jul-Dec; 38(2):128-135
- CONCLUSIONS: Statistically significant association with the CD4 count was seen in herpes zoster ophthalmicus, genital wart, genital herpes, vaginal discharge syndrome, scabies, pyoderma, dermatophytosis, Hansen's disease, herpetic gingivostomatitis, seborrhoeic dermatitis, lichen planus, and drug reactions. These dermatoses may indicate the worsening of immune status and the need for regular monitoring with periodical CD4 counting. Occurrence of dermatoses such as photosensitive eczema, drug reaction, lichen planus, Type I lepra reaction, and herpes zoster ophthalmicus in patients on ART may be due to IRIS. To avoid the more frequent occurrence of infectious dermatoses and to reduce the development of IRIS with ART, all HIV-positive cases may be started on ART at higher CD4 count. Screening for HIV infection is suggested whenever the following conditions are seen: persistent oral candidiasis, atypical manifestations of zoster, herpes zoster ophthalmicus, herpetic gingivostomatitis and MC in adults, exaggerated IBA, and extensive seborrhoeic dermatitis.
- Clinical and laboratorial features of oral candidiasis in HIV-positive patients. [Journal Article]
- RSRev Soc Bras Med Trop 2018 May-Jun; 51(3):352-356
- CONCLUSIONS: Oral lesions were associated with higher immunosuppression levels. Lower susceptibility to antifungals by non-albicans isolates supports the importance of surveillance studies using susceptibility tests to aid in the treatment.
- Eyelid Kaposi Sarcoma in an HIV-negative Patient. [Case Reports]
- IJIndian J Ophthalmol 2018; 66(6):854-855
- Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is a low-grade, multicentric vascular neoplasm. Most commonly, it involves the skin, but it can occur at any site on the body. The cutaneous lesions are often located on the lower...
Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is a low-grade, multicentric vascular neoplasm. Most commonly, it involves the skin, but it can occur at any site on the body. The cutaneous lesions are often located on the lower legs, genitalia, oral mucosa, and face. KS is categorized in four different types: classic, endemic, epidemic or AIDS associated, and transplantation associated. We report a case of HIV-negative, classic KS located on the eyelid. The eyelid lesion was completely excised, and after a 1-year follow-up, no recurrences were observed. Ocular involvement by KS in a patient who is serologically negative for HIV is extremely rare.
- A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial of the Quadrivalent Human Papillomavirus Vaccine in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Adults Aged 27 Years or Older: AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol A5298. [Journal Article]
- CIClin Infect Dis 2018 Oct 15; 67(9):1339-1346
- CONCLUSIONS: These results do not support HPV vaccination of HIV-infected adults aged ≥27 years to prevent new anal HPV infections or to improve anal HSIL outcomes. However, our data suggest a role for prevention of oral HPV infections, but this finding should be confirmed in future studies.
- Risk Factors for Human Papillomavirus Infection and Abnormal Cervical Cytology Among Perinatally Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected and Uninfected Asian Youth. [Journal Article]
- CIClin Infect Dis 2018 Aug 01; 67(4):606-613
- CONCLUSIONS: Perinatal HIV infection was associated with a higher risk of HR-HPV and abnormal cervical cytology. Our results underscore the need for HPV vaccination for PHIV adolescents and for prevention and screening programs for HPV and other STIs.
- Disseminated cutaneous histoplasmosis with laryngeal involvement in a setting of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. [Journal Article]
- SASouth Afr J HIV Med 2017; 18(1):693
- CONCLUSIONS: We present this case to remind clinicians that disseminated histoplasmosis in AIDS patients may occur as an expression of IRIS. A sudden onset of hoarseness with cutaneous lesions in a patient with disseminated disease should alert one to possible laryngeal histoplasmosis. Prompt recognition and treatment will avert the potential fatal complications of this disease.
- Human papillomavirus load in benign HPV-associated oral lesions from HIV/AIDS individuals. [Journal Article]
- ODOral Dis 2018; 24(1-2):210-214
- CONCLUSIONS: Multiple HPV-OLs showed high HPV loads, possibly indicating transcriptional activity of the virus; however, in the HIV setting, the individual and local immunological response could be the key process.
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- Prevalence of HIV-related oral manifestations and their association with HAART and CD4+ T cell count: a review. [Journal Article]
- JBJ Biol Regul Homeost Agents 2018 Jan-Feb; 32(2 Suppl. 1):51-59
- HIV infection is one of the major health problem of the last decades. This disease causes a chronic infection that can lead to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). According to the Global AIDS ...
HIV infection is one of the major health problem of the last decades. This disease causes a chronic infection that can lead to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). According to the Global AIDS update, released in 2016 by HIV department of World Health Organization (WHO) and by the Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), at the end of 2015, 36.7 million people were infected by HIV: 34.9 million of these were adults and 1.8 million were children under 15 years of age. The same report shows that during 2015, 2.1 million of new infection cases have occurred all over the world and about 1.1 million people have died for HIV. The aim of this short review is to up-date of the main HIV-related oral manifestations and their correlation with HAART (Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy) and CD4+ T-cell count. Despite that more than 20 years have elapsed, this classification still remains valid: even today, group 1 lesions are found in the majority of HIV-positive patients with oral manifestations. Group 1 includes the following conditions: oral candidiasis (pseudomembranous candidiasis, erythematous candidiasis, angle cheilitis), oral hairy leukoplakia, periodontal diseases (necrotizing gingivitis, necrotizing periodontitis, linear gingival erythema), Kaposi’s sarcoma, and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Melanotic hyperpigmentation, HSV infection and HPV infection, which are included in group 2, are also common. Oral candidiasis, oral hairy leukoplakia, Kaposi’s sarcoma and HSV infection are the lesions that have seen the major drop in their incidence after the HAART introduction. The increase in CD4+ T-cell count is not significantly correlated to the decrease of every type of oral lesions, but it is statistically significant only in relation to oral candidiasis (p-value less than 0.001). Oral lesions are an important sign of immunodepression and with the introduction of HAART their incidence has strongly decreased, particularly in urban areas. Nevertheless, developing countries still have a high prevalence of these manifestations because of the persistence of many risk factors, like the difficulty to access treatment, poor oral hygiene, low socioeconomic status and late diagnosis.