- Clinical Profile of Levamisole-Adulterated Cocaine-Induced Vasculitis/Vasculopathy: A 30-Case Series. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Clin Rheumatol 2018 May 19
- CONCLUSIONS: Because of rising cocaine consumption and levamisole adulteration frequency, levamisole-adulterated cocaine-induced vasculitis/vasculopathy is becoming more common. Detailed characterization of skin involvement coupled with multiple antibody positivity is essential for a diagnosis. Renal involvement is frequent, clinically and histologically heterogeneous, and potentially serious.
- Clindamycin-induced Maculopapular Exanthema with Preferential Involvement of Striae Distensae: A Koebner phenomenon? [Journal Article]
- ADActa Dermatovenerol Croat 2018; 26(1):61-63
- Clindamycin is a lincomycin-derived antibiotic useful for the treatment of anaerobic and Gram-positive aerobic bacterial infections. Cutaneous adverse reactions are usually maculopapular exanthemas, ...
Clindamycin is a lincomycin-derived antibiotic useful for the treatment of anaerobic and Gram-positive aerobic bacterial infections. Cutaneous adverse reactions are usually maculopapular exanthemas, although hypersensitivity syndrome, acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis, and Stevens-Johnson syndrome have also been reported (1). We report the case of a patient with a maculopapular rash triggered by clindamycin who developed cutaneous lesions on striae distensae (SD). A 47-year-old woman was referred to our clinic for pruritic cutaneous lesions which had started 6 days earlier. Her past clinical history included hypertension, hypothyroidism, hyperuricemia, cholecystectomy, caesarean section, and endometriosis-related abdominal surgery, and she was taking levothyroxine, allopurinol, imidapril, and omeprazole. The skin rash first developed on her neck and back on the 3rd day of clindamycin oral treatment (300 mg every 6 hours), which was prescribed as antibiotic prophylaxis for a tooth implant. General malaise (but not fever) was also reported. Physical examination revealed an erythematous maculopapular eruption symmetrically distributed on the neck, abdomen, and back (Figure 1, A), with isolated lesions involving the proximal upper and lower limbs (Figure 1, B). There was a striking vertical distribution of skin lesions along the SD on the lateral sides of the abdomen (Figure 1, C). No mucosal involvement was found, and laboratory studies showed no abnormalities. Clindamycin withdrawal was followed by prescription of a course of oral deflazacort, starting at 30 mg daily and tapering down during a 9-day period. On the 5th day of treatment, the rash had almost cleared with minimal desquamation (Figure 1, D). Eight weeks after clearance of the skin rash, informed consent was obtained in order to perform an allergological evaluation of clindamycin, including prick and intradermal (ID) tests on the forearm and patch tests on the upper back (2). For patch testing, powder of the commercial capsules (Dalacin®) was diluted in petrolatum (pet.) and water (aq.), resulting in a final 1% clindamycin dilution. Parenteral clindamycin preparations were used in therapeutic concentrations for prick tests (150 mg/mL) and dilutions in saline of 1/100 and 1/10 for the ID test. Other authors have reported that these concentrations do not seem to irritate the skin (3-6). Prick and ID tests were assessed after 20 min and 24 hours, respectively. Patch tests were removed after the 2nd day, and late reactions were evaluated on day 2 and day 4. Prick and ID test results after 20 min were negative. Late results of ID tests with clindamycin (1.5 and 15 mg/mL) were positive: erythematous infiltrated papules about 7×7 mm and 18×15 mm were observed at 24 hours and lasted until the 8th day. Patch tests with clindamycin 1% in pet. and 1% in aq. were also positive (+ on day 2 and day 4). Positive late skin tests suggested delayed-type non-IgE-mediated allergic clindamycin hypersensitivity. Oral challenge tests are considered to be the gold standard to establish or exclude drug hypersensitivity. Due to the positive result of late skin test to clindamycin, oral challenge was not performed in our patient (3,5). The Koebner isomorphic phenomenon has been described in cutaneous reactions induced by drugs, such as antibiotics and chemotherapy. Chronic pressure on the skin is probably involved in the onset of skin lesions in hand-foot eruptions induced by tyrosine kinase inhibitors (sorafenib and sutinib). Solar exposure and cutaneous trauma also seem to play a role in the location of papulopustular eruptions caused by endothelial growth factor receptor inhibitors (erlotinib) (7). More frequent involvement in traumatized skin and surgical scars has been reported in the context of linear IgA bullous dermatosis and leukocytoclastic vasculitis triggered by vancomycin and cefuroxime (8). SD are produced by non-penetrating physical trauma, similar to friction or pressure. Different dermatoses can develop along SD skin lesions (like plaque psoriasis, pustular psoriasis, lichen planus, vitiligo, discoid lupus erythematosus, lupus vasculitis, urticarial vasculitis, or chronic graft-versus-host disease) (9). Bevacizumab, etretinate, and corticosteroid-induced ulcers, hyperpigmentation caused by bleomycin, and urticariform lesions triggered by diclofenac are examples of different type of drug-induced abnormalities involving SD (10). In summary, we identified clindamycin as the cause of the cutaneous reactions that occurred in our patient on the basis of the results of the skin tests and clinical history. Our findings confirmed a delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction, possibly involving a T-cell-mediated immunologic mechanism. Intradermal and patch tests were found to be useful in order to confirm the diagnosis (4,5). We did not find reports in the literature of drug-induced cutaneous eruptions along the SD as a manifestation of a Koebner phenomenon. Clinical underreporting of this phenomenon could explain the scarce literature on this cutaneous adverse reaction.
- Isolated Superior Mesenteric Vein Tumor Thrombus in a Patient with Gastric Cancer. [Journal Article]
- CRCase Rep Surg 2018; 2018:3648436
- Tumor thrombus in the portal vein can rarely originate from gastric cancer via hematogenous spread, with only few case reports published in the literature. Isolated superior mesenteric vein tumor thr...
Tumor thrombus in the portal vein can rarely originate from gastric cancer via hematogenous spread, with only few case reports published in the literature. Isolated superior mesenteric vein tumor thrombus in gastric cancer has not been previously reported. A 61-year-old male patient who had undergone distal gastrectomy and gastroenterostomy for gastric ulcer 20 years ago was diagnosed with an obstructive tumor originating from the gastroenterostomy anastomosis site on upper gastrointestinal endoscopy that was performed for complaints of fatigue, oral feeding problems, and anemia. The PET-CT imaging revealed a hypermetabolic mass in the gastroenterostomy region along with hypermetabolic suspected tumor thrombus in the superior mesenteric vein (SMV). A suspected tumor thrombus with contrast enhancement that completely obstructed the SMV was detected on triphasic abdominal computed tomography. Decision for surgery was made due to gastric tumor obstruction. Firstly, lesions suspected with tumor thrombus were extirpated from the SMV and sent to frozen section. Then, it was completely recanalized. A locally advanced tumor originating from the gastroenterostomy anastomosis site that totally obliterated the lumen was observed on surgical exploration. After proving tumor thrombus by frozen, near-total gastrectomy was performed for palliative purposes. Histopathologic examination of the specimen showed gastric invasive adenocarcinoma and tumor thrombi in the SMV (T4N2M1). The patient received adjuvant chemotherapy, and he is at his 22nd-month follow-up with extensive hepatic metastases and intra-abdominal disease. It should be kept in mind that gastric cancer may lead to portal vein tumor thrombus or that it may rarely be associated with an isolated SMV tumor thrombus, both of which are associated with poor prognosis.
- The effects of proton pump inhibitor on hepatic vascular responsiveness and hemodynamics in cirrhotic rats. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Chin Med Assoc 2018 May 17
- CONCLUSIONS: PPIs did not affect hepatic vasoresponsiveness or the release of vasoactive substances. Furthermore, they did not influence hemodynamics, liver biochemistry or severity of hepatic fibrosis in the cirrhotic rats.
- Early Lupus Project: one-year follow-up of an Italian cohort of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus of recent onset. [Journal Article]
- LLupus 2018 Jan 01; :961203318777112
- Objective To describe the clinical and serological features of a prospectively followed cohort of early diagnosed systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients during a one-year follow-up period. Metho...
Objective To describe the clinical and serological features of a prospectively followed cohort of early diagnosed systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients during a one-year follow-up period. Methods SLE patients with disease duration less than 12 months were consecutively enrolled in a multicentre, prospective study. At study entry and then every 6 months, a large panel of data was recorded. Results Of 260 patients enrolled, 185 had at least 12 months of follow-up; of these, 84.3% were female, 92.4% were Caucasians. Mean diagnostic delay was about 20 months; higher values of European Consensus Lupus Activity Measurement (ECLAM) and of organs/systems involved were both associated with shorter diagnostic delay. Clinical and serological parameters improved after study entry. However, patients' quality of life deteriorated and cardiovascular risk factors significantly increased. About one-third of patients with active disease at study entry went into remission (ECLAM = 0). Negative predictors for remission were: oral ulcers, arthritis, low C4, anti-SSB (Ro) antibodies and therapy with mycophenolate. There was a widespread use of glucocorticoids both at baseline and during follow-up. Conclusion Clinical symptoms and serological parameters improve during the first period after diagnosis. However, patients' quality of life deteriorates. The widespread use of glucocorticoids is probably the reason for the early significant increase of some cardiovascular risk factors.
- HIV-induced matrix metalloproteinase-9 activation through mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling promotes HSV-1 cell-to-cell spread in oral epithelial cells. [Journal Article]
- JGJ Gen Virol 2018 May 18
- We have shown that cell-free HIV-1 and viral proteins tat and gp120 activate mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in tonsil epithelial cells, disrupting their tight and adherens junctions. This ...
We have shown that cell-free HIV-1 and viral proteins tat and gp120 activate mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in tonsil epithelial cells, disrupting their tight and adherens junctions. This causes liberation of the HSV-1 receptor nectin-1 from assembled adherens junctions, leading to promotion of HSV-1 infection and spread. In the present study, we show that HIV-associated activation of MAPK leads to upregulation of transcription factor NF-κB and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). This induces the disruption of tight and adherens junctions, increasing HSV-1 cell-to-cell spread. Inhibition of HIV-associated MAPK activation by U0126 abolishes NF-κB and MMP-9 upregulation and reduces HSV-1 spread. Inactivation of MMP-9 also reduced HIV-promoted HSV-1 spread. These results indicate that HIV-1-activated MAPK/NF-κB and MMP-9 play a critical role in the disruption of oral epithelial junctions and HSV-1 cell-to-cell spread. Inhibition of MMP-9 expression in the oral epithelium of HIV-infected individuals may prevent the development of diseases caused by HSV-1, such as ulcers, necrotic lesions and gingivostomatitis.
- Health risk assessment of arsenic in Realgar and NiuHuangJieDu Tablets based on pharmacokinetic study. [Journal Article]
- JTJ Trace Elem Med Biol 2018; 48:81-86
- NiuHuangJieDu Tablets (NHJDT), a popular realgar (As4S4) containing patented traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), is widely used in the treatment of acute tonsillitis, pharyngitis, periodontitis and m...
NiuHuangJieDu Tablets (NHJDT), a popular realgar (As4S4) containing patented traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), is widely used in the treatment of acute tonsillitis, pharyngitis, periodontitis and mouth ulcer. However, arsenic is considered as one of the most toxic elements, leading to growing concerns about the quality and safety of realgar-containing TCMs recently. In this study, health risk assessment of arsenic in realgar and NHJDT was conducted through oral administration of both substances to rats with single and multiple doses, respectively. The total blood arsenic concentration was used as the health risk indicator and determined by hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry after modified Kjeldahl digestion, and then applied to the pharmacokinetic study. For single oral dose study in rats, the low, medium, and high doses of realgar and NHJDT were set equivalent to 1, 5 and 20 times the human therapeutic dose (1.3 mg realgar/kg), respectively. Multiple doses were given at low and high dose levels every 12 h for seven consecutive days, respectively. Significant differences in the total blood arsenic pharmacokinetic profiles were observed between the corresponding realgar and NHJDT groups. These results indicated that NHJDT significantly reduced the total blood arsenic exposure present in realgar, and the detoxification mechanism might be attributed to herb-herb interactions in NHJDT. However, the accumulation of blood total arsenic was significant due to the long elimination half-life and high accumulation index in both realgar and NHJDT groups. Therefore, the potential health risk of arsenic caused by the administration of realgar-containing TCMs should be taken into account for excessive or long-term medication. Precautions should be taken for the clinical application of realgar-containing TCMs.
- Nicorandil-induced ulcerations: a 10-year observational study of all cases spontaneously reported to the French pharmacovigilance network. [Journal Article]
- IWInt Wound J 2018 May 16
- Nicorandil-induced ulcers remain often poorly recognised, with a late diagnosis and an inadequate management. We aimed to provide a clinical overview of the 148 spontaneously reported cases of nicora...
Nicorandil-induced ulcers remain often poorly recognised, with a late diagnosis and an inadequate management. We aimed to provide a clinical overview of the 148 spontaneously reported cases of nicorandil-induced ulcers to the French pharmacovigilance network between 2005 and 2014 and to complete this picture with worldwide published cases over the same period. Spontaneously reported nicorandil-induced ulcers were mainly mucosal (oral and anal) with a previous trauma in 23·0% of patients, revealed by a severe complication in 12·8% of cases. The mean cumulative dose of nicorandil was higher in serious cases. The median delay between the start of nicorandil use and the onset of the ulcer was 23·4 months, and after the ulcer was diagnosed, the median time to incriminate nicorandil was still 3·3 months, being shorter for mucosal ulcerations than for cutaneous ulcerations (5·2 versus 14·0 months, P = 0·001). The anatomic distribution in the 199 published cases differed slightly, but delays were similar. The hypothesis of mechanism becomes more precise, leaving no doubt about the necessity to discontinue the treatment. Practitioners need to be aware that nicorandil-induced ulcers can occur in many locations, possibly multiple and complicated, and should be simply managed by discontinuing treatment with no further reintroduction of nicorandil.
- Erythema Necroticans - A Case Report. [Journal Article]
- IJIndian J Lepr 2016; 87(4):255-257
- Erythema Nodosum Leprosum (ENL) is characterized by evanescent, erythematous, painful raised nodules which fade within 48-72 hours. Necrotic and ulcerative forms are rare presentations of severe ENL....
Erythema Nodosum Leprosum (ENL) is characterized by evanescent, erythematous, painful raised nodules which fade within 48-72 hours. Necrotic and ulcerative forms are rare presentations of severe ENL. A 27 year old male patient presented with multiple erythematous nodules on trunk and extremities associated with high grade fever, joint pain and pedal edema. Patient developed ulceration of nodules associated with pain and burning sensation over another 3 days. Slit smear showed clumps of granular bacilli. Biopsy showed superficial dermis showing edema with dense focal perivascular infiltrate of lymphocytes, macrophages and few scattered neutrophils. Fite-Faraco stain was negative. Patient was diagnosed as a case of erythema necroticans and started on oral steroids and thalidomide. The histological findings illustrate the need to consider leprosy diagnosis in necrotizing vasculitis even when Virchow's cells are not found in the infiltrate. Thalidomide is the drug of choice in such cases. This patient showed a marked response to the drug with healing of all ulcers within 2 weeks of starting thalidomide.
New Search Next
- Association of oral Helicobacter pylori with gastric complications. [Journal Article]
- LSLife Sci 2018 May 12
- CONCLUSIONS: Oral pathogenic H. pylori genes may enhance the severity of the gastric infection.