- Serum markers and development of delayed neuropsychological sequelae after acute carbon monoxide poisoning: anion gap, lactate, osmolarity, S100B protein, and interleukin-6. [Journal Article]
- CEClin Exp Emerg Med 2018; 5(3):185-191
- CONCLUSIONS: Based on our preliminary results, serum lactate level, serum anion gap, and serum S100B protein level in the emergency department could be informative predictors of DNS development in patients with acute CO poisoning. These markers might have the potential to improve early recognition of DNS in patients with acute CO poisoning.
- Characteristics of Laboratory Confirmed Ethylene Glycol and Methanol Exposures Reported to a Regional Poison Control Center. [Journal Article]
- KJKans J Med 2018; 11(3):67-69
- CONCLUSIONS: In this study of EG/MET exposures, EG exposures were more common than MET exposures, but they had similar demographics, laboratory findings, and interventions. Continued studies are warranted to characterize these uncommon exposures further.
- Lactate gap as a tool in identifying ethylene glycol poisoning. [Case Reports]
- BCBMJ Case Rep 2018 Mar 09; 2018
- Ethylene glycol toxicity is a known cause of anion gap metabolic acidosis, with the presence of an osmolar gap and the right clinical context suggesting to the diagnosis. Rapid recognition and early ...
Ethylene glycol toxicity is a known cause of anion gap metabolic acidosis, with the presence of an osmolar gap and the right clinical context suggesting to the diagnosis. Rapid recognition and early treatment is crucial. Unfortunately, ethylene glycol levels are not readily available and must be performed at a reference laboratory. We present a case where recognising the significance of the 'lactate gap' assisted in identifying ethylene glycol poisoning.
- Correlation of Urine Ammonium and Urine Osmolal Gap in Kidney Transplant Recipients. [Letter]
- CJClin J Am Soc Nephrol 2018 Apr 06; 13(4):638-640
- Ethylene glycol intoxication presenting with high anion gap metabolic acidosis, acute kidney injury and elevated lactate. [Case Reports]
- PIPediatr Int 2018; 60(2):194-195
- A Case of Ethylene Glycol intoxication with Acute Renal Injury: Successful Recovery by Fomepizole and Renal Replacement Therapy. [Journal Article]
- EBElectrolyte Blood Press 2017; 15(2):47-51
- Ethylene glycol is a widely used and readily available substance. Ethylene glycol ingestion does not cause direct toxicity; however, its metabolites are highly toxic and can be fatal even in trace am...
Ethylene glycol is a widely used and readily available substance. Ethylene glycol ingestion does not cause direct toxicity; however, its metabolites are highly toxic and can be fatal even in trace amounts. Poisoning is best diagnosed through inquiry, but as an impaired state of consciousness is observed in most cases, poisoning must be suspected when a significantly elevated osmolar gap or high anion gap metabolic acidosis is found in blood tests. Hemodialysis and alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitors such as ethanol and fomepizole are a part of the basic treatment, and timely diagnosis and treatment are crucial because any delays can lead to death. However, there are few reported cases in Korea, and no report on the use of fomepizole. Herein, we report a case of acute renal failure caused by ethylene glycol poisoning that was treated with fomepizole and hemodialysis and present a literature review.
- The Role of Repulsion in Colloidal Crystal Engineering with DNA. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Am Chem Soc 2017 11 22; 139(46):16528-16535
- Hybridization interactions between DNA-functionalized nanoparticles (DNA-NPs) can be used to program the crystallization behavior of superlattices, yielding access to complex three-dimensional struct...
Hybridization interactions between DNA-functionalized nanoparticles (DNA-NPs) can be used to program the crystallization behavior of superlattices, yielding access to complex three-dimensional structures with more than 30 different lattice symmetries. The first superlattice structures using DNA-NPs as building blocks were identified almost a decade ago, yet the role of repulsive interactions in guiding structure formation is still largely unexplored. Here, a comprehensive approach is taken to study the role of repulsion in the assembly behavior of DNA-NPs, enabling the calculation of interparticle interaction potentials based on experimental results. In this work, we used two different means to assemble DNA-NPs-Watson-Crick base-pairing interactions and depletion interactions-and systematically varied the salt concentration to study the effective interactions in DNA-NP superlattices. A comparison between the two systems allows us to decouple the repulsive forces from the attractive hybridization interactions that are sensitive to the ionic environment. We find that the gap distance between adjacent DNA-NPs follows a simple power law dependence on solution ionic strength regardless of the type of attractive forces present. This result suggests that the observed trend is driven by repulsive interactions. To better understand such behavior, we propose a mean-field model that provides a mathematical description for the observed trend. This model shows that the trend is due to the variation in the effective cross-sectional diameter of DNA duplex and the thickness of DNA shell.
- Two gaps too many, three clues too few? Do elevated osmolal and anion gaps with crystalluria always mean ethylene glycol poisoning? [Case Reports]
- BCBMJ Case Rep 2017 Oct 15; 2017
- A 60-year-old African-American man with a medical history significant for heavy alcohol abuse, hypertension, delirium tremens, nephrolithiasis and seizure disorder was brought to the hospital with al...
A 60-year-old African-American man with a medical history significant for heavy alcohol abuse, hypertension, delirium tremens, nephrolithiasis and seizure disorder was brought to the hospital with altered mental status. He was found to have high anion gap metabolic acidosis with significantly elevated lactate along with an elevated osmolal gap and calcium oxalate crystals in his urine. With this combination of findings, ethylene glycol poisoning was high in the differential. This case report describes why ethylene glycol poisoning was not the diagnosis in this patient despite the presence of these three classic laboratory findings, therefore emphasising the fact that these findings should not be taken at face value because they can be seen collectively in a patient yet each have a different cause.
- Challenges in Coupling Acidity and Salinity Transport in Porous Media. [Journal Article]
- ESEnviron Sci Technol 2017 Oct 17; 51(20):11799-11808
- Salinity is an increasingly prescient issue in reactive transport, from low salinity water flooding to fracking brine leakage. Of primary concern is the effect of salinity on surface chemistry. Trans...
Salinity is an increasingly prescient issue in reactive transport, from low salinity water flooding to fracking brine leakage. Of primary concern is the effect of salinity on surface chemistry. Transport and batch experiments show a strong coupling of salinity and acidity through chemical interactions at the mineral-liquid interface. This coupling is ascribed to the combined effects of ionic strength on electrostatic behavior of the interface and competitive sorption between protons and other cations for binding sites on the surface. The effect of these mechanisms is well studied in batch settings and readily describes observed behavior. In contrast, the transport literature is sparse, primarily applied to synthetic materials, and offers only qualitative agreement with observations. To address, this gap in knowledge, we conduct a suite of column flood experiments through silica sand, systematically varying salinity and acidity conditions. Experiments are compared to a reactive transport model incorporating the proposed coupling mechanisms. The results highlight the difficulty in applying such models to realistic media under both basic and acidic conditions with a single set of parameters. The analysis and experimental results show the observed error is the result of electrostatic assumptions within the surface chemistry model and provide a strong constraint on further model development.
New Search Next
- Transport and retention of carbon dots (CDs) in saturated and unsaturated porous media: Role of ionic strength, pH, and collector grain size. [Journal Article]
- WRWater Res 2018 04 15; 133:338-347
- Carbon-based engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) are widely used in consumer products due to their small size and unique physicochemical properties. Therefore, their release and distribution into the sur...
Carbon-based engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) are widely used in consumer products due to their small size and unique physicochemical properties. Therefore, their release and distribution into the surface and subsurface environment is a subject of concern. Several studies have evaluated the transport and retention of carbon nanotubes and fullerenes, but none investigated the transport and retention of carbon dots (CDs). The aim of this research is to fill this knowledge gap by evaluating the transport and retention of CDs in saturated and unsaturated porous medium. Here, we investigate the effects of solution ionic strength (IS, 1-700 mM NaCl) and pH (4-9), the initial concentration of CDs (50-200 mg L-1), and porous media grain size (0.20-0.50 mm, 0.50-1 mm, 1-1.5 mm and 1.5-2 mm grain diameters) on the transport and retention of CDs in saturated (upward flow) and unsaturated (downward flow) quartz porous media. A mathematical model based on the advection-dispersion equation coupled with the second-order kinetics was used to fit the breakthrough curves and to calculate the attachment and straining rates under the different experimental conditions. These analyses were underpinned by characterization of CD surface functional groups, surface charge and aggregation under the different experimental conditions, calculation of CD-CD and CD-quartz sand interaction potential according to DLVO theory. Transport and retention of CDs in quartz porous media are consistent with those observed for other types of carbon-based ENPs such as fullerenes and carbon nanotubes. Mobility of CDs in both saturated and unsaturated porous media increases with the decrease in ionic strength, increase in pH, and increase in collector grain size. Retention of CDs increases with the increase in IS, decrease in pH and decrease in grain size. Generally, CDs mobility was higher under saturated than under unsaturated flow conditions, for the same experimental conditions. Overall, CDs tend to be highly mobile and could travel for long distances at a wide range of environmental conditions.