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(Osmotic diarrhea)
447 results
  • [Bile acid diarrhea, stepchild of chronic diarrhea - prevalence, diagnosis and treatment. Update 2021]. [Journal Article]
    Z Gastroenterol. 2021 Feb 25 [Online ahead of print]Storr M, Gross M, … Keller J
  • Bile acid diarrhea is one of the most frequently undiagnosed causes of chronic diarrhea. A variety of different pathophysiologic causes can underlie chronic diarrhea. Even after exclusion of the more frequent causes, up to 5 % of the population remains affected by unexplained chronic diarrhea. In up to 50 % within this cohort, bile acid diarrhea is the underlying cause.The various pathophysiologi…
  • [Fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPS)]. [Journal Article]
    Rev Med Chil. 2019 Sep; 147(9):1167-1175.Grez C, Vega Á, Araya M
  • An increasing number of children and adults are currently suffering symptoms due to FODMAP (Fermentable Oligosaccharides, Disaccharides, Monosaccharides and Polyols) consumption. These carbohydrates are poorly digested in the human gastrointestinal tract, exerting an osmotic effect in the small intestine. In the colon, they become substrates to the microbiota. Microbial fermentation explains symp…
  • Common Diarrheal Illnesses in the Elderly. [Review]
    Clin Geriatr Med. 2021 Feb; 37(1):103-117.Dawod E, Crawford CV
  • Diarrhea is a fairly common problem among the elderly that has a higher morbidity and mortality compared with the general population. There are multiple reasons for diarrhea in the elderly that can be stratified by different mechanisms: infectious, osmotic, secretory, inflammatory, and malabsorptive. Oral hydration and dietary management are the basic management principles for all forms of diarrh…
  • [Intestinal motility disorders in multimorbidity: between constipation and diarrhea]. [Journal Article]
    Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 2020 Oct; 145(20):1456-1459.Becher KF, Rupp S
  • The Rome IV criteria for primary chronic obstipation help to distinguish between short-term ailments and a chronic pattern of complaints 1. In general, there are several causes of defecation disorder in the age group of the elderly. Anamnesis and observance of red flags in addition to a geriatric basic assessment make it possible to narrow down the causes. The distinction between low-transit cons…
  • StatPearls: Low-FODMAP Diet [BOOK]
    StatPearls. StatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL) Syed Kunzah K Maimonides Medical Center Iswara Kadirawelpillai K Maimonides Medical Center BOOK
  • FODMAP is an acronym for fermentable oligo-, di- and monosaccharides, and polyols. These short-chain carbohydrates, arranged in descending order, are associated with worsening or induction of functional gastrointestinal symptoms such as cramping, bloating, and diarrhea. Such symptoms are at least partially attributable to the non-absorbable nature of osmotic carbohydrates, which undergo bacterial…
  • Submucosal enteric neurons of the cavine distal colon are sensitive to hypoosmolar stimuli. [Journal Article]
    J Physiol. 2020 12; 598(23):5317-5332.Kollmann P, Elfers K, … Mazzuoli-Weber G
  • Neurons of the enteric submucous plexus are challenged by osmolar fluctuations during digestion and absorption of nutrients. Central neurons are very sensitive to changes in osmolality but knowledge on that issue related to enteric neurons is sparse. The present study focuses on investigation of osmosensitivity of submucosal neurons including potential molecular mediating mechanisms. Results show…
  • Comprehensive Targeted Sequencing Identifies Monogenic Disorders in Patients With Early-onset Refractory Diarrhea. [Journal Article]
    J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2020 09; 71(3):333-339.Uchida T, Suzuki T, … Kure S
  • CONCLUSIONS: We identified variable monogenic diseases in the patients and found that genes responsible for primary immunodeficiency diseases were frequently involved in molecular pathogenesis. Comprehensive genetic analysis was useful for accurate molecular diagnosis, understanding of underlying pathogenesis, and selecting the optimal treatment for patients with early-onset refractory diarrhea.An infographic for this article is available at:
  • Stool Reducing Sugars and Stool pH Are Poor Screening Tests for Intestinal Disaccharidase Deficiencies in Children. [Journal Article]
    J Appl Lab Med. 2020 03 01; 5(2):257-262.Erickson JA, Case K, … Johnson LM
  • CONCLUSIONS: The screening tests, stool reducing sugars and stool pH, had low sensitivity compared with results of measured tissue disaccharidase activity in pediatric patients. Infants had the highest percentage of abnormal results for all three tests, but the screening tests still performed poorly in that age group. This study suggests that stool reducing sugars and stool pH should not be used as screening tests for carbohydrate malabsorption due to disaccharidase deficiencies in pediatric patients.
  • Chronic Diarrhea in Adults: Evaluation and Differential Diagnosis. [Journal Article]
    Am Fam Physician. 2020 Apr 15; 101(8):472-480.Burgers K, Lindberg B, Bevis ZJ
  • Chronic diarrhea is defined as a predominantly loose stool lasting longer than four weeks. A patient history and physical examination with a complete blood count, C-reactive protein, anti-tissue transglutaminase immunoglobulin A (IgA), total IgA, and a basic metabolic panel are useful to evaluate for pathologies such as celiac disease or inflammatory bowel disease. More targeted testing should be…
  • Nasobiliary drainage prior to surgical biliary diversion in progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis type II. [Journal Article]
    Eur J Pediatr. 2020 Oct; 179(10):1547-1552.Jannone G, Stephenne X, … Sokal EM
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our limited data suggest that NBD is a safe and effective way to predict pruritus response before performing permanent biliary diversion surgery in PFIC patients. What is Known: • Surgical biliary diversion techniques have been developed to relieve intractable pruritus in progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (PFIC). • No clinical or genetic features can currently predict pruritus response to surgery. What is New: • Our data suggest that nasobiliary drainage could be a safe and effective tool to predict pruritus response to biliary diversion and avoid unnecessary surgery in PFIC patients.
  • Tenapanor for constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome. [Review]
    Drugs Today (Barc). 2020 Mar; 56(3):203-210.Siddiqui S, Cash BD
  • Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is among the most common gastrointestinal disorders encountered in primary and secondary care and is associated with impaired quality of life, increased healthcare utilization, and significant costs to patients and society. There are three primary phenotypes of IBS, categorized according to stool pattern: IBS with diarrhea (IBS-D), IBS with constipation (IBS-C) and …
  • Gut dysbacteriosis and intestinal disease: mechanism and treatment. [Review]
    J Appl Microbiol. 2020 Oct; 129(4):787-805.Meng X, Zhang G, … Wu H
  • The gut microbiome functions like an endocrine organ, generating bioactive metabolites, enzymes or small molecules that can impact host physiology. Gut dysbacteriosis is associated with many intestinal diseases including (but not limited to) inflammatory bowel disease, primary sclerosing cholangitis-IBD, irritable bowel syndrome, chronic constipation, osmotic diarrhoea and colorectal cancer. The …
  • Hypoosmotic stress induces flagellar biosynthesis and swimming motility in Escherichia albertii. [Journal Article]
    Commun Biol. 2020 02 28; 3(1):87.Ikeda T, Shinagawa T, … Hayashi T
  • Bacteria use flagella as propellers to move to favorable environments. Escherichia albertii, a growing cause of foodborne illness and diarrhea, is reportedly non-motile and lacks flagella on its surface. Here, we report that 27 out of 59 E. albertii strains, collected mainly from humans and birds, showed swimming motility when cultured at low osmotic pressure. The biosynthesis of flagella in E. a…
  • Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic syndrome in a young boy. [Case Reports]
    Proc (Bayl Univ Med Cent). 2019 Oct; 32(4):627-628.Reddy A, Finley L, Horrall S
  • We describe a 6-year-old boy who presented to the emergency department with the complaint of nausea and vomiting with diarrhea. Workup revealed a glucose level of 1904 mg/dL, and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome was diagnosed. Hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome is very rare in the pediatric population, but recent published reports suggest that the incidence of this disorder may be increasing.
  • Incidence of osmotic demyelination syndrome in Sweden: A nationwide study. [Journal Article]
    Acta Neurol Scand. 2019 Nov; 140(5):342-349.Aegisdottir H, Cooray C, … Sveinsson O
  • CONCLUSIONS: We found an increasing incidence during the study period, which could partly be explained by increased access to magnetic resonance imaging. ODS occurs predominantly in patients with extreme chronic hyponatremia which is corrected too fast with isotonic saline. Most patients survived and became functionally independent.
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