- Emerging Role of Extracellular Vesicles in Bone Remodeling. [Journal Article]
- JDJ Dent Res 2018 Mar 01; :22034518764411
- Extracellular vesicles (EVs), as nanometer-scale particles, include exosomes, microvesicles, and apoptotic bodies. EVs are released by most cell types, such as bone marrow stem cells, osteoblasts, os...
Extracellular vesicles (EVs), as nanometer-scale particles, include exosomes, microvesicles, and apoptotic bodies. EVs are released by most cell types, such as bone marrow stem cells, osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and immune cells. In bone-remodeling microenvironments, EVs deliver specific proteins (e.g., tenascin C and Sema4D), microRNAs (e.g., miR-214-3p, miR-183-5p, and miR-196a), and other growth factors (e.g., bone morphogenetic protein 1 to 7 and transforming growth factor β1) to osteoblasts and regulate bone formation. In addition, EVs can deliver cytokines, such as RANK (receptor activator of nuclear factor κB) and RANKL (RANK ligand), and microRNAs, such as miR-218 and miR-148a, to modulate osteoclast differentiation during bone resorption. EVs also transfer bioactive molecules and have targeted therapies in bone-related diseases. Moreover, bioactive molecules in EVs are biomarkers in bone-related diseases. We highlight the emerging role of EVs in bone remodeling during physiologic and pathologic conditions and summarize the role of EVs in tooth development and regeneration. At the end of this review, we discuss the challenges of EV application in the treatment of bone diseases.
- Is Vitamin D Supplementation Effective for Low Back Pain? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. [Journal Article]
- PPPain Physician 2018; 21(2):121-145
- CONCLUSIONS: The overall quality of evidence was "very low" due to the poor methodological quality and small sample sizes of the included studies.Vitamin D supplementation is not more effective than placebo, no intervention, or other conservative/pharmacological interventions for LBP (based on very low quality evidence). These results are consistent, regardless of the type of LBP or vitamin D supplementation. Until well-designed and adequately powered clinical trials suggest otherwise, the prescription of vitamin D for LBP cannot be recommended. PROSPERO Registration No: CRD42016046874. www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/display_record.asp?ID = CRD42016046874.
- Inflammation as a mediator of the association between osteoporosis and hearing loss in older subjects: a population-based study. [Journal Article]
- EREur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2018; 22(5):1451-1456
- CONCLUSIONS: Hearing loss is associated with osteoporosis in community dwelling elderly. Such an association seems to depend upon higher inflammation levels.
- The significant role of ATG5 in the maintenance of normal functions of Mc3T3-E1 osteoblast. [Journal Article]
- EREur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2018; 22(5):1224-1232
- CONCLUSIONS: ATG5 silence can lead to inhibition of osteoblast proliferation and differentiation. Moreover, it makes the cells easier to be damaged by oxidative stress, and it causes an increase in apoptosis. However, the overexpression of ATG5 strengthens the anti-oxidative capacity of osteoblasts and reduces apoptosis. ATG5 may be an effective target of anti-oxidative therapy for osteoporosis, which brings a new direction for the treatment of osteoporosis.
- Efficacy of Denosumab for Osteoporosis in Two Patients with Adult-Onset Still's Disease-Denosumab Efficacy in Osteoporotic Still's Disease Patients. [Case Reports]
- JCJ Clin Med 2018 Mar 22; 7(4)
- Adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD) is an autoimmune inflammatory disorder. Glucocorticoids are often used for AOSD, which may induce complicating glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIO). An anti-re...
Adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD) is an autoimmune inflammatory disorder. Glucocorticoids are often used for AOSD, which may induce complicating glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIO). An anti-resorption drug, denosumab, has recently been approved for osteoporosis treatment in Japan. However, the drug's efficacy for GIO in AOSD is largely unknown. This retrospective, consecutive case series investigated two patients with GIO in AOSD to examine the effects of denosumab on bone metabolism. Bone turnover markers, and bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar 1-4 spine (L-BMD) and bilateral total hips (H-BMD) were followed for six months in a male patient and for twelve months in a female patient. No fractures or severe side effects, such as hypocalcemia, were observed during the observational period. Bone turnover markers were basically suppressed, and L-BMD and H-BMD were increased by denosumab in both patients. Our findings suggest that denosumab is a suitable candidate drug for GIO in AOSD.
- Serum Vitamin D Concentration and Markers of Bone Metabolism in Perimenopausal and Postmenopausal Women with Asthma and COPD. [Journal Article]
- AEAdv Exp Med Biol 2018 Mar 22
- Aging and menopause are closely related to hormonal and metabolic changes. Vitamin D is a crucial factor modulating several metabolic processes. The aim of this study was to evaluate biomarkers of bo...
Aging and menopause are closely related to hormonal and metabolic changes. Vitamin D is a crucial factor modulating several metabolic processes. The aim of this study was to evaluate biomarkers of bone metabolism in peri- and postmenopausal women with obstructive lung diseases. Sixty two female patients, 27 with asthma and 35 with COPD, aged over 45 years (median age 58 and 64 years, respectively) were enrolled into the study. The evaluation included lung function, bone mineral density, serum concentration of vitamin D, and bone metabolism markers. The study groups differed significantly in terms of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1); median values of 1.79 L vs. 1.16 L (p = 0.0001) and 71.2% vs. 53.0% predicted (p = 0.0072) and in vitamin D concentration (12.3 ng/ml vs. 17.6 ng/ml). Total bone mineral density (BMD) was lower in the COPD group (p = 0.0115). Serum vitamin D inversely correlated with the number of pack-years in asthma patients (r = -0.45, p = 0.0192). There was no correlation between serum vitamin D and disease duration or severity, and the Asthma Control Test (ACT) and the modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) dyspnea scores. The serum bone metabolism markers C-terminal cross-linked telopeptide of collagen type I (BCROSS), N-terminal propeptides of procollagen type-1 (tP1NP), and N-mid osteocalcin (OCN) inversely correlated with age in the COPD, but not asthma, patients (r = -0.38, p = 0.0264; r = -0.37, p = 0.0270; and r = -0.42, p = 0.0125, respectively). We conclude that peri- and postmenopausal women with obstructive lung diseases had a decreased serum concentration of vitamin D. Furthermore, vitamin D and body mineral density were appreciably lower in women with COPD than those with asthma.
- Real-world effectiveness of osteoporosis therapies for fracture reduction in post-menopausal women. [Journal Article]
- AOArch Osteoporos 2018 Mar 21; 13(1):33
- CONCLUSIONS: In summary, reductions in fracture incidence over time were observed in cohorts of patients treated with osteoporosis therapies.
- Treatment patterns in patients with osteoporosis at high risk of fracture in Japan: retrospective chart review. [Journal Article]
- AOArch Osteoporos 2018 Mar 22; 13(1):34
- CONCLUSIONS: A high percentage of patients (87.9%) in Japan received OP medications soon after their high-risk diagnosis, with bisphosphonates, selective estrogen receptor modulators and teriparatide being the predominant treatment options.
- Increased rate of osteoporosis, low lean mass, and fragility fractures in COPD patients: association with disease severity. [Journal Article]
- OIOsteoporos Int 2018 Mar 21
- CONCLUSIONS: Highly prevalent in COPD, osteoporosis and low lean mass were associated with FEV1%< 50%. Age, low lean mass, high iPTH, and low bone mass were all significantly associated with fractures in COPD patients.
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- Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Sarcopenia in Female Patients with Osteoporotic Fracture. [Journal Article]
- JBJ Bone Metab 2018; 25(1):59-62
- CONCLUSIONS: This study evaluated the prevalence of sarcopenia according to the fracture site and identified associated risk factors in patients with osteoporotic fractures. A longterm, observational study with a larger population is needed to validate our results.