- [The role of Th1/Th2 cells imbalance in the pathogenesis of secretory otitis media]. [Journal Article]
- LCLin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi 2018; 32(3):206-208
- Objective: The aim of this study is to explore the role of Th1/Th2 cells imbalance in the pathogenesis of secretory otitis media. Method:Ninety secretory otitis media patients were enrolled in observ...
Objective: The aim of this study is to explore the role of Th1/Th2 cells imbalance in the pathogenesis of secretory otitis media. Method:Ninety secretory otitis media patients were enrolled in observation group. According to medical history, they were divided into acute and chronic group. In addition, 90 healthy volunteers during the same period were selected as the control group. The levels of Th1-type cytokines IFN-γ, Th2-type cytokines interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IFN-γ/IL-4 in peripheral blood were compared between observation group and control group. Compare with acute and chronic secretory otitis media patients IFN-γ, IL-4, IFN-γ/IL-4 levels as well as the compare with middle ear effusion and peripheral blood sIFN-γ, IL-4, IFN-γ/IL-4 levels in observation group. Result:The level of IFN-γ, IL-4 and IFN-γ/IL-4 in the peripheral blood in the observation group were higher than those of the control group (P<0.05). The levels of IFN-γ, IL-4 and IFN-γ/IL-4 in the peripheral blood of patients in the chronic group were higher than those in the acute group. There was no significant difference in IL4, IFN-γ/IL-4 levels between the observation group and the middle ear effusion (P>0.05), IFN-γ levels in peripheral blood were lower than those of the middle ear effusion IFN-γ (P<0.05). Conclusion: Abnormal IFN-γ, IL-4 levels of the peripheral blood and the middle ear effusion have some relationship with secretory otitis media, and Th1/Th2 imbalance may be a risk factor for secretory otitis media.
- First reported case of multidrug-resistant Candida auris in Canada. [Journal Article]
- CCCan Commun Dis Rep 2017 Jul 06; 43(7-8):150-153
- Candida auris is a fungal pathogen that has recently emerged as a global threat to public health. It was first described in Japan in 2009 and has since been reported in 17 countries on five continent...
Candida auris is a fungal pathogen that has recently emerged as a global threat to public health. It was first described in Japan in 2009 and has since been reported in 17 countries on five continents. This case report describes the first reported case of multidrug-resistant C. auris in Canada. In May 2017, a 64-year-old individual was evaluated for chronic otitis externa. Past medical history included a recent hospitalization in India for elective oral surgery that was complicated by an odontogenic brain abscess. Upon return to Canada, the individual was admitted to a hospital for neurosurgical drainage of the brain abscess and parenteral antibiotics. Early during hospitalization, the patient was identified as a carrier of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae and was placed on contact precautions. Also early during this hospitalization, a chronic otitis media was managed with placement of a typanostomy tube with drainage of clear fluid from the ear, which continued through the admission and after discharge to a post-neurosurgical rehabilitation facility. During outpatient follow-up, swabs of the ear discharge cultured C. auris that was resistant to fluconazole and amphotericin B. There was no clinical response to ototopical antifungal therapy. Surgical evaluation for management of the otomastoiditis is pending. There is a potential for C. auris to cause infection in health care settings. It can persist in hospital environments, has the potential for transmission and can cause invasive disease. It is difficult to identify and is often resistant to antifungal medications. The application of infection prevention and control recommendations can help prevent nosocomial transmission. It is now prudent to consider the risk of C. auris, in addition to the known risk of other antimicrobial resistant organisms, in any traveller who has been hospitalized while outside the country. When identified, contacting local public health can assist in the tracking and management of this emerging disease.
- Balloon Eustachian Tuboplasty: Systematic Review of Long-term Outcomes and Proposed Indications. [Journal Article]
- JIJ Int Adv Otol 2018; 14(1):112-126
- Balloon Eustachian tuboplasty (BET) aims to improve the function of the Eustachian tube (ET). The objective of this study was to review the long-term outcome of BET and present the process and result...
Balloon Eustachian tuboplasty (BET) aims to improve the function of the Eustachian tube (ET). The objective of this study was to review the long-term outcome of BET and present the process and results of outlining indications for BET by the Finnish Otosurgical Society. The literature review is based on a database search performed in May 2017. The search resulted in 100 individual articles, which were screened for relevance. Five articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria (follow-up ≥12 months). Five additional articles (follow-up, 6-11 months) were analyzed to obtain supportive information. The proposed BET indications were constituted in the 2016 annual meeting of the Finnish Otosurgical Society. The workshop included a review of the Eustachian tube physiology, middle ear aeration mechanisms, and BET outcome studies. Thereafter, the members of the Society first voted and then discussed 14 cases in order to conclude whether BET was indicated in each case, and subsequently, a consensus statement on the indications for BET was outlined. The long-term follow-up studies were heterogeneous regarding the Eustachian tube dysfunction (ETD) definition, patient selection, follow-up duration, additional treatments, and outcome measures. The current, but limited, evidence suggests that BET is effective in the long-term. However, more long-term studies with uniform criteria and outcome measures as well as placebo-controlled studies are needed. The proposed indications for BET by the Finnish Otosurgical Society include chronic bothersome symptoms referring to ETD, ETD-related symptoms when pressure changes rapidly, or recurring serous otitis media. With the current evidence, we suggest treating only adults with BET.
- StatPearls [BOOK]
- BOOKStatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL)
- Immunodeficiency results from a failure or absence of elements of the immune system including lymphocytes, phagocytes and complement system. These immunodeficiencies can be either primary such as Bru...
Immunodeficiency results from a failure or absence of elements of the immune system including lymphocytes, phagocytes and complement system. These immunodeficiencies can be either primary such as Bruton’s disease or secondary as the one caused by HIV infection. Primary ImmunodeficiencyB-cell Deficiencies X- linked Agammaglobulinemia (Bruton’s disease): First described by Bruton. X-linked disorder. Found in male babies expressed around 5 to 6 months of age (maternal IgG disappears). In boys, pre-B cells did not differentiate into mature B lymphocytes. There is a mutation in the gene that encodes for a tyrosine kinase protein. Low level of all immunoglobulins (IgG, IgA, IgM, IgD and IgE) is present. Infants with X-linked agammaglobulinemia suffer from recurrent bacterial infections: otitis media, bronchitis, septicemia, pneumonia, and arthritis, and Giardia lamblia causes intestinal malabsorption. Intermittent injections of large amounts of IgG keep the patient alive, but a patient may die at a younger age if infection with antibiotic-resistant bacteria occurs. Selective Immunoglobulin IgA Deficiencies : IgA deficiency is more common than other deficiencies of immunoglobulins. These patients are more prone to recurrent sinus and lung infections. A malfunctioning in heavy-chain gene switching may cause this problem. Treatment should not include gammaglobulin preparations to prevent hypersensitivity reactions. T-cell Immunodeficiencies Congenital thymic Aplasia (DiGeorge Syndrome): Tetany is present. Fungal and viral infections are common. A transplant of the fetal thymus is needed to correct this deficiency. Chronic Mucocutaneous Candidasis: Selective defect in functioning of T-cells. Patient with this disorder usually have a normal T-cell mediated immunity to microorganisms other than Candida. B-cells function is normal. Disorders affect both genders, and it is inherited. Patient in addition to the above will have other disorders like parathyroid deficiencies. Antifungals are useful. Hyper-IgM syndrome: This disorder is characterized by bacterial infections including pneumonia, meningitis, otitis, among others that start in early childhood. High levels of IgM. Other immunoglobulins are defective. Lymphocytes are normal in numbers. The gene encoding the CD40 ligand on T lymphocytes is faulty. B and T lymphocyte cooperation in the immune response is compromised. The failure to interact with CD40 results in an inability of the B cell to switch from the production of IgM to the other classes of antibodies. Immunoglobulin therapy is recommended. Interleukin-12 receptor deficiency: Mycobacterial infections are frequent due to the lack of the interleukin-12 receptor. Treatment involves selective antimicrobials. T-cell and B-cell Deficiencies Severe combined immunodeficiency disease (SCID): There is a failure of early stem cells to differentiate into T and B lymphocytes. Deficiency of the interleukin-2 receptor is the most prevalent. Other problems are due to defective genes encoding ZAP-70, Janus kinase 3 and the genes involved in the DNA recombination of immune cells receptors: RAG1 and RAG2. Clinically characterized by a variety of infections, including those caused by opportunistic pathogens. Selective antibiotics, antivirals, and antifungals are available after the pathogen identification. Immunosuppressive therapy is not needed after allograft transplantation. Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome: This syndrome is associated with normal T-cell numbers with reduced functions, which get progressively worse. IgM concentrations are reduced, but IgG levels are normal. Both IgA and IgE levels are elevated. These patients have a defective WASP which is involved in actin filament assembly. Immunodeficiency with ataxia-telangiectasia: This is a deficiency of T-cells associated with a lack of coordination of movement (ataxia) and dilation of small blood vessels of the facial area (telangiectasis). T-cells and their functions are diminished to various degrees. B-cell numbers and IgM concentrations are normal to low. IgG is often reduced, and IgA is considerably reduced. There is a high incidence of malignancy, especially leukemias, in these patients. MHC deficiency (Bare leukocyte syndrome): This subjects have have fewer CD4+ or CD8+ T lymphocytes that predispose to these individuals to be prone to recurrent infections. Antibody production is affected and predispose to bacteremia. Complement Deficiencies Hereditary angioedema : This disease has an autosomal dominant genetic pattern. Caused by C1 inhibitor deficiency. Clinically characterized by generalized edema including the one leading to acute suffocation. Therapy with oxymetholone and danazol can be helpful in correcting the defect. Recurrent infections: Frequent infections by extracellular bacteria may be caused by C3 deficiency. C5 deficiency predisposes to viral infections. Patients with deficiency of the membrane attack complex (MAC) are particularly susceptible to bacteremia caused by Neisseria species. Autoimmune diseases This are caused by C2 and C4 deficiencies and mimic systemic lupus erythematosus. Phagocyte Deficiencies Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD): It is mostly an X-linked disorder. It is clinically characterized by a defective NADPH that interferes with the intracellular ability of neutrophils to kill engulfed bacteria species. NAPDH oxidase is required for the generation of peroxidase and superoxides that will kill the organisms. The intracellular survival of the organisms leads to the formation of a granuloma, an organized structure consisting of mononuclear cells. These granulomas can become large enough to obstruct the stomach, esophagus, or bladder. Patients with this disease are very susceptible to opportunistic infection by certain bacteria and fungi especially with Serratia and Burkholderia. Nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) dye reduction test confirms the diagnosis of CGD and the dichlorofluorescein (DCF) test is also useful. Aggressive therapy with wide spectrum antibiotics and antifungal agents is required. Leukocyte adhesion deficiency syndrome: Characterized by pyogenic infections including pneumonia and otitis. It is an autosomal recessive disease, and the faulty gene encodes for an integrin. There is an impaired adhesion and defective phagocytosis of bacteria. Treatment involves the use of selective antibiotics. Secondary Immunodeficiency Use of Drugs (Steroids) : Administration of steroids has direct effects on immune cell traffic and functions. T cells are more affected than B cells. Cytokine synthesis is inhibited. Nutrient Deficiencies : They are associated with impaired immune system. Affects cell-mediated immunity, antibody production, phagocyte function, complement system and cytokine synthesis. Aggravated by infections. Multiple enzymes with important roles require zinc, iron and other micronutrients. Obesity : It may cause impaired immune responses. There is altered NK function. Cytotoxicity is compromised and the ability of phagocytes to kill microorganisms. Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) : Caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which is a retrovirus transmitted sexually, perinatally or blood products. Immune dysfunction results from the direct effects of HIV and impairment of CD4 T cells. HIV proteins may act as superantigens. There is decreased responses to antigens and mitogens. Interleukin-2 and other cytokines are decreased. Infected cells may be killed by HIV-1 specific CD8+ T cells. In HIV-1 infection neutralizing antibodies appear to be ineffective in controlling viral replication and infection.
- Translation, validation and cultural adaptation of "The Eustachian Tube Dysfunction Questionnaire-7" (ETDQ-7) to Brazilian Portuguese (BR). [Journal Article]
- BJBraz J Otorhinolaryngol 2018 Apr 19
- CONCLUSIONS: It is recommended that ETDQ-7 be used to complement the clinical history of patients with chronic Eustachian tube dysfunction; it can also be used as an important tool for diagnosis, patient follow-up and treatment management.
- Risk factors of tympanoplasties in long-term observation. [Journal Article]
- OPOtolaryngol Pol 2018 Apr 30; 72(2):19-29
- The aim of the study was to evaluate risk factors influencing the results of tympanoplasties on the base of material taken from the Department of Otolaryngology and Laryngological Oncology Collegium ...
The aim of the study was to evaluate risk factors influencing the results of tympanoplasties on the base of material taken from the Department of Otolaryngology and Laryngological Oncology Collegium Medicum of Nicolaus Copernicus University in Bydgoszcz between 2004-2009. In this period 98 operations were done. The time from operation to hearing examination was 3 to 7 years, mean 5,43. Tympanoplastic operation were divided according to Tos classification. Measuring hearing results, tonal audiometry was done and mean air bone gap on four frequencies was assesed (500, 1000, 2000, 3000 Hz), according to AAO-HNS guidelines (1995). This parameter was compared between groups separated according to risk factors, that could potentially affect the results. Those risk factors were: disfunction of the Eustechian tube, localisation and size of the perforation of the tympanic membrane, damage of the ossicles, the state of the mastoid process, the number of operations, the presence of the cholesteatoma or granulating tissue, chronic otitis media in the opposite ear, smoking cigarettes, mastoidectomy, canal wall down technique. The results were analysed using statistical test.
- Functional and Anatomical Outcome of Inside Out Technique For Cholesteatoma Surgery. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Otolaryngol 2018 Apr 17
- CONCLUSIONS: Inside out mastoidectomy is a better alternative in canal wall down procedures as it not only clears the disease from the middle ear cleft, but also leaves behind a small postoperative cavity, which will preserve the hearing, decrease the cavity problems and increase the quality of life of such patients.
- Skull Base Osteomyelitis from Otitis Media Presenting as the Collet-Sicard Syndrome. [Journal Article]
- CRCase Rep Otolaryngol 2018; 2018:1407417
- Skull base osteomyelitis can involve the jugular foramen and its associated cranial nerves resulting in specific clinical syndromes. The Collet-Sicard syndrome describes the clinical manifestations o...
Skull base osteomyelitis can involve the jugular foramen and its associated cranial nerves resulting in specific clinical syndromes. The Collet-Sicard syndrome describes the clinical manifestations of palsies involving cranial nerves IX, X, XI, and XII. We present a rare atypical case of skull base osteomyelitis originating from infection of the middle ear and causing the Collet-Sicard syndrome. Caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae, this occurred in an elderly diabetic man subsequent to retention of a cotton swab in an ear with chronic suppurative otitis media. This case report illustrates the possibility of retained cotton swabs contributing to the development of otitis media, skull base osteomyelitis, and ultimately the Collet-Sicard syndrome in the ears of immune-compromised patients with chronically perforated eardrums.
- Stenting the Eustachian tube to treat chronic otitis media - a feasibility study in sheep. [Journal Article]
- HFHead Face Med 2018 May 04; 14(1):8
- CONCLUSIONS: Stenting of the Eustachian tube was successfully transferred from cadaver studies to an in-vivo application without complications. The stent was well tolerated, the middle ears were ventilated, and clearance of the auditory tube appeared possible. For fixation, it seems to be sufficient to place it only in the cartilaginous part of the Eustachian tube.
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- Aerobic bacteria associated with chronic suppurative otitis media in Angola. [Journal Article]
- IDInfect Dis Poverty 2018 May 03; 7(1):42
- CONCLUSIONS: The infection of the middle ear in CSOM is highly polymicrobial, and isolates found in nasopharynx do not correspond well with those found in ear discharge. Pathogens associated with CSOM in Angola are dominated by gram-negatives including Enterobacteriaceae and P. aeruginosa, while gram-positive enterococci also are common. Based on the results of antimicrobial susceptibility testing topical quinolones would be the preferred antibiotic therapy of CSOM in Angola. Topical antiseptics such as aluminium acetate, acetic acid or boric acid, however, may be more feasible options due to a possibly emerging antimicrobial resistance.