- Novel Tacrine-Hydroxyphenylbenzimidazole hybrids as potential multitarget drug candidates for Alzheimer's disease. [Journal Article]
- EJEur J Med Chem 2018 Feb 12; 148:255-267
- Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a severe age-dependent neurodegenerative disorder affecting millions of people, with no cure so far. The current treatments only achieve some temporary amelioration of the...
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a severe age-dependent neurodegenerative disorder affecting millions of people, with no cure so far. The current treatments only achieve some temporary amelioration of the cognition symptoms. The main characteristics of the patient brains include the accumulation of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (outside and inside the neurons) but also cholinergic deficit, increased oxidative stress and dyshomeostasis of transition metal ions. Considering the multi-factorial nature of AD, we report herein the development of a novel series of potential multi-target directed drugs which, besides the capacity to recover the cholinergic neurons, can also target other AD hallmarks. The novel series of tacrine-hydroxyphenylbenzimidazole (TAC-BIM) hybrid molecules has been designed, synthesized and studied for their multiple biological activities. These agents showed improved AChE inhibitory activity (IC50in nanomolar range), as compared with the single drug tacrine (TAC), and also a high inhibition of self-induced- and Cu-induced-Aβ aggregation (up to 75%). They also present moderate radical scavenging activity and metal chelating ability. In addition, neuroprotective studies revealed that all these tested compounds are able to inhibit the neurotoxicity induced by Aβ and Fe/AscH(-) in neuronal cells. Hence, for this set of hybrids, structure-activity relationships are discussed and finally it is highlighted their real promising interest as potential anti-AD drugs.
- Ovine liver proteome: Assessing mechanisms of seasonal weight loss tolerance between Merino and Damara sheep. [Journal Article]
- JPJ Proteomics 2018 Feb 18
- The effect of feed restriction on the liver protein profiles of two different breeds of sheep was studied. We compared Merino with the Damara, breeds with respectively low and high tolerance to nutri...
The effect of feed restriction on the liver protein profiles of two different breeds of sheep was studied. We compared Merino with the Damara, breeds with respectively low and high tolerance to nutritional stress. Each breed was grouped into two nutritional treatments: restricted (12-14% loss of live weight) and control (maintenance). The trial lasted 42 days. Animals were sacrificed and liver samples subjected to label free shotgun proteomics. The resultant proteins had both their fold change and statistical significance in an unpaired t-test calculated to identify differential protein abundance. The tool WebGestalt was utilized to perform an Overrepresentation Enrichment Analysis (ORA) for gene ontology terms associated with the significant proteins. We further validated shotgun proteomics findings using a selected reaction monitoring (SRM)-based targeted proteomics approach, where similar trends in regulation were obtained for a subset of relevant proteins across an independent cohort of animals. Results confirm that Damara has adapted to nutritional stress by mobilizing stored fatty acids within adipose tissue and converting them to energy more efficiently than Merino. Finally, Merino had an overabundance pattern primarily directed to protein synthesis pathways. Regulated proteins identified may be used as a basis for marker selection towards tolerance to nutritional stress.
- Structural and functional maturation of skin during metamorphosis in the Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus). [Journal Article]
- CTCell Tissue Res 2018 Feb 20
- To establish if the developmental changes in the primary barrier and osmoregulatory capacity of Atlantic halibut skin are modified during metamorphosis, histological, histochemical, gene expression a...
To establish if the developmental changes in the primary barrier and osmoregulatory capacity of Atlantic halibut skin are modified during metamorphosis, histological, histochemical, gene expression and electrophysiological measurements were made. The morphology of the ocular and abocular skin started to diverge during the metamorphic climax and ocular skin appeared thicker and more stratified. Neutral mucins were the main glycoproteins produced by the goblet cells in skin during metamorphosis. Moreover, the number of goblet cells producing neutral mucins increased during metamorphosis and asymmetry in their abundance was observed between ocular and abocular skin. The increase in goblet cell number and their asymmetric abundance in skin was concomitant with the period that thyroid hormones (THs) increase and suggests that they may be under the control of these hormones. Several mucin transcripts were identified in metamorphosing halibut transcriptomes and Muc18 and Muc5AC were characteristic of the body skin. Na+, K+-ATPase positive (NKA) cells were observed in skin of all metamorphic stages but their number significantly decreased with the onset of metamorphosis. No asymmetry was observed between ocular and abocular skin in NKA cells. The morphological changes observed were linked to modified skin barrier function as revealed by modifications in its electrophysiological properties. However, the maturation of the skin functional characteristics preceded structural maturation and occurred at stage 8 prior to the metamorphic climax. Treatment of Atlantic halibut with the THs disrupter methimazole (MMI) affected the number of goblet cells producing neutral mucins and the NKA cells. The present study reveals that the asymmetric development of the skin in Atlantic halibut is TH sensitive and is associated with metamorphosis and that this barrier's functional properties mature earlier and are independent of metamorphosis.
- Revisiting the metabolic syndrome: the emerging role of aquaglyceroporins. [Review]
- CMCell Mol Life Sci 2018 Feb 20
- The metabolic syndrome (MetS) includes a group of medical conditions such as insulin resistance (IR), dyslipidemia and hypertension, all associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease. ...
The metabolic syndrome (MetS) includes a group of medical conditions such as insulin resistance (IR), dyslipidemia and hypertension, all associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Increased visceral and ectopic fat deposition are also key features in the development of IR and MetS, with pathophysiological sequels on adipose tissue, liver and muscle. The recent recognition of aquaporins (AQPs) involvement in adipose tissue homeostasis has opened new perspectives for research in this field. The members of the aquaglyceroporin subfamily are specific glycerol channels implicated in energy metabolism by facilitating glycerol outflow from adipose tissue and its systemic distribution and uptake by liver and muscle, unveiling these membrane channels as key players in lipid balance and energy homeostasis. Being involved in a variety of pathophysiological mechanisms including IR and obesity, AQPs are considered promising drug targets that may prompt novel therapeutic approaches for metabolic disorders such as MetS. This review addresses the interplay between adipose tissue, liver and muscle, which is the basis of the metabolic syndrome, and highlights the involvement of aquaglyceroporins in obesity and related pathologies and how their regulation in different organs contributes to the features of the metabolic syndrome.
- Sulfenamide and sulfonamide derivatives of metformin can exert anti-coagulant and pro-fibrinolytic properties. [Journal Article]
- CBChem Biol Interact 2018 Feb 16
- Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterised not only by hyperglycaemia and insulin resistance but also an impaired balance between the processes of coagulation and fibrinolysis. The aim of this ...
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterised not only by hyperglycaemia and insulin resistance but also an impaired balance between the processes of coagulation and fibrinolysis. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of metformin, a widely-used oral anti-diabetic drug, phenformin and eight sulfenamide and sulfonamide derivatives of metformin on several haemostasis parameters. Thrombin Time (TT) tests were performed according to the available commercial method. The activity of factor X was conducted based on deficient plasma factor X. The activity of two main enzymes involved in haemostasis, thrombin and plasmin, was measured spectrophotometrically with chromogenic substrates. Protein C and antithrombin III (AT) activity assays using chromogenic substrates were conducted to determine the effect of the derivatives of metformin on these both naturally occurring anticoagulants. Two of the compounds, sulfenamide with hexyl tail and para-nitro-benzenesulfonamide significantly shortened TT. ortho-nitro sulfonamide at a concentration of 0.3-1.5 μmol/mL contributed to a significant decrease in the activity of factor X. However, sulfenamides with cyclohexyl, butyl and branched ethyl-hexyl tails at 1.5 of μmol/mL increased its activity, and simultaneously shortened PT. Additionally, ortho-nitro-benzenesulfonamide at concentrations of 1.5 μmol/mL was found to significantly decrease reaction velocity (↓ dA/dt) in the thrombin activity assay. On contrary, it was noticed that branched sulfenamide at the concentration of 1.5 μmol/mL significantly increased the enzymatic activity of plasmin. Metformin, phenformin and octyl and butyl sulfenamides were associated with a significant increase in the activity of AT. Hexyl sulfenamide and para-nitro- as well as para-trifluoro-ortho-nitro-benzenesulfonamide contributed to the decrease in the activity of protein C, while the other tested compounds did not affect its activity. In conclusion, 2-nitro-benzenesulfonamide derivative of metformin presents highly beneficial anticoagulant properties. This compound is therefore promising candidate for further in vitro and in vivo studies.
- A case of a warfarinized renal cancer patient monitored for prothrombin time-international normalized ratio during methadone introduction. [Journal Article]
- JCJA Clin Rep 2017; 3(1):35
- CONCLUSIONS: In an oral warfarinized patient, methadone seemed to undergo different metabolism than oxycodone. When warfarin and methadone are used together, we have to consider their interaction by comparing the competitive inhibition of CYP2C9 to the induction of CYP3A4 by methadone, because CYP3A4 metabolize various drugs including oxycodone.
- The timing of early therapeutic strategies has a significant impact on Crohn's disease prognosis. [Journal Article]
- DLDig Liver Dis 2018 Feb 01
- CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the timing of therapeutic strategies does affects the CD outcomes: whereas an early surgery had a preventive effect on the occurrence of disabling events, the introduction of medication in the first semester after surgery had a preventive effect on the need for reoperation.
- Hybrid Retrograde Celiac Artery Stenting for Acute Mesenteric Ischemia after Gastric Surgery. [Journal Article]
- AVAnn Vasc Surg 2018 Feb 15
- CONCLUSIONS: Ischemic hepatitis is a rare but serious complication of CA/SMA occlusive disease. Its occurrence is at increased risk after surgeries where collateral flow is compromised. The endovascular treatment is currently the preferred approach to treat visceral arteries occlusive disease, however, antegrade CA cannulation can be tricky and, in an open abdomen scenario, retrograde approach from the splenic artery can be an additional resource. This case demonstrates the flexibility of endovascular techniques and that they can provide useful solutions even during open surgery.
- Halophytic herbs of the Mediterranean basin: An alternative approach to health. [Review]
- FCFood Chem Toxicol 2018 Feb 15
- Wild native species are usually grown under severe and stressful conditions, while a special category includes halophytic species that are tolerant to high salinity levels. Native halophytes are valu...
Wild native species are usually grown under severe and stressful conditions, while a special category includes halophytic species that are tolerant to high salinity levels. Native halophytes are valuable sources of bioactive molecules whose content is higher in saline than normal conditions, since the adaptation to salinity mechanisms involve apart from changes in physiological functions the biosynthesis of protectant molecules. These compounds include secondary metabolites with several beneficial health effects which have been known since ancient times and used for medicinal purposes. Recent trends in pharmaceutical industry suggest the use of natural compounds as alternative to synthetic ones, with native herbs being strong candidates for this purpose due to their increased and variable content in health promoting compounds. In this review, an introductory section about the importance of native herbs and halophyte species for traditional and modern medicine will be presented. A list of the most important halophytes of the Mediterranean basin will follow, with special focus on their chemical composition and their reported by clinical and ethnopharmacological studies health effects. The review concludes by suggesting future requirements and perspectives for further exploitation of these valuable species within the context of sustainability and climate change.
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- The phenotypic heterogeneity of hereditary diffuse gastric cancer: the report of one family with early-onset disease. [Journal Article]
- GEGastrointest Endosc 2018 Feb 15
- CONCLUSIONS: HDGC is a heterogeneous disease regarding clinical behavior, endoscopic findings, histopathologic features, and immunophenotypic/molecular profile. The presence of bizarre, pleomorphic cells in endoscopic biopsy specimens is suggestive of advanced disease and should prompt clinical intervention. The involvement of a full multidisciplinary team is essential for the management of these patients.