- Is There any Relationship Between Myocardial Repolarization Parameters and the Frequency of Ventricular Premature Contractions? [Journal Article]
- ABArq Bras Cardiol 2018; 110(6):534-541
- CONCLUSIONS: Tp-e interval and Tp-e/QTc ratio increased in patients with high VPC number. Our study showed that VPCs may have a negative effect on myocardial repolarization. This interaction may lead to an increased risk of malignant arrhythmias.
- Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis: case report and review of the literature. [Journal Article]
- EPElectron Physician 2018; 10(8):7174-7179
- Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis (TPP) is a rare and potentially lethal complication of hyperthyroidism. It is characterized by sudden onset paralysis associated with hypokalemia. Management includes pr...
Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis (TPP) is a rare and potentially lethal complication of hyperthyroidism. It is characterized by sudden onset paralysis associated with hypokalemia. Management includes prompt normalization of potassium, which results in resolution of the paralysis. Definitive treatment of hyperthyroidism resolves TPP completely.
- Possibility of venoarterial extracorporeal membranous oxygenator being a bridging therapy for hemodynamic deterioration of pulmonary tumor thrombotic microangiopathy prior to initiating chemotherapy: A case report. [Journal Article]
- MMedicine (Baltimore) 2018; 97(37):e12169
- CONCLUSIONS: VA-ECMO rapidly stabilized the hemodynamic status of this patient with PTTM, and may thus be a possible bridging therapy for deterioration of PTTM prior to initiating imatinib.
- Full Title: Analytical quantification, intoxication case series, and pharmacological mechanism of action for N-ethylnorpentylone (N-ethylpentylone or ephylone). [Journal Article]
- DTDrug Test Anal 2018 Sep 11
- Synthetic cathinones continue to proliferate in clandestine drug markets worldwide. N-ethylnorpentylone (also known as N-ethylpentylone or ephylone) is a popular emergent cathinone, yet little inform...
Synthetic cathinones continue to proliferate in clandestine drug markets worldwide. N-ethylnorpentylone (also known as N-ethylpentylone or ephylone) is a popular emergent cathinone, yet little information is available about its toxicology and pharmacology. Here we characterize the analytical quantification, clinical presentation and pharmacological mechanism of action for N-ethylnorpentylone. Liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was used to quantify N-ethylnorpentylone in blood obtained from human cases. Clinical features exhibited by the intoxicated individuals are described. The activity of N-ethylnorpentylone at plasma membrane transporters for dopamine (DAT), norepinephrine (NET) and 5-HT (SERT) was assessed using in vitro assays measuring uptake inhibition and evoked release of [3 H] neurotransmitters in rat brain synaptosomes. Our LC-MS/MS method assayed N-ethylnorpentylone concentrations with limits of detection and quantification of 1 and 5 ng/mL, respectively. Quantitation was linear from 5 to 500 ng/mL, and the method displayed specificity and reproducibility. Circulating concentrations of N-ethylnorpentylone ranged from 7 to 170 ng/mL in clinical cases, and the associated symptoms included palpitations, tachycardia, agitation, hallucinations, coma and death. N-Ethylnorpentylone was a potent inhibitor at DAT (IC50 =37 nM), NET (IC50 =105 nM) and SERT (IC50 =383 nM) but displayed no transporter releasing activity. We present a validated method for quantifying N-ethylnorpentylone in human case work. The drug is a psychomotor stimulant capable of inducing serious cardiovascular and neurological side-effects which can be fatal. In vitro findings indicate that N-ethylnorpentylone exerts its effects by potent blockade of DAT and NET, thereby elevating extracellular levels of dopamine and norepinephrine in the brain and periphery.
- Coexistence of Brugada and Wolff Parkinson White syndromes: A case report and review of the literature. [Journal Article]
- TKTurk Kardiyol Dern Ars 2018; 46(6):488-493
- A 31-year-old male patient presented with complaints of palpitations, dizziness, and recurrent episodes of syncope. A 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) revealed manifest ventricular preexcitation, whic...
A 31-year-old male patient presented with complaints of palpitations, dizziness, and recurrent episodes of syncope. A 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) revealed manifest ventricular preexcitation, which suggested Wolff Parkinson White syndrome. In addition, an incomplete right bundle branch block and a 3-mm ST segment elevation ending with inverted T-waves in V2 were consistent with coved-type (type 1) Brugada pattern. An electrophysiological study was performed, and during the mapping, the earliest ventricular activation with the shortest A-V interval was found on the mitral annulus posterolateral site. After successful radiofrequency catheter ablation of the accessory pathway, the Brugada pattern on the ECG changed, which prompted an ajmaline provocation test. A type 1 Brugada ECG pattern occurred following the administration of ajmaline. Considering the probable symptom combinations of these 2 coexisting syndromes and the presence of recurrent episodes of syncope, programmed ventricular stimulation was performed and subsequently, ventricular fibrillation was induced. An implantable cardioverter-defibrillator was implanted soon after.
- Other Antidepressants. [Journal Article]
- HEHandb Exp Pharmacol 2018 Sep 08
- This chapter addresses the following FDA-approved medications for the treatment of major depressive disorder available for use in the United States including bupropion, mirtazapine, trazodone, vortio...
This chapter addresses the following FDA-approved medications for the treatment of major depressive disorder available for use in the United States including bupropion, mirtazapine, trazodone, vortioxetine, and vilazodone. These medications do not belong to one of the previously featured classes of antidepressants discussed in the preceding chapters. Each medication featured in this chapter has a unique structure and properties that target diverse receptors in the central nervous system. These diverse targets are distinct from other classes of medications used to treat major depressive disorder. This chapter will provide an overview of each medication's indication for use, history of development, pharmacology, metabolism, dosing recommendations, onset of action, use in special populations, safety and tolerability, adverse effects, potential interactions with additional medications, and data regarding possible overdose with available treatments.Bupropion was initially developed for its combined effects on the norepinephrine and dopamine neurotransmitters. Currently, bupropion is the only antidepressant on the market in the United States with no appreciable activity on serotonin concentrations in the central nervous system. Bupropion is extensively metabolized in humans into three active metabolites including hydroxybupropion, threohydrobupropion, and erythrohydrobuproprion each with substantial antidepressant activity. The most serious side effect of bupropion is the development of seizures, so the dose must be gradually titrated to a maximum dose of 450 mg per day of the immediate-release formulation and 400 mg per day of the sustained-release formulation. Additional adverse effects include agitation, dry mouth, insomnia, headaches, migraines, nausea, vomiting, constipation, and tremor. The onset of action of bupropion is 2 weeks with full efficacy attained at 4 weeks of treatment. Bupropion produced similar depression remission rates when compared to SSRIs with a median time to relapse of 44 weeks. Bupropion has additionally been approved for smoking cessation and may have a combined role in treating nicotine cravings and depression.Mirtazapine has a unique method of action by enhancing norepinephrine and serotonin neurotransmission by blocking the alpha-2 presynaptic adrenoceptors resulting in increased release of serotonin at the nerve terminals. Mirtazapine additionally binds to the 5-HT2, 5-HT3, and H1 receptors resulting in increased sedation, which is the most common side effect. Additional side effects include increased appetite and weight gain, dizziness, and transient elevations in cholesterol levels and liver function tests. Mirtazapine is unlike any other antidepressant in that it also has a hormonal effect that reduces cortisol levels within the body. Patients on mirtazapine showed significant improvement in symptoms of major depressive disorder within the first 1-2 weeks of treatment with long-term studies at 40 weeks showing continued improvements in response rates in addition to lower relapse rates. Mirtazapine has an antagonistic effect at the central presynaptic 5-HT2 receptors and alpha-2 adrenergic inhibitory autoreceptors and heteroreceptors resulting in increased norepinephrine release with an indirect release of serotonin due to increased noradrenergic input to the raphe nucleus. Mirtazapine has an effective dose range from 15 to 45 mg once daily with a long half-life preventing dose adjustments more often than every 1-2 weeks.Trazadone is a 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptor antagonist and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. While trazodone has only been FDA approved for use in the treatment of major depressive disorder, it has been used off label for numerous conditions including insomnia, anxiety, dementia, Alzheimer's disease, substance abuse, schizophrenia, bulimia, and fibromyalgia. The most common adverse reaction is drowsiness, followed by dizziness, dry mouth, and nervousness. In the United States, trazadone is the second most commonly prescribed agent used to treat insomnia. The hypnotic action of this medication at lower doses is attributed primarily to the antagonism of the 5-HT2A receptors, H1 receptors, and alpha-1 adrenergic receptors. The most active metabolite is m-chlorophenylpiperazine produced by the CYP3A4 enzyme, which is a more profound inhibitor of serotonin reuptake as compared to the parent molecule of trazadone. The maximum outpatient dose should not exceed 400 mg per day in divided doses, but in hospitalized patients, the dose may be increased to a maximum dose of 600 mg daily in divided doses while the patient is being actively monitored for side effects. One third of inpatients and one half of outpatients had a significant therapeutic response to trazadone by the end of the first week with the remainder of patients responding in 2-4 weeks of therapy.Vortioxetine is a novel antidepressant classified by the World Health Organization as a N06AX antidepressant that was derived from studies targeting the combination of direct serotonin transporter inhibition and 5-HT1A receptor modulation leading to rapid desensitization of the somatodendritic 5-HT1A autoreceptors and activation of the postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptors. This medication is an antagonist at 5-HT3, 5-HT1D, and 5-HT7 receptors, an agonist at 5-HT1A receptors, and a partial agonist at 5-HT1B receptors. Blockade of the 5-HT3 receptor was noted to produce increased levels of serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine, acetylcholine, and histamine in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, which are known to be associated with the development of depression. The most common adverse effect is nausea followed by sexual dysfunction, constipation, and vomiting. The maximum dose of vortioxetine is 20 mg daily with improvement in symptoms of depression noted at 2 weeks with a full therapeutic effect observed at 4-6 weeks.Vilazodone is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and 5-HT1A receptor partial agonist. This medication works by enhancing serotonergic activity in the central nervous system through selective inhibition of serotonin reuptake with no significant effects noted on norepinephrine or dopamine uptake. Vilazodone additionally binds with high affinity to the 5-HT1A receptors as a partial agonist resulting in faster onset of action, greater efficacy, and better tolerability with reduced sexual side effects when compared to other SSRIs. The most common adverse effects were diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and insomnia. Additional reported adverse effects included dizziness, dry mouth, fatigue, abnormal dreams, decreased libido, arthralgias, and palpitations which were self-limited with resolution in 4-5 days after starting the medication. The recommended therapeutic dose of vilazodone is 40 mg daily with improvement noted in depressive symptoms within 1 week of initiating therapy with increased remission rates noted at 6 weeks of therapy.The medications featured in this chapter do not fall within the major categories of antidepressant classes but add additional unique mechanisms for the treatment of major depressive disorder. Each medication targets different receptors in the central nervous system involved in the development of depression. Resolution of depressive symptoms and response rates of these medications are similar to SSRIs with reduced side effects that can often lead to discontinuation of therapy. Use of these unique medications allows clinicians to target specific symptoms and comorbidities often associated with depression resulting in improved symptom resolution and long-term maintenance of remission.
- Searching for the Culprit: Metastases from a Cancer of Unknown Primary. [Journal Article]
- CRCase Rep Oncol 2018 May-Aug; 11(2):541-548
- We report a case of metastases from a cancer of unknown primary whose primary site could not be identified during the appropriate pretreatment evaluation. The patient was a 58-year-old woman with a h...
We report a case of metastases from a cancer of unknown primary whose primary site could not be identified during the appropriate pretreatment evaluation. The patient was a 58-year-old woman with a history of passive smoking and with no history of cancer in the family. Her current condition started with asthenia, adynamia, and pallor, followed by palpitations. An abdominopelvic computed tomography (CT) scan was performed, showing multiple osteolytic lesions distributed in all bone structures and axillary adenopathy on the left side. As part of the approach and given the high suspicion of multiple myeloma, tests were performed. The results were negative for multiple myeloma. A PET-CT scan was performed and showed left axillary adenopathy. The breasts and other organs were not affected. Left axillary lymph node resection revealed breast primary metastatic pleomorphic lobular carcinoma. Due to the metastatic disease (caused by the primary breast cancer), it was decided to start chemotherapy.
- Laparoscopic Management in Morgagni Hernia - Short Series and Review of Literature. [Journal Article]
- CChirurgia (Bucur) 2018 Jul-Aug; 113(4):551-557
- Morgagni hernia occurs after a congenital retrosternal diaphragmatic defect; it is a rare form of diaphragmatic hernia (1-3% of cases). In general, this pathology is diagnosed in children; in adults ...
Morgagni hernia occurs after a congenital retrosternal diaphragmatic defect; it is a rare form of diaphragmatic hernia (1-3% of cases). In general, this pathology is diagnosed in children; in adults it is frequently discovered in emergency or incidentally. Methods: We prospectively evaluated a series of 8 patients admitted to First Surgical Clinic, St. Spiridon Hospital, Iasi during the period 2011-2017. Results: Out of 8 patients, 6 were operated on, one patient refusing surgery (followed periodically); the patient who was 91 years old had serious associated diseases that made surgery contraindicated. Symptomatology was nonspecific: in 5 cases Morgagni hernia was discovered during the exploration of an associated pathology, either with cardiopulmonary symptoms of dyspnea or palpitations. In 2 cases, the clinical aspect suggested an occlusive syndrome (the herniated organ is usually the transverse colon). The laparoscopic approach was used in all cases: two conversions were recorded due to the tight adherences of the herniated viscera (gastric, colon, epiplon). In 4 cases, the surgical cure of hernia was performed by suture and in 2 cases with prosthesis: dual mesh in one case and polypropylene mesh in another case. We did not register morbidity and the mean postoperative stay was 4 days (range 2-6 days). Conclusions: Hernia Morgagni betrays a rare pathology. The most common is asymptomatic but in complicated cases it is a cause of acute surgical abdomen. Surgical treatment is indicated even for asymptomatic cases due to serious complications Morgagni hernia may develop. The laparoscopic approach is ideal, as reduction of viscera in the abdomen is easy and the defect will be repaired by suturing or using a prosthesis, depending on its size.
- A 52-year-old woman with ventricular tachycardia. [Journal Article]
- HHeart 2018 Sep 04
- A 52-year-old woman with shortness of breath and palpitations was referred to a cardiologist. A 24-hour Holter demonstrated high density (37%) of ventricular premature beats (VPBs) and long runs of n...
A 52-year-old woman with shortness of breath and palpitations was referred to a cardiologist. A 24-hour Holter demonstrated high density (37%) of ventricular premature beats (VPBs) and long runs of non-sustained (eventually sustained) monomorphic ventricular tachycardia (VT) with the same morphology as several VPBs detected in a 12-lead ECG (figure 1A). A transthoracic echocardiogram was performed, and the patient's evaluation was completed with a functional and gadolinium-enhanced cardiovascular MR (CMR) study (figure 1B,C) to assess structural heart disease. In a follow-up visit, an electrophysiological study (EPS) was performed to identify the origin of VPBs and VT (figure 1D).heartjnl;heartjnl-2018-313347v1/F1F1F1Figure 1(A) A 12-lead ECG. (B) Cine CMR-SSFP (steady-state-free-precession) sequence on a three-chamber view. (C) Inversion-recovery gradient echo CMR pulse sequence for delayed enhancement assessment. (D) Three-dimensional electroanatomic voltage mapping of the left ventricular cavity (cranial left anterior oblique view). CMR, cardiovascular MR.
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- The BioMonitor 2 insertable cardiac monitor: Clinical experience with a novel implantable cardiac monitor. [Journal Article]
- JEJ Electrocardiol 2018 Sep - Oct; 51(5):751-755
- CONCLUSIONS: Implantation of the novel BioMonitor 2 ILR is fast and uncomplicated. Initial sensing values are good and improve over time.