- Rapid and sensitive detection of salmonid alphavirus using TaqMan real-time PCR. [Journal Article]
- MCMol Cell Probes 2017 Apr 19
- Salmonid alphavirus (SAV) infection has led to the spread of salmon pancreas disease (PD) and sleeping disease (SD) to salmonids in several countries in Europe, resulting in tremendous economic losse...
Salmonid alphavirus (SAV) infection has led to the spread of salmon pancreas disease (PD) and sleeping disease (SD) to salmonids in several countries in Europe, resulting in tremendous economic losses to the fish farming industry. Recently, with increases in the fish import trade, many countries in which SAV has been unreported, such as China, may be seriously threatened by these diseases. It is therefore necessary to develop efficient detection methods for the prevention and diagnosis of SAV infection. In this study, a rapid and sensitive TaqMan real-time PCR method was established and assessed for this purpose. A specificity assay showed no cross-reactions with other common RNA viruses. Regression analysis and standard curves calculated from the Ct values of 10-fold serial dilutions of the standard plasmid showed that the assay was highly reproducible over a wide range of RNA input concentrations. The real-time PCR assay was able to detect SAV at a concentration as low as 1.5 × 10(1) copies, indicating that it is 10(7) times more sensitive than the approved conventional RT-PCR method (detection limit, 1.5 × 10(7) copies) after use on the same samples. Assessment of infected fish samples showed that this assay has a higher sensitivity than the previously reported Q_nsP1 assay. Thus, this TaqMan real-time PCR assay provides a rapid, sensitive, and specific detection method for SAV, offering improved technical support for the clinical diagnosis and epidemiology of SAV.
- Xenotransplantation of layer-by-layer encapsulated non-human primate islets with a specified immunosuppressive drug protocol. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Control Release 2017 Apr 19
- Islet transplantation is as effective as but also less immunogenic than pancreas transplantation for the treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus. However, as the complete elimination of immunogenicity ...
Islet transplantation is as effective as but also less immunogenic than pancreas transplantation for the treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus. However, as the complete elimination of immunogenicity still remains a major obstacle in islet transplantation, layer-by-layer encapsulation (LbL) of pancreatic islets using biocompatible polymers offers a rational approach to reducing host immune response towards transplanted islets. We investigated the effect of LbL of non-human primate (NHP) islets on reducing immunogenicity as a preclinical model since NHPs have close phylogenetic and immunological relationship with human. LbL with three-layers of polyethylene glycol (PEG) molecules (SH-6-arm-PEG-NHS, 6-arm-PEG-catechol and linear PEG-SH) showed a uniform nano-shielding on islets without the loss of viability or function of islets. An immunosuppressive drug protocol was also combined to improve the survival rate of the transplanted islets in vivo. A xenorecipient (C57BL/6 mice) of LbL islet transplanted along with our immunosuppressive drug protocol showed 100% survival rate for 150days after transplantation. On the other hand, naked islet recipients showed poor survival time of 5.5±1.4days without drugs and 77.5±42days with the drug protocol. Immunohistochemistry of the transplanted grafts and serum cytokine concentration demonstrated less immunogenicity in the LbL islet transplanted recipients compared with the naked islet ones.
- Establishment of a non-invasive method for stress evaluation in farmed salmon based on direct fecal corticoid metabolites measurement. [Journal Article]
- FSFish Shellfish Immunol 2017 Apr 19
- Fish welfare is an important issue for growth of the aquaculture industry. Stress responses represent animal's natural reactions to challenging conditions and could be used as a welfare indicator. Co...
Fish welfare is an important issue for growth of the aquaculture industry. Stress responses represent animal's natural reactions to challenging conditions and could be used as a welfare indicator. Cortisol level is relevant to fish welfare condition, and is a readily measured component of the primary stress response system. Generally, cortisol is measured by blood sampling. However, fish blood cortisol level could be instantly influenced by handling-stress at sampling. Fecal corticoid metabolites (FCM) are a mixture of several different metabolites with a wide range of polarities. Thus, feces could be promising alternative less handling-sensitive and non-invasive biological matrices for cortisol evaluation in Atlantic salmon. In this study we developed non-invasive method for determination of fecal corticoid metabolites in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). It was demonstrated that salmon FCM extracted from salmon feces is insoluble in non-polar solvents like diethyl ether, but well soluble in polar solvents like methanol. The proper extraction ratio could be one ml 100% methanol for 100 μL of the liquid part of salmon feces or 100 mg of the solid part. The FCM directly detected in unextracted liquid part of feces correlated well with the FCM extracted from both liquid and solid part of the corresponding samples, without significant difference. Thus, it is feasible to measure FCM directly in the liquid part of salmon feces without any extraction procedure. Then, we applied this assay for FCM analysis in the group of salmon that experienced salmon pancreas disease (PD) and amoebic gill disease (AGD). We demonstrated 1) both plasma cortisol and FCM increased significantly during the outbreak of inflammatory disease (P < 0.01). Plasma cortisol level was elevated from 28 ± 40 ng/ml to 164.4 ± 62.5 ng/ml, FCM from 14.4 ± 13.2 ng/ml to 170.7 ± 89.7 ng/ml 2) Growth and starvation has no significant impact on either cortisol or FCM level. 3) FCM correlated well with plasma cortisol level (P < 0.01). Furthermore, there seems more individual variation in plasma cortisol levels than in FCM levels. These results suggest FCM could be directly analyzed in liquid part of salmon feces without extraction. This directly detected FCM level could represent the total fecal FCM level and plasma cortisol level. This simple and non-invasive method makes FCM a proper indicator for salmon welfare.
- Other organ involvement and clinical aspects of Wilson disease. [Journal Article]
- HCHandb Clin Neurol 2017; 142:157-169
- Wilson disease (WD) is a rare disorder of copper metabolism that presents mainly with hepatic and neuropsychiatric features. Copper accumulates not only in the liver and brain, but also in other orga...
Wilson disease (WD) is a rare disorder of copper metabolism that presents mainly with hepatic and neuropsychiatric features. Copper accumulates not only in the liver and brain, but also in other organs. Liver injury can also be the cause of secondary impairment of other tissues. Therefore, the clinical manifestation of WD may be renal, cardiac, skin, osteoarticular, or endocrinologic and include other organ disturbances. Renal abnormalities include tubular dysfunction (e.g., renal tubular acidosis, aminoaciduria) and nephrolithiasis. Bone demineralization is a common manifestation in patients with WD. Cardiac injury may include arrhythmia, cardiomyopathy, and autonomic dysfunction. Different endocrine system manifestations, such as infertility or repeated miscarriages, growth and puberty disturbances, and hypoparathyroidism, are observed. Other important clinical aspects of WD include pancreas involvement, immunologic abnormalities, the presence of lipomas, and skin changes. Although other organ involvement is not common in WD and usually not severe, delayed diagnosis may lead to irreversible changes in organs and tissues. Therefore, awareness of other possible WD presentations is important in the differential diagnosis of WD.
- Cell Therapy for Type 1 Diabetes: Current and Future Strategies. [Review]
- CDCurr Diab Rep 2017; 17(6):37
- Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is defined by an autoimmune destruction of insulin producing β-cells located in the endocrine part of the pancreas, the islets of Langerhans. As exogenous insulin administration...
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is defined by an autoimmune destruction of insulin producing β-cells located in the endocrine part of the pancreas, the islets of Langerhans. As exogenous insulin administration fails at preventing severe complications associated with this disease, cell replacement therapies are being considered as a means to treat T1D. The purpose of this manuscript is to review the challenges associated with current strategies and discuss the potential of stem cell therapy for the treatment of T1D.
- Tranexamic acid for treatment and prophylaxis of bleeding and hyperfibrinolysis. [Journal Article]
- WKWien Klin Wochenschr 2017 Apr 21
- Uncontrolled massive bleeding with subsequent derangement of the coagulation system is a major challenge in the management of both surgical and seriously injured patients. Under physiological conditi...
Uncontrolled massive bleeding with subsequent derangement of the coagulation system is a major challenge in the management of both surgical and seriously injured patients. Under physiological conditions activators and inhibitors of coagulation regulate the sensitive balance between clot formation and fibrinolysis. In some cases, excessive and diffuse bleeding is caused by systemic activation of fibrinolysis, i. e. hyperfibrinolysis (HF). Uncontrolled HF is associated with a high mortality. Polytrauma patients and those undergoing surgical procedures involving organs rich in plasminogen proactivators (e. g. liver, kidney, pancreas, uterus and prostate gland) are at a high risk for HF. Antifibrinolytics, such as tranexamic acid (TXA) are used for prophylaxis and treatment of bleeding caused by a local or generalized HF as well as other hemorrhagic conditions. TXA is a synthetic lysine analogue that has been available in Austria since 1966. TXA is of utmost importance in the prevention and treatment of traumatic and perioperative bleeding due to the resulting reduction in perioperative blood loss and blood transfusion requirements. The following article presents the different fields of application of TXA with particular respect to indications and dosages, based on a literature search and on current guidelines.
- A rare anastomosis between the common hepatic artery and the superior mesenteric artery: a case report. [Journal Article]
- SRSurg Radiol Anat 2017 Apr 21
- For decades, anastomoses between unpaired branches of the abdominal aorta have attracted the attention of anatomists, surgeons and radiologists, due to their significance in many clinical procedures....
For decades, anastomoses between unpaired branches of the abdominal aorta have attracted the attention of anatomists, surgeons and radiologists, due to their significance in many clinical procedures. This report presents a rare anastomosis between the common hepatic artery and the superior mesenteric artery, which gave off three branches to the jejunum. The diameter of the anastomosis measured at the point of its branching off the common hepatic artery and at the level of union with the superior mesenteric artery was 4.46 and 4.19 mm, respectively. Moreover, the anastomosis gave off the branch to the head of the pancreas. Both embryological background and potential clinical implications of this variation are discussed. Knowledge of these vascular connections may be important for diagnostic and surgical procedures.
- Piscirickettsia salmonis infection in cultured lumpfish (Cyclopterus lumpus L.). [Journal Article]
- JFJ Fish Dis 2017 Apr 21
- A Piscirickettsia salmonis infection was diagnosed in lumpfish (Cyclopterus lumpus L.) juveniles held in a marine research facility on the west coast of Ireland. The main clinical signs and pathology...
A Piscirickettsia salmonis infection was diagnosed in lumpfish (Cyclopterus lumpus L.) juveniles held in a marine research facility on the west coast of Ireland. The main clinical signs and pathology included marked ascites, severe multifocal liver necrosis and severe diffuse inflammation and necrosis of the exocrine pancreas and peri-pancreatic adipose tissue. Numerous Piscirickettsia-like organisms were observed by histopathology in the affected organs, and the bacterial species was characterized by molecular analysis. Sequencing of the partial 16S rDNA gene and internal transcribed spacer region showed the lumpfish sequences to be closely related to previously identified Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) sequences from Ireland. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first detection of P. salmonis in lumpfish worldwide. The infection is considered potentially significant in terms of lumpfish health and biosecurity.
- Bringing the human pancreas into focus: new paradigms for the understanding of Type 1 diabetes. [Review]
- DMDiabet Med 2017 Apr 20
- Type 1 diabetes affects increasingly large numbers of people globally (including at least half a million children under the age of 14 years) and it remains an illness with life-long and often devasta...
Type 1 diabetes affects increasingly large numbers of people globally (including at least half a million children under the age of 14 years) and it remains an illness with life-long and often devastating consequences. It is surprising, therefore, that the underlying aetiology of Type 1 diabetes remains poorly understood. This is largely because the cellular and molecular processes leading to the loss of β cells in the pancreas have rarely been studied at, or soon after, the onset of disease. Where such studies have been undertaken, a number of surprises have emerged which serve to challenge conventional wisdom. In particular, it is increasingly understood that the process of islet inflammation (insulitis) is much less florid in humans than in certain animal models. Moreover, the profile of immune cells involved in the inflammatory attack on β cells is variable and this variation occurs at the level of individual patients. As a result, two distinct profiles of insulitis have now been defined that are differentially aggressive and that might, therefore, require specifically tailored therapeutic approaches to slow the progression of disease. In addition, the outcomes are also different in that the more aggressive form (termed 'CD20Hi') is associated with extensive β-cell loss and an early age of disease onset (<7 years), while the less aggressive profile (known as 'CD20Lo') is associated with later onset (>13 years) and the retention of a higher proportion of residual β cells. In the present review, these new findings are explained and their implications evaluated in terms of future therapies. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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- Gamma Amino Butyric Acid Attenuates Brain Oxidative Damage Associated with Insulin Alteration in Streptozotocin-Treated Rats. [Journal Article]
- IJIndian J Clin Biochem 2017; 32(2):207-213
- The aim of the current study was to evaluate the role of γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) in insulin disturbance and hyperglycemia associated with brain oxidative damage in streptozotocin-treated rats. St...
The aim of the current study was to evaluate the role of γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) in insulin disturbance and hyperglycemia associated with brain oxidative damage in streptozotocin-treated rats. Streptozotocin (STZ) was administered to male albino rats as a single intraperitoneal dose (60 mg/kg body weight). GABA (200 mg/Kg body weight/day) was administered daily via gavages during 3 weeks to STZ-treated-rats. Male albino rats Sprague-Dawley (10 ± 2 weeks old; 120 ± 10 g body weight) were divided into 4 groups of 6 rats and treated in parallel. (1) Control group: received distilled water, (2) GABA group: received GABA, (3) STZ group: STZ-treated rats received distilled water, (4) STZ + GABA group: STZ-treated rats received GABA. Rats were sacrificed after a fasting period of 12 h next last dose of GABA. The results obtained showed that STZ-treatment produced hyperglycemia and insulin deficiency (similar to type1 Diabetes). These changes were associated with oxidative damage in brain tissue and notified by significant decreases of superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in parallel to significant increases of malondialdehyde and advanced oxidation protein products levels. The histopathology reports also revealed that STZ-treatment produced degeneration of pancreatic cells. The administration of GABA to STZ-treated rats preserved pancreatic tissue with improved insulin secretion, improved glucose level and minimized oxidative stress in brain tissues. It could be concluded that GABA might protect the brain from oxidative stress and preserve pancreas tissues with adjusting glucose and insulin levels in Diabetic rats and might decrease the risk of neurodegenerative disease in diabetes.