- Clinical Features and Psychiatric Comorbidity of Epicrania Fugax. [Journal Article]
- JNJ Neurosci Rural Pract 2018 Jan-Mar; 9(1):143-148
- CONCLUSIONS: Our study conclusively proves the existence of EF as a rare, distinct primary headache syndrome in our study population. It has a significant psychiatric comorbidity consisting of 60% of generalized anxiety disorder, 10% of panic attacks, and 10% of depression.
- Hypoplastic straight sinus with persistent falcine sinus in an adult with sinus pericranii. [Journal Article]
- WNWorld Neurosurg 2018 Feb 13
- Open MRI of a 45-year-old man with panic disorder showed a sinus pericranii (SP). Examination of the scalp revealed a discolored scalp mass and MR venography displayed a hypoplastic straight sinus wi...
Open MRI of a 45-year-old man with panic disorder showed a sinus pericranii (SP). Examination of the scalp revealed a discolored scalp mass and MR venography displayed a hypoplastic straight sinus with persistent falcine sinus. SP is a venous anomaly consisting of a transosseous vascular channel connecting an intracranial sinus with subgaleal veins. High venous pressure in the late embryonic stage, as with a hypoplastic straight sinus, has been hypothesized to predispose affected individuals to develop other venous anomalies, i.e. falcine sinus. Since there is no major venous outflow through this accessory SP in an asymptomatic adult, no intervention was recommended for our patient.
- Cognitive behavioral therapy for anxiety and related disorders: A meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled trials. [Review]
- DADepress Anxiety 2018 Feb 16
- The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety-related disorders based on randomized placebo-controlled trials. We included 41 studies that ra...
The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety-related disorders based on randomized placebo-controlled trials. We included 41 studies that randomly assigned patients (N = 2,843) with acute stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), panic disorder (PD), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), or social anxiety disorder (SAD) to CBT or a psychological or pill placebo condition. Findings demonstrated moderate placebo-controlled effects of CBT on target disorder symptoms (Hedges' g = 0.56), and small to moderate effects on other anxiety symptoms (Hedges' g = 0.38), depression (Hedges' g = 0.31), and quality of life (Hedges' g = 0.30). Response rates in CBT compared to placebo were associated with an odds ratio of 2.97. Effects on the target disorder were significantly stronger for completer samples than intent-to-treat samples, and for individuals compared to group CBT in SAD and PTSD studies. Large effect sizes were found for OCD, GAD, and acute stress disorder, and small to moderate effect sizes were found for PTSD, SAD, and PD. In PTSD studies, dropout rates were greater in CBT (29.0%) compared to placebo (17.2%), but no difference in dropout was found across other disorders. Interventions primarily using exposure strategies had larger effect sizes than those using cognitive or cognitive and behavioral techniques, though this difference did not reach significance. Findings demonstrate that CBT is a moderately efficacious treatment for anxiety disorders when compared to placebo. More effective treatments are especially needed for PTSD, SAD, and PD.
- Environmental enrichment decreases avoidance responses in the elevated T-maze and delta FosB immunoreactivity in anxiety-related brain regions. [Journal Article]
- BBBehav Brain Res 2018 Feb 12
- Environmental enrichment (EE) is an animal management technique, which seems to improve adaptation to the experimental conditions of housing in laboratory animals. Previous studies have pointed to di...
Environmental enrichment (EE) is an animal management technique, which seems to improve adaptation to the experimental conditions of housing in laboratory animals. Previous studies have pointed to different beneficial effects of the procedure in the treatment of several disorders, including psychiatric conditions such as depression. The anxiolytic effects induced by EE, on the other hand, are not as clear. In fact, it has been proposed that EE acts as a mild stressor agent. To better understand the relationship of EE with anxiety-related responses, the present study exposed rats to one week of EE and subsequently tested these animals in the inhibitory avoidance and escape tasks of the elevated T-maze (ETM). In clinical terms, these responses have been respectively related to generalized anxiety and panic disorder. All animals were tested in an open field, immediately after the ETM, for locomotor activity assessment. Additionally, analysis of delta FosB protein immunoreactivity (FosB-ir) was used to map areas activated by EE exposure and plasma corticosterone measurements were performed. The results obtained demonstrate that exposure to EE for one week impaired avoidance responses, an anxiolytic-like effect, without altering escape reactions. Also, in animals submitted to the avoidance task EE exposure decreased FosB-ir in the cingulate cortex, dorsolateral and intermediate lateral septum, hippocampus (cornus of Ammon), anterior and dorsomedial hypothalamus, medial and basolateral amygdala and ventral region of the dorsal raphe nucleus. Although no behavioral differences were observed in animals submitted to the escape task, EE exposure also decreased FosB-ir in the cingulate cortex, hippocampus (dentate gyrus), lateral amygdala, paraventricular, anterior and ventromedial hypothalamus, dorsomedial periaqueductal gray and ventral and dorsal region of the dorsal raphe. No changes in corticosterone levels, however, were observed. These results contribute to a better understanding of the effects of EE on anxiety.
- Koro in panic disorder: Beyond a culture bound phenomena. [Letter]
- AJAsian J Psychiatr 2018 Feb 09; 31:73-74
- The differences between patients with panic disorder and healthy controls in psychophysiological stress profile. [Journal Article]
- NDNeuropsychiatr Dis Treat 2018; 14:435-441
- CONCLUSIONS: These findings revealed that patients suffering from panic disorder were characterized by relative sympathetic dominance (reactivity) in response to mental stress compared with healthy controls.
- "Please. Don't. Die.": A Grounded Theory Study of Bystander Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation. [Journal Article]
- CCCirc Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes 2018; 11(2):e004035
- CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that current CPR training programs may not adequately prepare lay rescuers for the reality of an OHCA and identifies several key knowledge gaps that should be addressed. The long-term psychological consequences of bystander intervention in OHCA remain poorly understood and warrant further study.
- Alcohol withdrawal hallucinations in the general population, an epidemiological study. [Journal Article]
- PRPsychiatry Res 2018 Feb 05; 262:129-134
- Hallucinations are sometimes encountered in the course of alcohol withdrawal; however, both the factors predisposing to alcohol withdrawal hallucinations (AWH) and the implications of AWH with respec...
Hallucinations are sometimes encountered in the course of alcohol withdrawal; however, both the factors predisposing to alcohol withdrawal hallucinations (AWH) and the implications of AWH with respect to the mechanisms of hallucinations remain unclear. To clarify these issues, we used data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) to investigate the demographic correlates, alcohol-use clinical patterns, and psychiatric comorbidities in two groups: drinkers with and without a history of AWH. We estimated the odds ratios for studied factors and used logistic regression analyses to compare the two groups. We found that over 2% of drinkers reported AWH (758 of a sample of 34,533 subjects). Alcohol tolerance and withdrawal seizures were highly associated with AWH, and exposure to alcohol during brain development was associated with a 10-fold increase in AWH compared to exposure during adulthood. African Americans, Native Americans, and unmarried subjects, as well as subjects with lower levels of education and lower levels of income were more likely to experience AWH. Furthermore, those with a history of AWH had higher odds ratios for most psychiatric illnesses than those without such history-yet of anxiety disorders, only panic was associated with AWH. These associations suggest that higher levels of education and of standard of living could protect against AWH; while social isolation, hypervigilance, exposure to alcohol during brain development, and long and severe exposure to alcohol could predispose to AWH.
- Changes in perceived centrality of anxious events following cognitive behavioral therapy for social anxiety disorder and panic disorder. [Journal Article]
- JBJ Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry 2018 Jan 31; 59:150-156
- CONCLUSIONS: The correlational nature of the study prevents establishing the causal relationship between changes in perceived centrality and psychopathology, and future studies should explore such mechanisms.The present study adds to the emerging body of literature, investigating changes in centrality of event following psychotherapy.
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- Computer therapy for the anxiety and depression disorders is effective, acceptable and practical health care: An updated meta-analysis. [Review]
- JAJ Anxiety Disord 2018 Feb 01
- CONCLUSIONS: Studies variably measured changes in quality of life and disability, and the lack of comparisons with medications weakens the field.The conclusions drawn in the original meta-analysis are now supported: iCBT for the anxiety and depressive disorders is effective, acceptable and practical health care.