- Idiopathic intracranial hypertension in children: Diagnostic and management approach. [Journal Article]
- SJSudan J Paediatr 2016; 16(2):67-76
- Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a rare neurological disorder in children. It is characterized by raised intracranial pressure (ICP) in the absence of brain parenchymal lesion, vascular ...
Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a rare neurological disorder in children. It is characterized by raised intracranial pressure (ICP) in the absence of brain parenchymal lesion, vascular malformations, hydrocephalus, or central nervous system (CNS) infection. The diagnosis is usually confirmed by high opening pressure of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) with exclusion of secondary causes of intracranial hypertension. If not treated properly, it may lead to severe visual dysfunction. Here we review the etiology, clinical presentation, diagnostic criteria and management of IIH in children through illustration of the clinical and radiological presentation of a 13-year-old overweight girl who presented with severe headache, diplopia and bilateral papilledema. Otherwise, she had unremarkable neurological and systemic examinations. Lumbar puncture showed a high CSF opening pressure (360-540 mmH2O). Her investigations showed normal complete blood count (CBC), normal renal, liver, and thyroid function tests. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood chemistry were unremarkable. Magnetic resonant image (MRI) of the brain demonstrated empty sella turcica, tortuous optic nerves, and flattening of the posterior sclera. Magnetic resonant venography (MRV) showed focal narrowing of the distal transverse sinuses and absence of venous sinus thrombosis. She required treatment with acetazolamide and prednisolone. With medical treatment, weight reduction, and exercise, our patient had a remarkable improvement in her symptoms with resolution of papilledema in two months. This review highlights the importance of early recognition and management of IIH to prevent permanent visual loss.
- Pseudotumour cerebri in children: Aetiology, clinical features, and progression. [Journal Article]
- NNeurologia 2017 Jan 09
- CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of PTC was estimated at approximately 1 case per 100 000 children/years, in line with data reported by previous studies. Overweight was not found to be a risk factor for PTC in this population. M. pneumoniae infection may trigger PTC and cause recurrences at later stages. The absence of symptoms seems to be independent from the degree of intracranial hypertension. Acetazolamide treatment is effective in most cases, and it represents a viable alternative to repeated LP.
- Acute blindness due to cerebral venous sinus thrombosis in a child. [Journal Article]
- PMPostgrad Med J 2017 Jan 05
- Refractory shock following ingestion of topical minoxidil solution. [Journal Article]
- MJMed J Armed Forces India 2016; 72(Suppl 1):S133-S134
- The Effect of Treatment of Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension on Prevalence of Retinal and Choroidal Folds. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Ophthalmol 2016 Dec 28
- CONCLUSIONS: The various types of retinal folds associated with papilledema reflect biodynamic processes and show an ACZ treatment effect. Persistence of these folds despite marked improvement in ONH swelling suggests permanent changes in the affected retinal tissues.
- Role of vitamin A metabolism in IIH: Results from the idiopathic intracranial hypertension treatment trial. [Journal Article]
- JNJ Neurol Sci 2017 Jan 15; 372:78-84
- CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin A toxicity is unlikely a contributory factor in the causation of IIH. Our findings differ from those of prior reports in part because of our use of more accurate quantitative methods and measuring vitamin A metabolites in both serum and CSF. ACZ may alter retinoid metabolism in IIH patients.
- Intracranial hypertension secondary to high dose cytosine arabinoside - A case study. [Journal Article]
- JIJ Infect Chemother 2016 Dec 20
- We report a rare case of intracranial hypertension following high dose cytosine arabinoside (HiDAC) in a 20-year-old man, with precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). A five drug inducti...
We report a rare case of intracranial hypertension following high dose cytosine arabinoside (HiDAC) in a 20-year-old man, with precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). A five drug induction protocol for ALL was initiated; post induction consolidation was with HiDAC (3 g/m(2) IV every 12 h on days 1, 3 and 5). Post consolidation, cytogenetic remission was attained and he received an intensification and maintenance regimen for ALL, for a period of approximately 24 months. Four months following the completion of his treatment, the patient relapsed within the central nervous system (CNS). Intravenous salvage chemotherapy was initiated using a combination of fludarabine 30 mg/m(2), followed by cytarabine 2 g/m(2) 4 h later on days 1 through 5 (FA). On day # 23 of FA, he developed a severe headache. A gadolinium-enhanced brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed increased intracranial pressure. On day # 25, ophthalmology examination suggested bilateral papilledema. He was started on acetazolamide 250 mg twice daily. He had spontaneous resolution of his symptoms. The patient had no recurrence of papilledema or any other neurological symptoms. Intracranial hypertension secondary to HiDAC, is an exceedingly rare complication and is not regularly associated as a common side effect of cytarabine administration. Prompt action in diagnosing and treating intracranial hypertension will save the patient from consequences, such as loss of vision, that are prevalent in this condition.
- Fulminant idiopathic intracranial hypertension and venous stasis retinopathy resulting in severe bilateral visual impairment. [Journal Article]
- EJEur J Ophthalmol 2016 Dec 06; :0
- CONCLUSIONS: Fulminant IIH can present with profoundly blinding complications recalcitrant to aggressive medical and surgical intervention. Central retinal vein occlusion is an uncommon blinding complication of IIH.
- Venous sinus stenting for reduction of intracranial pressure in IIH: a prospective pilot study. [Journal Article]
- JNJ Neurosurg 2016 Dec 23; :1-8
- OBJECTIVE Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) may cause blindness due to elevated intracranial pressure (ICP). Venous sinus stenosis has been identified in select patients, leading to stenting...
OBJECTIVE Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) may cause blindness due to elevated intracranial pressure (ICP). Venous sinus stenosis has been identified in select patients, leading to stenting as a potential treatment, but its effects on global ICP have not been completely defined. The purpose of this pilot study was to assess the effects of venous sinus stenting on ICP in a small group of patients with IIH. METHODS Ten patients for whom medical therapy had failed were prospectively followed. Ophthalmological examinations were assessed, and patients with venous sinus stenosis on MR angiography proceeded to catheter angiography, venography with assessment of pressure gradient, and ICP monitoring. Patients with elevated ICP measurements and an elevated pressure gradient across the stenosis were treated with stent placement. RESULTS All patients had elevated venous pressure (mean 39.5 ± 14.9 mm Hg), an elevated gradient across the venous sinus stenosis (30.0 ± 13.2 mm Hg), and elevated ICP (42.2 ± 15.9 mm Hg). Following stent placement, all patients had resolution of the stenosis and gradient (1 ± 1 mm Hg). The ICP values showed an immediate decrease (to a mean of 17.0 ± 8.3 mm Hg), and further decreased overnight (to a mean of 8 ± 4.2 mm Hg). All patients had subjective and objective improvement, and all but one improved during follow-up (median 23.4 months; range 15.7-31.6 months). Two patients developed stent-adjacent stenosis; retreatment abolished the stenosis and gradient in both cases. Patients presenting with papilledema had resolution on follow-up funduscopic imaging and optical coherence tomography (OCT) and improvement on visual field testing. Patients presenting with optic atrophy had optic nerve thinning on follow-up OCT, but improved visual fields. CONCLUSIONS For selected patients with IIH and venous sinus stenosis with an elevated pressure gradient and elevated ICP, venous sinus stenting results in resolution of the venous pressure gradient, reduction in ICP, and functional, neurological, and ophthalmological improvement. As patients are at risk for stent-adjacent stenosis, further follow-up is necessary to determine long-term outcomes and gain an understanding of venous sinus stenosis as a primary or secondary pathological process behind elevated ICP.
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- [Treatment of idiopathic intracranial hypertension]. [Journal Article]
- ZYZhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi 2016 Dec 11; 52(12):948-951
- Idiopathic intracranial hypertension(IIH) is a kind of diffuse brain swelling disease. Several causes could lead to IIH. Intracranial venous circulatory disturbance is more common. The clinical manif...
Idiopathic intracranial hypertension(IIH) is a kind of diffuse brain swelling disease. Several causes could lead to IIH. Intracranial venous circulatory disturbance is more common. The clinical manifestations include intracranial pressure increased, headache and papilledema. Since IIH usually has serious impact on vision even blindness, the diagnosis and corresponding treatment are especially important. This review is to discuss the new insights on the therapeutic options of IIH, which cover medical treatment, weight-losing therapy, surgical treatment, interventional therapy and supportive treatment.(Chin J Ophthalmol, 2016, 52: 948-951).