- Feast of Sacrifice and Orf, Milan, Italy, 2015-2018. [Journal Article]
- EIEmerg Infect Dis 2019; 25(8):1585-1586
- Orf (ecthyma contagiosum) is an infection of the skin caused by a DNA virus belonging to the genus Parapoxvirus. We recently observed 7 cases of orf in Muslim men living in the metropolitan area of M…
Orf (ecthyma contagiosum) is an infection of the skin caused by a DNA virus belonging to the genus Parapoxvirus. We recently observed 7 cases of orf in Muslim men living in the metropolitan area of Milan, Italy, who acquired the infection after the Feast of Sacrifice.
- Orf virus circulation in cattle in Turkey. [Journal Article]
- CIComp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 2019; 65:1-6
- Orf virus (ORFV) causes contagious skin disease that mainly affects sheep and goats with zoonotic potential. However, there is not enough information about the association between ORFV and occurrence…
Orf virus (ORFV) causes contagious skin disease that mainly affects sheep and goats with zoonotic potential. However, there is not enough information about the association between ORFV and occurrence of skin disease in cattle. The present study describes outbreaks of ORFV infection in cattle in different provinces that are located in the Aegean, Central Anatolian and Mediterranean regions of Turkey. During the months of June and August 2017, vesicular fluid and scab samples were collected from cattle which had proliferative skin lesions. First, presence of lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) and bovine herpesvirus 2 (BoHV-2, known as the causative agent of pseudo-lumpy skin disease) were investigated by real time PCR and PCR, respectively. Then, samples tested for the presence of parapoxviruses by PCR using primers specific to major envelope protein gene (B2L). Parapoxvirus DNA was detected in investigated samples whereas LSDV and BoHV-2 DNA were not detected. The analysis of the B2L gene sequences revealed that cattle were infected with ORFV. The isolates in the present study shared 100% sequence identity at the nucleotide and amino acid level when compared with previously characterised Turkish field ORFV isolates from goats in 2016. Results of the study show unusual infection of cattle with ORFV, and suggest that ORFV jumps the host species barrier from goats to cattle.
- Chemokine-Binding Proteins Encoded by Parapoxvirus of Red Deer of New Zealand Display Evidence of Gene Duplication and Divergence of Ligand Specificity. [Journal Article]
- FMFront Microbiol 2019; 10:1421
- Parapoxvirus of red deer in New Zealand (PVNZ) is a species of the Parapoxvirus genus that causes pustular dermatitis. We identified a cluster of genes in PVNZ that encode three unique chemokine-bind…
Parapoxvirus of red deer in New Zealand (PVNZ) is a species of the Parapoxvirus genus that causes pustular dermatitis. We identified a cluster of genes in PVNZ that encode three unique chemokine-binding proteins (CBPs) namely ORF112.0, ORF112.3 and ORF112.6. Chemokines are a large family of molecules that direct cell trafficking to sites of inflammation and through lymphatic organs. The PVNZ-CBPs were analyzed by surface plasmon resonance against a broad spectrum of CXC, CC, XC and CX3C chemokines and were found to differ in their specificity and binding affinity. ORF112.0 interacted with chemokines from the CXC, CC and XC classes of chemokines with nM affinities. The ORF112.3 showed a preference for CXC chemokines, while ORF112.6 showed pM affinity binding for CC chemokines. Structural modeling analysis showed alterations in the chemokine binding sites of the CBPs, although the core structure containing two β-sheets and three α-helices being conserved with the other parapoxvirus CBPs. Chemotaxis assays using neutrophils and monocytes revealed inhibitory impact of the CBPs on cell migration. Our results suggest that the PVNZ-CBPs are likely to have evolved through a process of gene duplication and divergence, and may have a role in suppressing inflammation and the anti-viral immune response.
- Pyogenic granuloma-like orf in a transplant patient treated successfully with excision and imiquimod. [Case Reports]
- JCJAAD Case Rep 2019; 5(6):566-567
- [Human poxvirus infections]. [Journal Article]
- ADAnn Dermatol Venereol 2019; 146(5):387-398
- Poxvirus (PXV) infections are a common cause of cutaneous signs. In France, certain forms of poxvirus are frequent and benign (molluscum contagiosum), while others are rare but potentially serious (c…
Poxvirus (PXV) infections are a common cause of cutaneous signs. In France, certain forms of poxvirus are frequent and benign (molluscum contagiosum), while others are rare but potentially serious (cowpox virus [CPXV]). Whereas only smallpox and molluscum contagiosum viruses have a human reservoir and are transmitted between humans, most poxvirus infections are zoonoses having only animal reservoirs. Only a small number of poxviruses are responsible for infection in humans, but the increasing number of new pets, some of which are exotic, coupled with the rapid rise in international travel are creating a greater risk of transmission of zoonotic PXV to new vectors and of spread of these diseases to new regions throughout the world. In France, molluscum contagiosum, orf and milkers' nodule give rise to numerous consultations and are well known to dermatologists. However, dermatologists must also be able to identify other parapoxviruses of similar presentation to orf; thus, CPXV and monkeypox are considered potentially emergent viruses with a high risk of epidemic and spread due to increasing international transport and the loss of the maximum protection against smallpox. Finally, despite its declared eradication, smallpox is currently being monitored because of the potential risk of reintroduction, whether accidentally or deliberately through bioterrorism.
- Infectious Disease Outbreak Associated With Supplementary Feeding of Semi-domesticated Reindeer. [Journal Article]
- FVFront Vet Sci 2019; 6:126
- Supplementary winter feeding of semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) has become more common in Sweden and Norway due to reindeer pasture fragmentation and climatic conditions. With…
Supplementary winter feeding of semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) has become more common in Sweden and Norway due to reindeer pasture fragmentation and climatic conditions. With increased corralling and feeding, often associated with animal stress, increased animal-to-animal contact, and poor hygienic conditions, an altered range of health challenges and diseases may emerge. An outbreak of three different infectious diseases appeared simultaneously in a reindeer herd in Norrbotten County, Sweden. The animals were corralled and fed silage. Several animals in poor body condition stopped eating, with drool and discoloration of the hair coat around the mouth. There were large, black, necrotic lesions on the tongue and gingiva, with holes perforating the chin, indicative of oral necrobacillosis and Fusobacterium spp. infection. Simultaneously, animals were seen with proliferative lesions in the oral mucosa and on the lips, characteristic of contagious ecthyma and Orf virus infection. Furthermore, three animals had keratoconjunctivitis suggesting exposure to cervid herpesvirus 2 (CvHV2) and possibly secondary bacterial infections. DNA specific for Fusobacterium necrophorum and ORFV was detected in relevant tissue samples. Antibodies against CvHV2 were detected in 10 of 13 diseased and in four of 11 apparently healthy reindeer. Nine animals were found dead or were euthanized during the outbreak. Health risk factors associated with feeding and corralling may severely impact animal welfare and the herder's economy, and may represent an underestimated cost when replacing natural grazing with feeding.
- Genomic characterization of two Orf virus isolates from Jilin province in China. [Journal Article]
- VGVirus Genes 2019 Apr 27
- Orf virus (ORFV), a typical member of the Parapoxvirus genus within the family Poxviridae, which is the causative agent of Orf, a common epitheliotropic viral disease of sheep, goats, wild ruminants,…
Orf virus (ORFV), a typical member of the Parapoxvirus genus within the family Poxviridae, which is the causative agent of Orf, a common epitheliotropic viral disease of sheep, goats, wild ruminants, and humans. In the present study, we sequenced the complete genomic sequences of two ORFV strains (ORFV-SY17, isolated from sheep, and ORFV-NA17, isolated from goat) and conducted the comparative analysis of multiple ORFVs. The complete genomic sequence of ORFV-SY17 was at length of 140,413 bp, including 131 potential open reading frames (ORFs) flanked by inverted terminal repeats (ITRs) of 4267 bp at both ends. The ORFV-NA17 strain displayed the similar genome structure with ORFV-SY17. The whole genomic sequence of ORFV-NA17 strain was 139,287 bp in length and contained 132 ORFs flanked by ITRs of 3974 bp. The overall G+C contents of ORFV-SY17 and ORFV-NA17 genome sequences were about 63.8% and 63.7%, respectively. The ITR sequences analysis showed that ORFV-SY17 and ORFV-NA17 contained the terminal BamHI sites and conserved telomere resolution sequences at both ends of their genome. In addition, comparative analysis of ORFs among ORFV-SY17, ORFV-NA17, and other ORFV strains revealed several sequence variations caused by insertions or deletions, especially in ORFs 005 and 116, which were very likely associated with host species. Phylogenetic analysis based on the complete genome sequences revealed that ORFV-SY17 was genetically closely related to NA1/11 and HN3/12 strains derived from sheep, while ORFV-NA17 was closely related to YX strain derived from goat. The multiple alignment of deduced amino acid sequences further revealed the genetic relationship between host species and genetic variations of ORFV strains. Taken together, the availability of genomic sequences of ORFV-SY17 and ORFV-NA17 strains from Jilin Province will aid in our understanding of the genetic diversity and evolution of ORFV strains in this region and can assist in distinguishing between ORFV strains that originate in sheep and goats.
- Putative parapoxvirus-associated foot disease in the endangered huemul deer (Hippocamelus bisulcus) in Bernardo O'Higgins National Park, Chile. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2019; 14(4):e0213667
- The huemul (Hippocamelus bisulcus) is an endangered cervid endemic to southern Argentina and Chile. Here we report foot lesions in 24 huemul from Bernardo O'Higgins National Park, Chile, between 2005…
The huemul (Hippocamelus bisulcus) is an endangered cervid endemic to southern Argentina and Chile. Here we report foot lesions in 24 huemul from Bernardo O'Higgins National Park, Chile, between 2005 and 2010. Affected deer displayed variably severe clinical signs, including lameness and soft tissue swelling of the limbs proximal to the hoof or in the interdigital space, ulceration of the swollen tissues, and some developed severe proliferative tissue changes that caused various types of abnormal wear, entrapment, and/or displacement of the hooves and/or dewclaws. Animals showed signs of intense pain and reduced mobility followed by loss of body condition and recumbency, which often preceded death. The disease affected both genders and all age categories. Morbidity and mortality reached 80% and 40%, respectively. Diagnostics were restricted to a limited number of cases from which samples were available. Histology revealed severe papillomatous epidermal hyperplasia and superficial dermatitis. Electron microscopy identified viral particles consistent with viruses in the Chordopoxvirinae subfamily. The presence of parapoxvirus DNA was confirmed by a pan-poxvirus PCR assay, showing high identity (98%) with bovine papular stomatitis virus and pseudocowpoxvirus. This is the first report of foot disease in huemul deer in Chile, putatively attributed to poxvirus. Given the high morbidity and mortality observed, this virus might pose a considerable conservation threat to huemul deer in Chilean Patagonia. Moreover, this report highlights a need for improved monitoring of huemul populations and synergistic, rapid response efforts to adequately address disease events that threaten the species.
- Poxviral E3L ortholog (Viral Interferon resistance gene) of orf viruses of sheep and goats indicates species-specific clustering with heterogeneity among parapoxviruses. [Journal Article]
- CCytokine 2019; 120:15-21
- Orf is a contagious disease posing a serious threat to animal and human health. E3L is one of the evolutionarily acquired immunomodulatory proteins present in orf virus (ORFV) and is responsible for …
Orf is a contagious disease posing a serious threat to animal and human health. E3L is one of the evolutionarily acquired immunomodulatory proteins present in orf virus (ORFV) and is responsible for conferring resistance to interferons among poxviruses. Genetic analysis of ORFV isolates of different geographical regions including Indian subcontinent targeting viral interferon resistance (VIR) gene (a homolog of vaccinia virus E3L gene) revealed a high percentage of identity among themselves and other ORFV isolates at both nt and aa levels as compared to low identity among parapoxviruses (PPVs). Phylogenetic analysis showed species-specific clustering among PPVs along with sub-clusters based on host species of origin among ORFVs infecting sheep and goats. Conserved amino acids in N-terminal Z-DNA binding domain and C-terminal ds RNA binding domain of VIR proteins of PPVs corresponding to ORFV VIR positions namely N37, Y41, P57, and W59 (necessary for Z-DNA binding) and E116, F127, F141, and K160 (necessary for dsRNA binding) were found. Further, the predicted protein characteristics and homology model of VIR protein of ORFV showed high structural conservation among poxviruses. This study on E3L genetic analysis of ORFV isolates may provide a better understanding of the molecular epidemiology of circulating strains in India and neighboring countries. Also, E3L deleted or mutated ORFV may be an as vaccine candidate and/or compounds blocking E3L may prove as an effective method for treating broad spectrum poxviral infections, suggesting a wider application in control of poxvirus infections.
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- Coinfection of a lingual lesion with bovine papular stomatitis virus and bovine papillomavirus. [Case Reports]
- AVArch Virol 2019; 164(5):1441-1444
- To date, there have been no reports of coinfection with bovine papular stomatitis virus (BPSV) and bovine papillomavirus (BPV) in the same lesion. In the present study, one lingual papilloma-like sam…
To date, there have been no reports of coinfection with bovine papular stomatitis virus (BPSV) and bovine papillomavirus (BPV) in the same lesion. In the present study, one lingual papilloma-like sample was collected at an abattoir from the tongue of a 31-month-old Japanese black cow. Coinfection with BPSV and BPV was confirmed by histopathology, immunohistochemistry, PCR and RT-PCR. The evidence for coinfection with BPSV and BPV in the same lesion and an association of BPV with lingual papillomatosis will contribute to future epidemiological studies of these two viruses.