- Prevalence and genotyping of Echinococcus granulosus in sheep in Narok County, Kenya. [Journal Article]
- PRParasitol Res 2018 May 08
- Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a zoonotic disease caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus species (sensu lato, s.l.). In East Africa, several species/strains occur in livestock, wildlife...
Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a zoonotic disease caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus species (sensu lato, s.l.). In East Africa, several species/strains occur in livestock, wildlife, and humans, but there is limited information on frequencies of infection by different genotypes in the various mammalian hosts. We have obtained data on E. granulosus infection prevalence in sheep sampled from abattoirs in Narok County, southern Kenya. We inspected carcasses for the presence of hydatid cysts in 180 sheep randomly selected in five sub-locations. The overall prevalence was 16.0% (144/900 animals), with the majority of cysts (50.7%) found in the liver, followed by the lungs (36.8%), while infections involving the liver and lungs were detected in 12.5% of the sheep. PCR-RFLP genotyping of the mitochondrial nad-1 gene in all the 343 cysts identified E. granulosus G1-G3 (sensu stricto, s.s.) as the only genotype. The majority of the cysts (62.1%) were fertile, and 35.2% were sterile, while 2.7% were calcified. Considering cyst fertility, 73.02% of lung cysts were fertile compared to 53.4% in liver cysts. Our data extends previous CE studies in livestock and indicates a high level of CE infection of sheep in Narok, with a predominance of E. granulosus s.s., which is highly pathogenic and commonly infects humans. Given the high fertility rates observed in the cysts, there is an urgent need to determine whether there is a significant incidence of human infection in Narok, and initiate "One Health" control measures.
- Genotyping of Pneumocystis jirovecii in colonized patients with various pulmonary diseases. [Journal Article]
- MMMed Mycol 2017 Dec 08
- Pneumocystis jirovecii is an opportunistic fungus causing Pneumocystis pneumonia primarily in immunosuppressed patients. However, immunocompetent individuals may become colonized and, as asymptomatic...
Pneumocystis jirovecii is an opportunistic fungus causing Pneumocystis pneumonia primarily in immunosuppressed patients. However, immunocompetent individuals may become colonized and, as asymptomatic carriers, serve as reservoirs of the pathogen. Moreover, these asymptomatic carriers are at higher risk of developing pneumonia if favorable conditions occur. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of P. jirovecii in patients with various pulmonary diseases and to characterize the genetic diversity of organisms circulating in the studied population. Bronchial washing specimens from 105 patients were tested for presence of P. jirovecii using nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the mtLSU rRNA gene, as well as immunofluorescence microscopy. Multilocus sequence typing involving analysis of three loci-mtLSU rRNA, CYB, and SOD-was used for genotyping analysis. P. jirovecii DNA was detected in 17 (16.2%) patients. Amplification of the SOD locus was successful only in five cases (29.4% of the positive patients), while mtLSU rRNA and CYB were genotyped in all positive samples. Therefore, combined genotypes were identified based only on mtLSU rRNA and CYB loci. Eight different genotypes were identified, with Pj 1 and Pj 2 being the most prevalent (29.4% of patients each). There was no statistical correlation between these genotypes and demographic or clinical data; however, we found that infection with mutant CYB strains occurred only in patients diagnosed with lung cancer. Of the potential predictors examined, only immunosuppressive treatment was significantly associated with colonization. In conclusion, patients with various respiratory diseases, especially when immunosuppressed, are at risk of Pneumocystis colonization.
- Recent Progress in Research on the Pathogenesis of Pulmonary Thromboembolism: An Old Story with New Perspectives. [Review]
- BRBiomed Res Int 2017; 2017:6516791
- Pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) is part of a larger clinicopathological entity, venous thromboembolism. It is also a complex, multifactorial disorder divided into four major disease processes includi...
Pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) is part of a larger clinicopathological entity, venous thromboembolism. It is also a complex, multifactorial disorder divided into four major disease processes including venous thrombosis, thrombus in transit, acute pulmonary embolism, and pulmonary circulation reconstruction. Even when treated, some patients develop chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. PTE is also a common fatal type of pulmonary vascular disease worldwide, but earlier studies primarily focused on the pathological changes in the blood component of the disease. With contemporary advances in molecular and cellular biology, people are becoming increasingly aware of coagulation pathways, the function of vascular smooth muscle cells, microparticles, and the inflammatory pathways that play key roles in PTE. Combined hypoxia and immune research has revealed that PTE should be regarded as a class of complex diseases caused by multiple factors involving the vascular microenvironment and vascular cell dysfunction.
- [Pulmonary hydatid cyst: unusual double apical location. About a case]. [Case Reports]
- PAPan Afr Med J 2016; 25:159
- Hydatid cyst (KH) is still endemic in several areas of Morocco. Pulmonary involvement is a consequence of liver disease. Hydatid cyst is characterized by diverse anatomical and clinical presentations...
Hydatid cyst (KH) is still endemic in several areas of Morocco. Pulmonary involvement is a consequence of liver disease. Hydatid cyst is characterized by diverse anatomical and clinical presentations and by the possibility of multiple locations within the lung parenchyma, predominantly involving pulmonary bases. We report the case of Mr J. M, 54 years old, admitted with suspected pulmonary hydatid cyst based on chest pain lasting for six months and an episode of hydatidoptysis. Chest x-ray objectified a double apical location suggesting different stages of evolution for pulmonary hydatid cyst. The diagnosis was confirmed by thoracic CTscan and hydatid serology. Multiple pulmonary hydatid cyst is not rare in areas in which hydatid disease is highly endemic. Our study reports an unusual double apical location of hydatid cyst at various stages of evolution.
- Obesity promotes prolonged ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation modulating T helper type 1 (Th1), Th2 and Th17 immune responses in BALB/c mice. [Journal Article]
- CEClin Exp Immunol 2017; 189(1):47-59
- Clinical and epidemiological studies indicate that obesity affects the development and phenotype of asthma by inducing inflammatory mechanisms in addition to eosinophilic inflammation. The aim of thi...
Clinical and epidemiological studies indicate that obesity affects the development and phenotype of asthma by inducing inflammatory mechanisms in addition to eosinophilic inflammation. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of obesity on allergic airway inflammation and T helper type 2 (Th2) immune responses using an experimental model of asthma in BALB/c mice. Mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 10 weeks were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA), and analyses were performed at 24 and 48 h after the last OVA challenge. Obesity induced an increase of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)-expressing macrophages and neutrophils which peaked at 48 h after the last OVA challenge, and was associated with higher levels of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-9, IL-17A, leptin and interferon (IFN)-γ in the lungs. Higher goblet cell hyperplasia was associated with elevated mast cell influx into the lungs and trachea in the obese allergic mice. In contrast, early eosinophil influx and lower levels of IL-25, thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), CCL11 and OVA-specific immunoglobulin (IgE) were observed in the obese allergic mice in comparison to non-obese allergic mice. Moreover, obese mice showed higher numbers of mast cells regardless of OVA challenge. These results indicate that obesity affects allergic airway inflammation through mechanisms involving mast cell influx and the release of TSLP and IL-25, which favoured a delayed immune response with an exacerbated Th1, Th2 and Th17 profile. In this scenario, an intense mixed inflammatory granulocyte influx, classically activated macrophage accumulation and intense mucus production may contribute to a refractory therapeutic response and exacerbate asthma severity.
- Excretory/secretory products in the Echinococcus granulosus metacestode: is the intermediate host complacent with infection caused by the larval form of the parasite? [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Parasitol 2016; 46(13-14):843-856
- The genus Echinococcus consists of parasites that have a life cycle with two mammalian hosts. Their larval stage, called the hydatid cyst, develops predominantly in the liver and lungs of intermediat...
The genus Echinococcus consists of parasites that have a life cycle with two mammalian hosts. Their larval stage, called the hydatid cyst, develops predominantly in the liver and lungs of intermediate hosts. The hydatid cyst is the causative agent of cystic hydatid disease and the species Echinococcus granulosus, G1 haplotype, is responsible for the vast majority of cases in humans, cattle and sheep. Protein characterization in hydatid cysts is essential for better understanding of the host-parasite relationship and the fertility process of Echinococcus. The aims of this work were the identification and quantitative comparison of proteins found in hydatid fluid from fertile and infertile cysts from E. granulosus, in order to highlight possible mechanisms involved in cyst fertility or infertility. Hydatid fluid samples containing proteins from both E. granulosus and Bos taurus were analysed by LC-MS/MS. Our proteomic analysis of fertile and infertile cysts allowed identification of a total of 498 proteins, of which 153 proteins were exclusively identified in the fertile cyst, 271 in the infertile cyst, and 74 in both. Functional in silico analysis allowed us to highlight some important aspects: (i) clues about the possible existence of an "arms race" involving parasite and host responses in fertile and infertile cysts; (ii) a number of proteins in hydatid fluid without functional annotation or with possible alternative functions; (iii) the presence of extracellular vesicles such as exosomes, which was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy.
- First report of systemic toxoplasmosis in a New Zealand sea lion (Phocarctos hookeri). [Case Reports]
- NZN Z Vet J 2017; 65(1):46-50
- CONCLUSIONS: Infection with T. gondii involving the spinal cord and nerves was the likely cause of the paresis observed in this sea lion before death. Ultimately, death was attributed to crushing and asphyxiation by a male sea lion, presumably predisposed by impaired mobility. Diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in a New Zealand sea lion highlights the possibility that this disease could play a role in morbidity and mortality in this endangered species, particularly in the recently established mainland populations that are close to feline sources of T. gondii oocysts.
- Clinical characteristics and computed tomography findings of pulmonary toxoplasmosis after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Hematol 2016; 104(6):729-740
- The prognosis of pulmonary toxoplasmosis, including disseminated toxoplasmosis involving the lungs, following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is extremely poor due to the difficulties ...
The prognosis of pulmonary toxoplasmosis, including disseminated toxoplasmosis involving the lungs, following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is extremely poor due to the difficulties associated with early diagnosis and the rapidly progressive deterioration of multiorgan function. In our institution, we identified nine cases of toxoplasmosis, representing incidences of 2.2 and 19.6 % among all HSCT recipients and seropositive HSCT recipients, respectively. Of the patients with toxoplasmosis, six had pulmonary toxoplasmosis. Chest computed tomography (CT) findings revealed centrilobular, patchy ground-glass opacities (n = 3), diffuse ground-glass opacities (n = 2), ground-glass opacities with septal thickening (n = 1), and marked pleural effusion (n = 1). All cases died, except for one with suspected pulmonary toxoplasmosis who was diagnosed by a polymerase chain reaction assay 2 days after the onset of symptoms. In pulmonary toxoplasmosis, CT findings are non-specific and may mimic pulmonary congestion, atypical pneumonia, viral pneumonitis, and bronchopneumonia. Early diagnosis and treatment is crucial for overcoming this serious infectious complication. Pulmonary toxoplasmosis should be considered during differential diagnosis in a recipient with otherwise unexplained signs of infection and CT findings with ground-glass opacities, regardless of the distribution.
- Prevalence of food sensitization and probable food allergy among adults in India: the EuroPrevall INCO study. [Journal Article]
- AAllergy 2016; 71(7):1010-9
- CONCLUSIONS: Very high levels of sensitization were observed for most foods, including those not commonly consumed in the general population. For the levels of sensitization, the prevalence of probable food allergy was low. This disassociation needs to be further explored in future studies.
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- Do schistosome vaccine trials in mice have an intrinsic flaw that generates spurious protection data? [Review]
- PVParasit Vectors 2016 Feb 17; 9:89
- The laboratory mouse has been widely used to test the efficacy of schistosome vaccines and a long list of candidates has emerged from this work, many of them abundant internal proteins. These antigen...
The laboratory mouse has been widely used to test the efficacy of schistosome vaccines and a long list of candidates has emerged from this work, many of them abundant internal proteins. These antigens do not have an additive effect when co-administered, or delivered as SWAP homogenate, a quarter of which comprises multiple candidates; the observed protection has an apparent ceiling of 40-50%. We contend that the low level of maturation of penetrating cercariae (~32% for Schistosoma mansoni) is a major limitation of the model since 68/100 parasites fail to mature in naïve mice due to natural causes. The pulmonary capillary bed is the obstacle encountered by schistosomula en route to the portal system. The fragility of pulmonary capillaries and their susceptibility to a cytokine-induced vascular leak syndrome have been documented. During lung transit schistosomula burst into the alveolar spaces, and possess only a limited capacity to re-enter tissues. The acquired immunity elicited by the radiation-attenuated (RA) cercarial vaccine relies on a pulmonary inflammatory response, involving cytokines such as IFNγ and TNFα, to deflect additional parasites into the alveoli. A principal difference between antigen vaccine protocols and the RA vaccine is the short interval between the last antigen boost and cercarial challenge of mice (often two weeks). Thus, after antigen vaccination, challenge parasites will reach the lungs when both activated T cells and cytokine levels are maximal in the circulation. We propose that "protection" in this situation is the result of physiological effects on the pulmonary blood vessels, increasing the proportion of parasites that enter the alveoli. This hypothesis will explain why internal antigens, which are unlikely to interact with the immune response in a living schistosomulum, plus a variety of heterologous proteins, can reduce the level of maturation in a non-antigen-specific way. These proteins are "successful" precisely because they have not been selected for immunological silence. The same arguments apply to vaccine experiments with S. japonicum in the mouse model; this schistosome species seems a more robust parasite, even harder to eliminate by acquired immune responses. We propose a number of ways in which our conclusions may be tested.