- Sleep-Related Drug Therapy in Special Conditions: Children. [Review]
- SMSleep Med Clin 2018; 13(2):251-262
- Sleep disorders in children may lead to neurodevelopmental and neurocognitive deficits; it is important to diagnose and treat them properly. Apart from the existing challenges in diagnosis, another d...
Sleep disorders in children may lead to neurodevelopmental and neurocognitive deficits; it is important to diagnose and treat them properly. Apart from the existing challenges in diagnosis, another drawback is that few therapies are currently approved. In this article, a comprehensive summary of the most common pediatric sleep disorders, along with the various pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic approaches for their management, is presented. Special attention has been paid to the currently available treatment options for pediatric insomnia, obstructive sleep apnea, parasomnias, narcolepsy, and restless legs syndrome, and comparisons are made with the corresponding treatment options for sleep disorders in adults.
- NREM parasomnias: a treatment approach based upon a retrospective case series of 512 patients. [Journal Article]
- SMSleep Med 2018 Apr 10
- CONCLUSIONS: The treatment approach to effective treatment of the patients with Non-REM parasomnias or POD offering first sleep hygiene advice, next treatment of concurrent sleep disorders and management of other priming factors like stress and anxiety, and lastly pharmacotherapy for Non-REM parasomnia is supported by our results. Non pharmacological interventions were effective in one third of our patients, and CBT/MBSR and melatonin appeared promising new treatments.
- L-Tryptophan As Treatment for Pediatric Non-Rapid Eye Movement Parasomnia. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 2018 May 09
- CONCLUSIONS: This study finds that parasomnias in children are not benign and that treatment with L-tryptophan provides a favorable outcome. Children diagnosed with parasomnia had altered sleep architecture, were more fatigued, and endorsed depressive symptoms. This study supports the need to diagnose and treat parasomnias in children.
- Sleep Disturbances in Australian Vietnam Veterans With and Without Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Clin Sleep Med 2018 May 15; 14(5):745-752
- CONCLUSIONS: Compared to trauma-exposed controls, Australian Vietnam veterans with PTSD demonstrated an increased prevalence of a wide range of sleep disturbances, including OSA. In veterans with PTSD, detailed sleep assessment, including consideration of polysomnography, is paramount.
- Sleep disorders in children with brain tumors: a pilot study based on a sleep disorder questionnaire. [Journal Article]
- CNChilds Nerv Syst 2018 Apr 26
- CONCLUSIONS: Our study revealed a trend toward SD in children with brain tumor when compared to healthy population. Hovewer, analyzing specific subtypes of SD some significant differences were obtained. A significant difference was obtained only for specific subtypes of SD. Further investigations could better define the real burden of SD.
- Qualitative Development and Content Validation of the PROMIS Pediatric Sleep Health Items. [Journal Article]
- BSBehav Sleep Med 2018 Apr 25; :1-15
- CONCLUSIONS: Rigorous qualitative procedures were used to develop and evaluate the content validity of the PROMIS Pediatric Sleep Health item pool. Once the item pool's psychometric properties are established, the scales will be useful for measuring children's subjective experiences of sleep.
- StatPearls [BOOK]
- BOOKStatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL)
- Night terrors are a common preschool-aged sleep disorder in which a child quickly wakes up from sleep in a terrified state. For the majority of the episodes, the child will not recall this event ever...
Night terrors are a common preschool-aged sleep disorder in which a child quickly wakes up from sleep in a terrified state. For the majority of the episodes, the child will not recall this event ever happening. A night terror is considered a parasomnia due to its characterization of unusual physical and verbal behaviors. Parasomnias can occur during any stage of sleep; however, night terrors specifically are associated with non-rapid eye movement (REM) sleep stages in which the person is in a transitional state in between sleep and wakefulness. The act of sleeping is broken down into several stages and states. There are three primary states of sleep consisting of wake, non-REM sleep, and REM sleep. Within these states, they are further broken down into the separate stages. Sleep stages 1, 2, 3, and 4 are considered non-REM sleep while stage 5 is considered REM sleep. The different sleep stages represent different electrical patterns and frequencies in the brain that can be detected and measured with an electroencephalogram (EEG). These states and stages can overlap each other, and it is during these transition states where parasomnias can occur.
- Melatonin-Responsive Complex Nocturnal Visual Hallucinations. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Clin Sleep Med 2018 Apr 15; 14(4):687-691
- Complex nocturnal visual hallucinations are vivid, dramatic, intricate visual hallucinations occurring during sleep onset or awakenings at night, generally lasting for a few minutes at most and disap...
Complex nocturnal visual hallucinations are vivid, dramatic, intricate visual hallucinations occurring during sleep onset or awakenings at night, generally lasting for a few minutes at most and disappearing with increased levels of light. They may occur in a number of neurological conditions, as well as in normal individuals. The optimal treatment for this condition remains unclear. We describe three patients with complex nocturnal visual hallucinations in whom melatonin brought about a dramatic improvement in symptoms. Our report suggests that melatonin may be a safe, effective treatment for this rare but often distressing and anxiety-provoking condition.
- Can subjective sleep problems detect latent sleep disorders among commercial drivers? [Journal Article]
- AAAccid Anal Prev 2018; 115:62-72
- CONCLUSIONS: Using subjective sleep problems to detect latent sleep disorders among long-haul truck drivers may be a timely and effective way to screen this highly mobile occupational segment. This approach should constitute one component of comprehensive efforts to diagnose and treat sleep disorders among commercial transport operators.
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- Non-Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Parasomnias and Migraine: A Role of Orexinergic Projections. [Journal Article]
- FNFront Neurol 2018; 9:95
- CONCLUSIONS: Serotonergic neurons of the MR nuclei receive an excitatory input from hypothalamic orexin/hypocretin neurons and reciprocally inhibit orexin/hypocretin neurons through the serotonin 1A receptor (or 5-HT1A receptor). Considering this complex system, if there is an alteration it may facilitate the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the migraine, while it may produce at the same time an alteration of the sleep-wake rhythm, causing sleep disorders such as sleepwalking. Understanding the complex mechanisms underlying migraine and sleep disorders and how these mechanisms can interact with each other, it would be crucial to pave the way for new therapeutic strategies.