- Sleep Disorders and Migraine: Review of Literature and Potential Pathophysiology Mechanisms. [Journal Article]
- HHeadache 2018 Aug 08
- Migraine shares a complex and poorly understood relationship with sleep. Patients consistently report poor sleep prior to migraine attacks and during them, identifying poor sleep as a migraine trigge...
Migraine shares a complex and poorly understood relationship with sleep. Patients consistently report poor sleep prior to migraine attacks and during them, identifying poor sleep as a migraine trigger. However, anecdotally, sleep is reported to serve a therapeutic role in terminating headache. Are the associations between migraine and sleep simply the result of various bidirectional relationships? A growing body of evidence suggests there may be a common underlying etiology as well. Our objective was to review studies of sleep and migraine from the last 2 decades utilizing validated subjective and objective measures of sleep and to explore potential mechanisms underlying this complex relationship by incorporating recent advances in neuroscience. We specifically focus on insomnia, obstructive sleep apnea, parasomnias, sleep related movement disorders, and REM sleep related disorders and their relationship to migraine. Parts of brainstem-cortical networks involved in sleep physiology are unintentionally being identified as important factors in the common migraine pathway. Recent discoveries on anatomic localization (the hypothalamus as a key and early mediator in the pathophysiology of migraine), common mediating signaling molecules (such as serotonin and dopamine), and the discovery of a new CNS waste removal system, the glymphatic system, all point to a common pathophysiology manifesting in migraine and sleep problems.
- StatPearls [BOOK]
- BOOKStatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL)
- Complex partial seizures refer to focal seizures that start in one hemisphere of the brain and are associated with impairment in consciousness. Complex partial seizures are now preferably called as "...
Complex partial seizures refer to focal seizures that start in one hemisphere of the brain and are associated with impairment in consciousness. Complex partial seizures are now preferably called as "focal impaired awareness seizure" or "focal onset impaired awareness seizure." International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) 2017 classification has categorized seizures based on three key features: the location of seizure onset, level of awareness during a seizure, and other features of seizures. Focal seizures refer to epileptiform activity starting in one area on one side of the brain. If awareness is impaired or affected at any time during the seizure, it is called focal impaired awareness seizure. Focal seizures are further classified into motor onset (automatisms, atonic, clonic, myoclonic, tonic, epileptic spasms, hyperkinetic) and nonmotor onset (autonomic, emotional, sensory, cognitive, behavior arrest) types. A seizure that starts on one side or one part of the brain and then spreads to both sides, earlier referred to secondarily generalized seizures, is now preferably termed as "focal to bilateral seizure." Focal seizures with impaired consciousness can present with or without an aura. Auras can last from a few seconds to as long as 1 to 2 minutes before the consciousness is impaired. Consciousness is maximally impaired in the beginning typically. Most of the seizures with automatisms last longer than 30 seconds, up to 1 to 2 minutes and sometimes can be as long as 10 minutes. Absence seizures can sometimes present with same symptomatology however ictal EEG will show generalized 3-Hz spike-wave complexes. Symptoms of focal seizures with impaired awareness depend on the area of the brain it is arising from. Most of the complex partial seizures arise from the temporal lobe. Extratemporal origin has been reported in at least 10% to 30% of patients. Seizures of Temporal Lobe Origin These are the most common type of focal impaired awareness seizures. Stereotyped automatisms occur in about 40% to 80% of patients with temporal lobe epilepsies. Seizures with predominantly oral and manual automatisms in addition to some other motor manifestations are highly suggestive of temporal lobe origin. About 60% of temporal lobe seizures have a secondary generalization. Gradual recovery after several minutes of confusion occurs postictally in most patients, however, in some patients automatic behavior like running, walking about, the nondirected violent behavior may occur. Temporal lobe focal impaired seizures can have features similar to frontal seizures, but temporal lobe focal impaired seizures typically have slower onset and progression, and more pronounced confusion. Certain features can help in localizing the seizure onset to one hemisphere. Ictal vomiting, ictal speech, urinary urge, and automatisms with intact consciousness suggest seizure onset in the non-dominant hemisphere, and speech disturbance postictally is suggestive of seizure onset in the dominant hemisphere. Upper limb dystonia lateralizes seizure to the opposite hemisphere. In young children with focal seizures of temporal lobe onset, behavioral arrest and unresponsiveness are common. Oroalimentary automatisms tend to occur in children older than age 5. In younger children, symmetric motor movement of the limbs and head nodding is typical. In infants, these seizures may be subtle with few automatisms. In very young infants, central apnea can occur. Temporal focal impaired seizures can be confused with absence seizures as both may have automatisms, but temporal seizures are usually longer in duration and are associated with postictal confusion. Seizures arising from mesial temporal lobe are characterized by auras such as epigastric sensation, deja vu, a feeling of fear, and unpleasant smells. Autonomic features like tachycardia, flushing, and pallor are common. Auras may be followed by impaired awareness and manual and oroalimentary automatisms. Automatisms in the upper limb and /or pupillary dilatation unilaterally may lateralize seizure to the ipsilateral hemisphere. Dystonia in the upper limbs and head and eye version on the opposite side can occur. Lateral temporal seizures may have vertigo, auditory (buzzing, ringing), or visual symptoms as initial aura symptoms. Auditory aura in only one ear may lateralize seizure to contralateral hemisphere. Initial aura is usually not prolonged, and impaired awareness is an early feature. Seizures are of shorter duration and progression to bilateral convulsions is more common than those arising from mesial temporal lobe. Seizures of Frontal Lobe Origin Up to 30% of the patients with focal epilepsy have seizures arising from the frontal lobe. It is the most common extratemporal type. Seizures are accompanied by loss of consciousness in about half of the patients with frontal lobe epilepsy. Focal impaired awareness seizures can arise from various locations within the frontal lobe, except the rolandic strip. These seizures typically are brief, lasting about 30 seconds, occurring in clusters, multiple times a day, are often nocturnal occurring during sleep and have minimal postictal confusion. Motor symptoms are predominant and range from hypermotor thrashing episodes like pelvic thrusting, bicycling movements to asymmetric tonic posturing. Sexual automatisms, bizarre behavior, and vocalizations are common. These seizures often have a stereotypical pattern for each patient. Nocturnal frontal lobe seizures may be mistaken for parasomnias. The ictal EEG may be difficult to interpret because of movement artifacts. Identification based on semiology alone and differentiating from mesial temporal lobe epilepsy may be difficult, however earliest signs and symptoms and their order of appearance may help in distinction. Seizures with hypermotor features are more likely to have ictal focus in the orbitofrontal and frontopolar regions. Temporal lobe seizures have more oroalimentary automatisms, gesturing and fumbling semiology. Epileptiform activity in frontal convexity can cause clonic seizures, and in the supplementary motor area can cause tonic seizures. Unique semiology of supplementary sensorimotor cortex includes deviation of head and eye to the side contralateral to seizure onset, the asymmetrical posturing of upper limbs with an extension of arm contralateral to the side of seizure onset and flexion of ipsilateral arm. Orbitofrontal region seizures are automotor type and manifest prominently with autonomic phenomena like flushing, vocalization, and automatisms. Anterior cingulate gyrus seizures have predominant motor manifestations like hypermotor seizures and complex motor seizures. Posterior cingulate cortex epilepsies predominantly have altered consciousness and automotor seizures as main clinical manifestations. Antero-lateral dorsal convexity seizures may manifest with auras such as dizziness, epigastric sensation, behavioral arrest and speech arrest. Seizures of Parietal Lobe Region Seizures arising from parietal lobe may be difficult to diagnose because of their subjective nature. Positive and /or negative sensory features are common. Sensorimotor phenomenon and vestibular hallucinations suggest onset in the parietal lobe. Paresthesias, visual hallucinations, visual illusions, somatic illusions, vertiginous features can occur. Seizures arising from the dominant hemisphere can cause receptive language impairment. Parietal lobe complex partial seizures can have auras like epigastric sensations, visual hallucinations, panic attacks and behavioral arrest. Often there is involvement of other lobes as the seizure spreads. When focal seizures from parietal lobe spread and involve the temporal lobe, loss of consciousness and automatisms may occur. Seizures of occipital lobe origin Seizures with ictal origin in the occipital lobe are characterized by a visual aura and are difficult to diagnose especially in young children. Visual auras, typically of elementary sensations, ictal blindness, versions of the head and eyes to opposite side, rapid and forced blinking, oculoclonic activity are some features suggesting occipital lobe as an origin of focal seizure with impaired consciousness. Seizures from primary visual cortex can cause bilateral loss of vision in the form of white-out or black-out. Shorter duration of visual aura (less than 2 minutes) can help to differentiate from migraine aura which is typically longer (5 to 15 minutes). Complex, formed visual hallucinations like pictures of people, animals, etc. are associated with seizure onset in the extra-striate cortex. Other symptoms may result from spread to temporal or parietal lobes. Seizures of Insular Lobe Origin Seizures arising from the insula can mimic frontal, temporal, parietal lobe seizures. Origin from the insula is suspected when viscerosensitive symptoms (nausea, vomiting, salivation), motor symptoms (tonic, hypermotor or generalized tonic-clonic movements), and/or sensory symptoms (numbness, tightness, vibration, pain, vertigo) occur at seizure onset.
- It's Not a Nightmare: Understanding Sleep Terrors. [Journal Article]
- JPJ Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 2018 Aug 01; 56(8):11-14
- Sleep terrors, one of the non-rapid eye movement parasomnias, are interesting nighttime phenomena that can be distressing for parents. For most children, this behavior is temporary and does not cause...
Sleep terrors, one of the non-rapid eye movement parasomnias, are interesting nighttime phenomena that can be distressing for parents. For most children, this behavior is temporary and does not cause significant problems. However, some psychiatric conditions may have a higher prevalence of parasomnias, including sleep terrors. Although sleep terrors may be a benign and common event in children, a basic mental health examination should include a sleep-related screening to possibly identify underlying issues. Nurses must be knowledgeable about sleep terrors and able to provide education and support when parents share their concerns. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 56(8), 11-14.].
- Sleep it off: Bullying and sleep disturbances in adolescents. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Adolesc 2018 Jul 28; 68:87-93
- CONCLUSIONS: The results of this cross-sectional study highlight the importance of screening youth for sleep disturbances that may indicate daytime issues with bullying or victimization, as well as the need for longitudinal studies to elucidate potential pathways between sleep and bullying/victimization.
- Co-morbid sleep disorders and epilepsy: A narrative review and case examples. [Review]
- EREpilepsy Res 2018; 145:185-197
- Co-morbid sleep disorders, including sleep apnea, insomnia, restless legs syndrome, and the parasomnias, occur frequently in people with epilepsy. This article reviews the cardinal presenting symptom...
Co-morbid sleep disorders, including sleep apnea, insomnia, restless legs syndrome, and the parasomnias, occur frequently in people with epilepsy. This article reviews the cardinal presenting symptoms and diagnostic features of each of these disorders to enable epileptologists to readily screen and identify sleep co-morbidities in their patients. It summarizes current evidence concerning the reciprocal relationship between sleep disturbances and epilepsy and available treatment options for common sleep disorders in people with epilepsy. Several illustrative cases demonstrate the practical consequences of co-morbid sleep disorders in epilepsy patients and suggest diagnostic and treatment approaches that may improve daytime functioning, alertness, quality of life, and seizure burden.
- Evaluation of the Relationship Between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms and Chronotype. [Journal Article]
- NPNoro Psikiyatr Ars 2018; 55(1):54-58
- CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed that children with ADHD showed more resistance to going to bed than did controls on school days. However, in contrast to our hypothesis, morningness/eveningness preference did not differ from controls in ADHD children.
- Prevalence of Parasomnias in Patients With Obstructive Sleep Apnea. A Registry-Based Cross-Sectional Study. [Journal Article]
- FPFront Psychol 2018; 9:1140
- Objective: To assess the prevalence of parasomnias in relation to presence and severity of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). We hypothesized higher parasomnia prevalence with higher OSA severity. Metho...
Objective: To assess the prevalence of parasomnias in relation to presence and severity of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). We hypothesized higher parasomnia prevalence with higher OSA severity. Methods: The sample comprised 4,372 patients referred to a Norwegian university hospital with suspicion of OSA (mean age 49.1 years, 69.8% males). OSA was diagnosed and categorized by standard respiratory polygraphy (type 3 portable monitor). The patients completed a comprehensive questionnaire prior to the sleep study, including questions about different parasomnias during the last 3 months. Pearson chi-square tests explored differences according to the presence and severity of OSA. Furthermore, logistic regression analyses with the parasomnias as dependent variables and OSA severity as predictor were conducted (adjusted for sex, age, marital status, smoking, and alcohol consumption). Results: In all, 34.7% had apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) <5 (no OSA), 32.5% had AHI 5-14.9 (mild OSA), 17.4% had AHI 15-29.9 (moderate OSA), and 15.3% had AHI ≥30 (severe OSA). The overall prevalence of parasomnias was 3.3% (sleepwalking), 2.5% (sleep-related violence), 3.1% (sexual acts during sleep), 1.7% (sleep-related eating), and 43.8% (nightmares). The overall parasomnia prevalence was highest in the no OSA group. In the chi-square analyses, including all OSA groups, the prevalence of sleep-related violence and nightmares were inversely associated with OSA severity, whereas none of the other parasomnias were significantly associated with OSA severity. In adjusted logistic regression analyses the odds of sleepwalking was significantly higher in severe compared to mild OSA (OR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.12-3.55). The other parasomnias, including sleep-related violence and nightmares, were not associated with OSA presence or severity when adjusting for sex and age. Conclusions: We found no increase in parasomnias in patients with OSA compared to those not having OSA. With the exception of sleepwalking, the parasomnias were not associated with OSA severity.
- [Assessment of cardiac autonomic functions by heart rate variability in patients with restless leg syndrome]. [Letter]
- TKTurk Kardiyol Dern Ars 2018; 46(5):426
- Relationship between sleep patterns, sleep problems, and childhood enuresis. [Journal Article]
- SMSleep Med 2018 Jun 04; 50:14-20
- CONCLUSIONS: Children with NE, especially older boys with severe NE, were more sleep compromised than those without NE. Our findings warrant further research on the mechanism of NE and may have clinical implications for the treatment of childhood sleep problems and NE.
New Search Next
- NREM sleep parasomnias as disorders of sleep-state dissociation. [Review]
- NRNat Rev Neurol 2018; 14(8):470-481
- Non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep parasomnias (or NREM parasomnias) are fascinating disorders with mysterious neurobiological substrates. These conditions are common and often severe, with social, ...
Non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep parasomnias (or NREM parasomnias) are fascinating disorders with mysterious neurobiological substrates. These conditions are common and often severe, with social, personal and forensic implications. The NREM parasomnias include sleepwalking, sleep terrors and confusional arousals - collectively termed disorders of arousal (DOAs) - as well as less well-known entities such as sleep-related sexual behaviours and eating disorders. Affected patients can exhibit waking behaviours arising abruptly out of NREM sleep. Although the individual remains largely unresponsive to the external environment, their EEG shows both typical sleep-like and wake-like features, and they occasionally report dreaming afterwards. Therefore, these disorders offer a unique natural model to explore the abnormal coexistence of local sleep and wake brain activity and the dissociation between behaviour and various aspects of consciousness. In this article, we critically review major findings and updates on DOAs, focusing on neurophysiological studies, and offer an overview of new clinical frontiers and promising future research areas. We advocate a joint effort to inform clinicians and the general public about the management and follow-up of these conditions. We also strongly encourage collaborative multicentre studies to add more objective polysomnographic criteria to the current official diagnostic definitions and to develop clinical practice guidelines, multidisciplinary research approaches and evidence-based medical care.