- Effects of acidic and nonacidic reflux on the eustachian tube: An animal experiment. [Journal Article]
- ENEar Nose Throat J 2018; 97(12):E21-E27
- We investigated the effects of pepsin/hydrochloric acid and bile acids on eustachian tube function and eustachian tube mucosa in 40 Sprague-Dawley rats. The animals were randomly assigned to groups o...
We investigated the effects of pepsin/hydrochloric acid and bile acids on eustachian tube function and eustachian tube mucosa in 40 Sprague-Dawley rats. The animals were randomly assigned to groups of 10: one group received pepsin/hydrochloric acid (pepsin/HCl group), another received human bile (human bile group), a third received a mixture of pepsin/HCl and human bile (combination group), and the fourth received isotonic saline solution (control group). Test solutions were applied transnasally three times a day for 10 days. Passive opening pressures and passive closing pressures were measured digitally at baseline and then on days 3, 5, and 10. After 10 days, the rats were sacrificed and histologic changes in the eustachian tube mucosa were analyzed. At study's end, we observed that the increases in passive opening pressures and passive closing pressures in all three experimental groups were significantly greater than those of the control group. Moreover, the increases in passive opening and closing pressures were significantly greater in the combination group than in both the pepsin/HCl and the human bile groups. In the tympanic orifice, the degree of lymphocyte and polymorphonuclear leukocyte infiltration was significantly higher in all three experimental groups than in the control group. In the nasopharyngeal orifice, lymphoid follicle formation was significantly more common in the human bile group than in the control group; also, the presence of subepithelial vasodilation and subepithelial edema was significantly more common in the pepsin/HCl and combination groups than in the controls. Of the three experimental solutions tested, the combination of pepsin/HCl and human bile was the most injurious to eustachian tube function. Reflux of bile acids causes eustachian tube dysfunction, and this damage worsens with the introduction of an acidic compound.
- Systemic involvement in ACS: Using CMR imaging to compare the aortic wall in patients with and without acute coronary syndrome. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2018; 13(12):e0203514
- CONCLUSIONS: There was a reduction in aortic wall size, aortic wall area, and aortic wall thickness in patients presenting with ACS, and no change in non-ACS patients. There were no interval between-group differences in these measurements. We observed a reduction in C-reactive protein in both groups, with higher reduction noted in ACS patients.
- Risk Factors for Pancreatic Stone Formation in Type 1 Autoimmune Pancreatitis: A Long-term Japanese Multicenter Analysis of 624 Patients. [Journal Article]
- PPancreas 2019; 48(1):49-54
- CONCLUSIONS: The increased frequency of pancreatic head swelling in type 1 AIP patients exhibiting pancreatic stones indicated a propensity for pancreatic juice stasis with subsequent stone development and pancreatic dysfunction occurring over longer periods of disease duration.
- Salt Induced Structural Collapse, Swelling and Signature of Aggregation of Two ssDNA Strands: Insights from Molecular Dynamics Simulation. [Journal Article]
- JPJ Phys Chem B 2018 Dec 12
- Molecular dynamics simulations elucidate the structural collapse shown by two ssDNAs of same base sequence in the presence of either Na+ or Mg2+, starting from in-vivo ionic concentration to higher c...
Molecular dynamics simulations elucidate the structural collapse shown by two ssDNAs of same base sequence in the presence of either Na+ or Mg2+, starting from in-vivo ionic concentration to higher concentrations. Initially, an increase in ion concentration facilitates the structural distortion of individual ssDNA and helps to bring them close and for this, Mg2+ is better than Na+. However further addition of ions leads to structural re-swelling of the DNA strands and inhibit their proximity. The structural changes are found to be guided by the strong interaction of the cations with the Phosphinyl-Oxygen (pn_O). Additionally, a significant difference has been noticed in the interaction of the cations with Phosphoester Oxygen (pe_O) depending on the nature of the ion. The sequential and non-sequential base-pair stacking is one of the major factors in the structural collapse of individual ssDNA. Overall, the present investigation highlights some of the important aspects of aggregation of two ssDNA with the same base sequence at varying cationic concentration.
- Buckling of geometrically confined shells. [Journal Article]
- SMSoft Matter 2018 Dec 12
- We study the periodic buckling patterns that emerge when elastic shells are subjected to geometric confinement. Residual swelling provides access to range of shapes (saddles, rolled sheets, cylinders...
We study the periodic buckling patterns that emerge when elastic shells are subjected to geometric confinement. Residual swelling provides access to range of shapes (saddles, rolled sheets, cylinders, and spherical sections) which vary in their extrinsic and intrinsic curvatures. Our experimental and numerical data show that when these moderately thick structures are radially confined, a single geometric parameter - the ratio of the total shell radius to the amount of unconstrained material - predicts the number of lobes formed. We present a model that interprets this scaling as the competition between radial and circumferential bending. Next, we show that reducing the transverse confinement of saddles causes the lobe number to decrease with a similar scaling analysis. Hence, one geometric parameter captures the wave number through a wide range of radial and transverse confinement, connecting the shell shape to the shape of the boundary that confines it. We expect these results to be relevant for an expanse of shell shapes, and thus applicable to the design of shape-shifting materials and the swelling and growth of soft structures.
- Idiopathic "Cyclic" Edema: a Frustrating and Poorly Understood Clinical Problem. [Journal Article]
- CHCardiovasc Hematol Agents Med Chem 2018 Dec 11
- Idiopathic edema (IE), is a syndrome involving real or perceived weight gain secondary to the pathological retention of fluid. This syndrome of generalized edema is almost solely reported in women. T...
Idiopathic edema (IE), is a syndrome involving real or perceived weight gain secondary to the pathological retention of fluid. This syndrome of generalized edema is almost solely reported in women. The diagnosis of IE is one of exclusion and requires a careful history, physical exam, and clinical suspicion. The aim of this article is to provide a comprehensive review of the available literature in order to attempt to define IE, identify the possible causes, review the proposed pathophysiology, and discuss potential treatment options.
- Using intracameral vital dye as a guide for venting incision in acute corneal hydrops. [Journal Article]
- EJEur J Ophthalmol 2018 Dec 12; :1120672118818012
- CONCLUSIONS: Venting incision under the guide of injected trypan blue into the anterior chamber combined with intracameral SF6 injection could be effectively used for a large acute hydrops. This technique could prevent other interventions like passing full-thickness corneal suturing and subsequent complications.
- Developmental toxicity and apoptosis in zebrafish embryos induced by low-dose γ-ray irradiation. [Journal Article]
- ESEnviron Sci Pollut Res Int 2018 Dec 12
- In this paper, the developmental toxicity and apoptosis in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos induced by 0.01, 0.05, and 0.10-Gy γ-ray irradiation were investigated and verified by single cell gel elect...
In this paper, the developmental toxicity and apoptosis in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos induced by 0.01, 0.05, and 0.10-Gy γ-ray irradiation were investigated and verified by single cell gel electrophoresis, acridine orange staining, flow cytometry, transmission electron microscopy, digital gene expression sequencing, and Western blot analysis. DNA damage, deformity rates, and apoptosis of zebrafish embryos were found to increase significantly with the increase of irradiation dose, and survival and hatching rates significantly decreased when the irradiation dose exceeds 0.10 and 0.05 Gy, respectively. Exposure to 0.10-Gy γ-ray irradiation resulted in the swelling of cell mitochondria of zebrafish embryos and changes in their intracellular vacuoles. mRNA and protein expression levels of Shh (sonic hedgehog 19 KDa) and Smo (smoothened 86 KDa) of Hh signaling pathway associated with the development of early embryos significantly increased with the increase of irradiation dose. Expression of the AKT (56 KDa) and PiK3r3 (55 KDa) genes, which are anti-apoptotic and involved with the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, significantly decreased, while expression of the bada gene, which is pro-apoptotic, significantly increased. The results show that γ-ray irradiations of 0.01 and 0.05 Gy can induce developmental toxicity and apoptosis in zebrafish embryos via Hh and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways, respectively.
- Synthesis and evaluation of topical hydrogel membranes; a novel approach to treat skin disorders. [Journal Article]
- JMJ Mater Sci Mater Med 2018 Dec 11; 29(12):191
- The aim of the study was to synthesize and evaluate chitosan-based topical cross-linked hydrogel membranes of mupirocin for new pharmaceutical controlled release application. These cross-linked struc...
The aim of the study was to synthesize and evaluate chitosan-based topical cross-linked hydrogel membranes of mupirocin for new pharmaceutical controlled release application. These cross-linked structured membranes were synthesized by modification of free radical polymerization. Low molecular weight (LMW) chitosan is cross-linked with 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid (AMPS) with a crosslinker N,N-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA). Hydrogel membranes were characterized by FTIR, DSC, TGA, SEM, Swelling behavior, sol-gel analysis, in vitro percent drug release at different pH, permeation across skin, ex vivo drug deposition study, irritation study and in vivo antibacterial activity of mupirocin loaded hydrogels. Developed membranes were spherical, adhesive and have good elastic strength. FTIR confirmed the cross-linking and formation of new structure having appropriate characteristics needed for controlled release delivery system. Drug release through rabbit's skin was evaluated by Franz diffusion cell and up to 6329.61 µg/1.5 cm2 was permeated and drug deposition in skin revealed significant retention up to 1224 µg/1.5 cm2. Formulated membranes were nonirritant to the skin as validated by Draize patch test. In surgical wound model, LMW chitosan-based hydrogel membranes showed prolong efficacy against bacterial infection caused by S. aureus. Enhanced retention of drug in skin demonstrated the good potential of topical delivery for skin bacterial infection.
New Search Next
- Lanadelumab for the Prophylactic Treatment of Hereditary Angioedema with C1 Inhibitor Deficiency: A Review of Preclinical and Phase I Studies. [Review]
- BBioDrugs 2018 Dec 12
- Hereditary angioedema (HAE) with C1 esterase inhibitor (C1-INH) deficiency (C1-INH-HAE) is a rare disease characterized by diminished levels or dysfunctional activity of C1-INH, leading to dysregulat...
Hereditary angioedema (HAE) with C1 esterase inhibitor (C1-INH) deficiency (C1-INH-HAE) is a rare disease characterized by diminished levels or dysfunctional activity of C1-INH, leading to dysregulated plasma kallikrein activity within the kallikrein-kinin pathway. Symptoms manifest as painful, potentially life-threatening swelling of subcutaneous tissues throughout the body and/or submucosal edema in the upper airway or gastrointestinal tract. Attacks recur with unpredictable frequency, intensity, and duration, placing a heavy burden on patients' daily lives. Despite improved availability of medications for on-demand treatment during attacks and prophylaxis of future attacks, unmet needs remain. Lanadelumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody, may help address some of the limitations of existing prophylactic options (e.g., the need for intravenous administration or frequent dosing). Preclinical studies demonstrate that it is highly potent and specifically inhibits plasma kallikrein, and findings from phase Ia and Ib studies suggest this agent is well tolerated and provides sustained inhibition of plasma kallikrein, allowing for less frequent dosing. The phase III HELP Study (NCT02586805) evaluating the efficacy and safety of lanadelumab in preventing HAE attacks has been completed, and its open-label extension (NCT02741596) is ongoing. Lanadelumab is now approved in the USA and Canada for prophylaxis to prevent attacks of HAE in patients aged ≥ 12 years. This review provides an overview of the discovery and clinical development of lanadelumab, from preclinical through phase Ib studies, characterizing its safety/tolerability, efficacy, and pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles. It also highlights how this agent may positively impact clinical care of patients with C1-INH-HAE.