- Occupational problems and barriers reported by individuals with obesity. [Journal Article]
- SJScand J Occup Ther 2017 Jan 19; :1-9
- CONCLUSIONS: Persons with obesity struggle with a large variety of occupational performance problems, which occur in the dynamic relationship between these individuals, their environment and their occupation. Occupational therapists have the skills to take more active role in helping persons with obesity to perform valued occupations and establish healthier everyday routines.
- Effects of chronic shoulder pain on quality of life and occupational engagement in the population with chronic spinal cord injury: preparing for the best outcomes with occupational therapy. [Journal Article]
- DRDisabil Rehabil 2017; 39(1):82-90
- Purpose To examine the implications of chronic shoulder pain on quality of life and occupational engagement in spinal cord injury (SCI). The Ecology of Human Performance Model and Self-Efficacy Theor...
Purpose To examine the implications of chronic shoulder pain on quality of life and occupational engagement in spinal cord injury (SCI). The Ecology of Human Performance Model and Self-Efficacy Theory will be used to further examine the interplay of shoulder pain, quality of life and engagement in this population. Method Analysis of literature. Results Persons with SCI have a high prevalence of shoulder pain and injury, affecting 37-84% of analysed studies; chronic pain limits occupational engagement and decreases quality of life. Remediation of pain provides improved occupational engagement, functional independence and quality of life in those with high self-efficacy and low depression. Conclusion Shoulder pain is a serious complication following SCI and the Ecology of Human Performance Model and Self-Efficacy Theory can be utilized in conjunction for a framework to evaluate, treat and prevent shoulder pain and its devastating effects on occupational engagement and quality of life in the spinal cord injured population. Thereafter, rehabilitation professionals will have a greater understanding of these interactions to serve as a guide for evaluation and intervention planning to promote optimal occupational engagement through limiting the experiences of occupational injustices for those with SCI and shoulder pain. Implications for Rehabilitation Musculoskeletal pain at the shoulder joint and depression are common complications following spinal cord injury that limit occupational engagement and decrease quality of life. To increase engagement and quality of life in this population, treatments need to address all factors including the under-lying psychosocial instead of task and environment modification alone. The Ecology of Human Performance Model and Self-efficacy Theory are effective frameworks that can be used for evaluation, treatment planning and outcome measurement to maximize occupational engagement and quality of life.
- Intraoperative Noise Increases Perceived Task Load and Fatigue in Anesthesiology Residents: A Simulation-Based Study. [Randomized Controlled Trial]
- A&AAnesth Analg 2016; 122(2):512-25
- CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence that noise during surgery can increase feelings of stress, as measured by perceived task load and fatigue levels, in anesthesiologists and adds to the growing literature pointing to an overall adverse impact of clinical noise on caregivers and patient safety. The psychometric model proposed in this study for assessing perceived stress is plausible based on factor analysis and will be useful for characterizing the impact of the clinical environment on subject stress levels in future investigations.
- Structural Model for the Effects of Environmental Elements on the Psychological Characteristics and Performance of the Employees of Manufacturing Systems. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Environ Res Public Health 2016; 13(1)
- This paper analyzes the effects of environmental elements on the psychological characteristics and performance of employees in manufacturing systems using structural equation modeling. Increasing the...
This paper analyzes the effects of environmental elements on the psychological characteristics and performance of employees in manufacturing systems using structural equation modeling. Increasing the comprehension of these effects may help optimize manufacturing systems regarding their employees' psychological characteristics and performance from a macroergonomic perspective. As the method, a new macroergonomic compatibility questionnaire (MCQ) was developed and statistically validated, and 158 respondents at four manufacture companies were considered. Noise, lighting and temperature, humidity and air quality (THAQ) were used as independent variables and psychological characteristics and employees' performance as dependent variables. To propose and test the hypothetical causal model of significant relationships among the variables, a data analysis was deployed. Results found that the macroergonomic compatibility of environmental elements presents significant direct effects on employees' psychological characteristics and either direct or indirect effects on the employees' performance. THAQ had the highest direct and total effects on psychological characteristics. Regarding the direct and total effects on employees' performance, the psychological characteristics presented the highest effects, followed by THAQ conditions. These results may help measure and optimize manufacturing systems' performance by enhancing their macroergonomic compatibility and quality of life at work of the employees.
- The Consequence of Combined Pain and Stress on Work Ability in Female Laboratory Technicians: A Cross-Sectional Study. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Environ Res Public Health 2015; 12(12):15834-42
- Musculoskeletal pain and stress-related disorders are leading causes of impaired work ability, sickness absences and disability pensions. However, knowledge about the combined detrimental effect of p...
Musculoskeletal pain and stress-related disorders are leading causes of impaired work ability, sickness absences and disability pensions. However, knowledge about the combined detrimental effect of pain and stress on work ability is lacking. This study investigates the association between pain in the neck-shoulders, perceived stress, and work ability. In a cross-sectional survey at a large pharmaceutical company in Denmark 473 female laboratory technicians replied to questions about stress (Perceived Stress Scale), musculoskeletal pain intensity (scale 0-10) of the neck and shoulders, and work ability (Work Ability Index). General linear models tested the association between variables. In the multi-adjusted model, stress (p < 0.001) and pain (p < 0.001) had independent main effects on the work ability index score, and there was no significant stress by pain interaction (p = 0.32). Work ability decreased gradually with both increased stress and pain. Workers with low stress and low pain had the highest Work Ability Index score (44.6 (95% CI 43.9-45.3)) and workers with high stress and high pain had the lowest score (32.7 (95% CI 30.6-34.9)). This cross-sectional study indicates that increased stress and musculoskeletal pain are independently associated with lower work ability in female laboratory technicians.
- Occupational health management system: A study of expatriate construction professionals. [Journal Article]
- AAAccid Anal Prev 2016; 93:280-90
- Due to its direct impact on the safety and function of organizations, occupational health has been a concern of the construction industry for many years. The inherent complexity of occupational healt...
Due to its direct impact on the safety and function of organizations, occupational health has been a concern of the construction industry for many years. The inherent complexity of occupational health management presents challenges that make a systems approach essential. From a systems perspective, health is conceptualized as an emergent property of a system in which processes operating at the individual and organizational level are inextricably connected. Based on the fundamental behavior-to-performance-to-outcome (B-P-O) theory of industrial/organizational psychology, this study presents the development of an I-CB-HP-O (Input-Coping Behaviors-Health Performance-Outcomes) health management systems model spanning individual and organizational boundaries. The model is based on a survey of Hong Kong expatriate construction professionals working in Mainland China. Such professionals tend to be under considerable stress due not only to an adverse work environment with dynamic tasks, but also the need to confront the cross-cultural issues arising from expatriation. A questionnaire was designed based on 6 focus groups involving 44 participants, and followed by a pilot study. Of the 500 questionnaires distributed in the main study, 137 valid returns were received, giving a response rate of 27.4%. The data were analyzed using statistical techniques such as factor analysis, reliability testing, Pearson correlation analysis, multiple regression modeling, and structural equation modeling. Theories of coping behaviors and health performance tend to focus on the isolated causal effects of single factors and/or posits the model at single, individual level; while industrial practices on health management tend to focus on organizational policy and training. By developing the I-CB-HP-O health management system, incorporating individual, interpersonal, and organizational perspectives, this study bridges the gap between theory and practice while providing empirical support for a systems view of health management.
- Physician Assistant Job Satisfaction: A Narrative Review of Empirical Research. [Review]
- JPJ Physician Assist Educ 2015; 26(4):176-86
- CONCLUSIONS: Employers may want to examine their relationships with PAs periodically. The factors of job satisfaction may assist policymakers and health administrators in creating welcoming professional employment environments. The main limitation: no study comprehensively evaluated all the antecedents of job satisfaction. PAs seem to experience job satisfaction supported by low attrition rates and competitive wages. Contributing factors are autonomy, experienced responsibility, pay, and supportive supervising physician. A number of intrinsic rewards derived from the performance of the job within the social environment, along with extrinsic rewards, may contribute to overall job satisfaction. PA job satisfaction research is underdeveloped; investigations should include longitudinal studies, cohort analyses, and economic determinants.
- Does physical exposure throughout working life influence chair-rise performance in midlife? A retrospective cohort study of associations between work and physical function in Denmark. [Journal Article]
- BOBMJ Open 2015; 5(11):e009873
- CONCLUSIONS: Higher physical exposure throughout working life is associated with slightly poorer chair-rise performance. The associations between exposure and outcome were non-linear.
- Physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness and carotid intima thickness: sedentary occupation as risk factor for atherosclerosis and obesity. [Journal Article]
- EREur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2015; 19(17):3157-68
- CONCLUSIONS: FFs showed significantly higher physical activity levels compared with the SCs. SCs had higher cardiovascular risk profile, higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome, higher waist circumference and significantly higher IMT than FFs. In conclusion, sedentary occupations have higher cardiovascular risk secondary to accelerated atherosclerosis.
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- Noise exposure and cognitive performance: A study on personnel on board Royal Norwegian Navy vessels. [Journal Article]
- NHNoise Health 2015 Sep-Oct; 17(78):320-7
- Prior research shows that work on board vessels of the Royal Norwegian Navy (RNoN) is associated with noise exposure levels above recommended standards. Further, noise exposure has been found to impa...
Prior research shows that work on board vessels of the Royal Norwegian Navy (RNoN) is associated with noise exposure levels above recommended standards. Further, noise exposure has been found to impair cognitive performance in environmental, occupational, and experimental settings, although prior research in naval and maritime settings is sparse. The aim of this study was to evaluate cognitive performance after exposure to noise among personnel working on board vessels in the RNoN. Altogether 87 Navy personnel (80 men, 7 women; 31 ± 9 years) from 24 RNoN vessels were included. Noise exposure was recorded by personal noise dosimeters at a minimum of 4 h prior to testing, and categorized into 4 groups for the analysis: <72.6 dB(A), 72.6-77.0 dB(A), 77.1-85.2 dB(A), and >85.2 dB(A). The participants performed a visual attention test based on the Posner cue-target paradigm. Multivariable general linear model (GLM) analyses were performed to analyze whether noise exposure was associated with response time (RT) when adjusting for the covariates age, alertness, workload, noise exposure in test location, sleep the night before testing, use of hearing protection device (HPD), and percentage of errors. When adjusting for covariates, RT was significantly increased among personnel exposed to >85.2 dB(A) and 77.1-85.2 dB(A) compared to personnel exposed to <72.6 dB(A).