- Effects of intra-hippocampal microinjection of vitamin B12 on the orofacial pain and memory impairments induced by scopolamine and orofacial pain in rats. [Journal Article]
- PBPhysiol Behav 2016 Dec 18; 170:68-77
- In the present study, we investigated the effects of microinjection of vitamin B12 into the hippocampus on the orofacial pain and memory impairments induced by scopolamine and orofacial pain. In keta...
In the present study, we investigated the effects of microinjection of vitamin B12 into the hippocampus on the orofacial pain and memory impairments induced by scopolamine and orofacial pain. In ketamine-xylazine anesthetized rats, the right and left sides of the dorsal hippocampus (CA1) were implanted with two guide cannulas. Orofacial pain was induced by subcutaneous injection of formalin (1.5%, 50μl) into the right vibrissa pad, and the durations of face rubbing were recorded at 3-min blocks for 45min. Morris water maze (MWM) was used for evaluation of learning and memory. Finally, locomotor activity was assessed using an open-field test. Vitamin B12 attenuated both phases of formalin-induced orofacial pain. Prior administration of naloxone and naloxonazine, but not naltrindole and nor-binaltorphimine, prevented this effect. Vitamin B12 and physostigmine decreased latency time as well as traveled distance in Morris water maze. In addition, these chemicals improved scopolamine-induced memory impairment. The memory impairment induced by orofacial pain was improved by vitamin B12 and physostigmine used alone. Naloxone prevented, whereas physostigmine enhanced the memory improving effect of vitamin B12 in the pain-induced memory impairment. All the above-mentioned chemicals did not alter locomotor activity. The results of the present study showed that at the level of the dorsal hippocampus, vitamin B12 modulated orofacial pain through a mu-opioid receptor mechanism. In addition, vitamin B12 contributed to hippocampal cholinergic system in processing of memory. Moreover, cholinergic and opioid systems may be involved in improving effect of vitamin B12 on pain-induced memory impairment.
- Planarian cholinesterase: in vitro characterization of an evolutionarily ancient enzyme to study organophosphorus pesticide toxicity and reactivation. [Journal Article]
- ATArch Toxicol 2016 Dec 18
- The freshwater planarian Dugesia japonica has recently emerged as an animal model for developmental neurotoxicology and found to be sensitive to organophosphorus (OP) pesticides. While previous activ...
The freshwater planarian Dugesia japonica has recently emerged as an animal model for developmental neurotoxicology and found to be sensitive to organophosphorus (OP) pesticides. While previous activity staining of D. japonica, which possess a discrete cholinergic nervous system, has shown acylthiocholine catalysis, it is unknown whether this is accomplished through an acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), or a hybrid esterase and how OP exposure affects esterase activity. Here, we show that the majority of D. japonica cholinesterase (DjChE) activity departs from conventional AChE and BChE classifications. Inhibition by classic protonable amine and quaternary reversible inhibitors (ethopropazine, donepezil, tacrine, edrophonium, BW284c51, propidium) shows that DjChE is far less sensitive to these inhibitors than human AChE, suggesting discrete differences in active center and peripheral site recognition and structures. Additionally, we find that different OPs (chlorpyrifos oxon, paraoxon, dichlorvos, diazinon oxon, malaoxon) and carbamylating agents (carbaryl, neostigmine, physostigmine, pyridostigmine) differentially inhibit DjChE activity in vitro. DjChE was most sensitive to diazinon oxon and neostigmine and least sensitive to malaoxon and carbaryl. Diazinon oxon-inhibited DjChE could be reactivated by the quaternary oxime, pralidoxime (2-PAM), and the zwitterionic oxime, RS194B, with RS194B being significantly more potent. Sodium fluoride (NaF) reactivates OP-DjChE faster than 2-PAM. As one of the most ancient true cholinesterases, DjChE provides insight into the evolution of a hybrid enzyme before the separation into distinct AChE and BChE enzymes found in higher vertebrates. The sensitivity of DjChE to OPs and capacity for reactivation validate the use of planarians for OP toxicology studies.
- Recent advances in acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors and Reactivators: an update on the patent literature (2012-2015). [Journal Article]
- EOExpert Opin Ther Pat 2016 Dec 14
- Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is the major enzyme that hydrolyzes acetylcholine, a key neurotransmitter for synaptic transmission, into acetic acid and choline. Mild inhibition of AChE has been shown t...
Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is the major enzyme that hydrolyzes acetylcholine, a key neurotransmitter for synaptic transmission, into acetic acid and choline. Mild inhibition of AChE has been shown to have therapeutic relevance in Alzheimer's disease (AD), myasthenia gravis, and glaucoma among others. In contrast, strong inhibition of AChE can lead to cholinergic poisoning. To combat this, AChE reactivators have to be developed to remove the offending AChE inhibitor, restoring acetylcholine levels to normal. Areas covered: This article covers recent advances in the development of acetylcholinesterase modulators, including both inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase for the efforts in development of new chemical entities for treatment of AD, as well as re-activators for resurrection of organophosphate bound acetylcholinesterase. Expert opinion: Over the past three years, research efforts have continued to identify novel small molecules as AChE inhibitors for both CNS and peripheral diseases. The more recent patent activity has focused on three AChE ligand design areas: derivatives of known AChE ligands, natural product based scaffolds and multifunctional ligands, all of which have produced some unique chemical matter with AChE inhibition activities in the mid picomolar to low micromolar ranges. New AChE inhibitors with polypharmacology or dual inhibitory activity have also emerged as highlighted by new AChE inhibitors with dual activity at L-type calcium channels, GSK-3, BACE1 and H3, although most only show low micromolar activity, thus further research is warranted. New small molecule reactivators of organophosphate-inhibited AChE have also been disclosed, which focused on the design of neutral ligands with improved pharmaceutical properties and blood-brain barrier (BBB) penetration. Gratifyingly, some research in this area is moving away from the traditional quaternary pyridinium oximes AChE reactivators, while still employing the necessary reactivation group (oximes). However, selectivity over inhibition of native AChE enzyme, effectiveness of reactivation, broad-spectrum reactivation against multiple organophosphates and reactivation of aged-enzyme continue to be hurdles for this area of research.
- The E Loop of the Transmitter Binding Site Is a Key Determinant of the Modulatory Effects of Physostigmine on Neuronal Nicotinic α4β2 Receptors. [Journal Article]
- MPMol Pharmacol 2017; 91(2):100-109
- Physostigmine is a well known inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase, which can also activate, potentiate, and inhibit acetylcholine receptors, including neuronal nicotinic receptors comprising α4 and β2 ...
Physostigmine is a well known inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase, which can also activate, potentiate, and inhibit acetylcholine receptors, including neuronal nicotinic receptors comprising α4 and β2 subunits. We have found that the two stoichiometric forms of this receptor differ in the effects of physostigmine. The form containing three copies of α4 and two of β2 was potentiated at low concentrations of acetylcholine chloride (ACh) and physostigmine, whereas the form containing two copies of α4 and three of β2 was inhibited. Chimeric constructs of subunits indicated that the presence of inhibition or potentiation depended on the source of the extracellular ligand binding domain of the subunit. Further sets of chimeric constructs demonstrated that a portion of the ACh binding domain, the E loop, is a key determinant. Transferring the E loop from the β2 subunit to the α4 subunit resulted in strong inhibition, whereas the reciprocal transfer reduced inhibition. To control the number and position of the incorporated chimeric subunits, we expressed chimeric constructs with subunit dimers. Surprisingly, incorporation of a subunit with an altered E loop had similar effects whether it contributed either to an intersubunit interface containing a canonical ACh binding site or to an alternative interface. The observation that the α4 E loop is involved suggests that physostigmine interacts with regions of subunits that contribute to the ACh binding site, whereas the lack of interface specificity indicates that interaction with a particular ACh binding site is not the critical factor.
- Synthetic analogs of stryphnusin isolated from the marine sponge Stryphnus fortis inhibit acetylcholinesterase with no effect on muscle function or neuromuscular transmission. [Journal Article]
- OBOrg Biomol Chem 2016 Nov 29; 14(47):11220-11229
- The marine secondary metabolite stryphnusin (1) was isolated from the boreal sponge Stryphnus fortis, collected off the Norwegian coast. Given its resemblance to other natural acetylcholinesterase an...
The marine secondary metabolite stryphnusin (1) was isolated from the boreal sponge Stryphnus fortis, collected off the Norwegian coast. Given its resemblance to other natural acetylcholinesterase antagonists, it was evaluated against electric eel acetylcholinesterase and displayed inhibitory activity. A library of twelve synthetic phenethylamine analogs, 2a-7a and 2b-7b, containing tertiary and quaternary amines respectively were synthesized to investigate the individual structural contributions to the activity. Compound 7b was the strongest competitive inhibitor of both acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase with IC50 values of 57 and 20 μM, respectively. This inhibitory activity is one order of magnitude higher than the positive control physostigmine, and is comparable with several other marine acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. The physiological effect of compound 7b on muscle function and neuromuscular transmission was studied and revealed a selective mode of action at the investigated concentration. This data is of importance as the interference of therapeutic acetylcholinesterase inhibitors with neuromuscular transmission can be problematic and lead to unwanted side effects. The current findings also provide additional insights into the structure-activity relationship of both natural and synthetic acetylcholinesterase inhibitors.
- Reversal of cardiac vagal effects of physostigmine by adjunctive muscarinic blockade. [Journal Article]
- NNeurotoxicology 2016; 57:174-182
- Pre-treatment with reversible acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors is an effective strategy for reducing lethality following organophosphate nerve agent exposure. AChE inhibition may have unwanted ...
Pre-treatment with reversible acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors is an effective strategy for reducing lethality following organophosphate nerve agent exposure. AChE inhibition may have unwanted cardiac side effects, which could be negated by adjunctive anti-cholinergic therapy. The aims of the present study were to examine the concentration-dependent effects of physostigmine on cardiac responses to vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), to test whether adjunctive treatment with hyoscine can reverse these effects and to assess the functional interaction and electrophysiological consequences of a combined pre-treatment. Studies were performed in an isolated innervated rabbit heart preparation. The reduction in heart rate with VNS was augmented by physostigmine (1-1000nmol/L), in a concentration-dependent manner - with an EC50 of 19nmol/L. Hyoscine was shown to be effective at blocking the cardiac responses to VNS with an IC50 of 11nmol/L. With concomitant perfusion of physostigmine, the concentration-response curve for hyoscine was shifted downward and to the right, increasing the concentration of hyoscine required to normalise (to control values) the effects of physostigmine on heart rate. At the lowest concentration of hyoscine examined (1nmol/L) a modest potentiation of heart rate response to VNS (+15±3%) was observed. We found no evidence of cardiac dysfunction or severe electrophysiological abnormalities with either physostigmine or hyoscine alone, or as a combined drug-therapy. The main finding of this study is that hyoscine, at concentrations greater than 10(-8)M, is effective at reversing the functional effects of physostigmine on the heart. However, low-concentrations of hyoscine may augment cardiac parasympathetic control.
- Cholinergic modulation of the parafacial respiratory group. [Journal Article]
- JPJ Physiol 2016 Nov 03
- CONCLUSIONS: This study investigates the effects of cholinergic transmission on the expiratory oscillator, the parafacial respiratory group (pFRG) in urethane anaesthetized adult rats. Local inhibition of the acetyl cholinesterase enzyme induced activation of expiratory abdominal muscles and active expiration. Local application of the cholinomimetic carbachol elicited recruitment of late expiratory neurons, expiratory abdominal muscle activity and active expiration. This effect was antagonized by local application of the muscarinic antagonists scopolamine, J104129 and 4DAMP. We observed distinct physiological responses between the more medial chemosensitive region of the retrotrapezoid nucleus and the more lateral region of pFRG. These results support the hypothesis that pFRG is under cholinergic neuromodulation and the region surrounding the facial nucleus contains a group of neurons with distinct physiological roles.
- Optimal Pre-treatment for Acute Exposure to the Organophosphate Dicrotophos. [Journal Article]
- CPCurr Pharm Des 2016 Oct 27
- CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that K-27 can be considered a very efficacious prophylactic agent for organophosphate exposure.
- Anti-acetylcholinesterase activity of essential oils and their major constituents from four Ocimum species. [Journal Article]
- ZNZ Naturforsch C 2016 Nov 01; 71(11-12):393-402
- Ocimum is a genus of considerable importance in traditional medicine worldwide. The goal of this study was to examine the anti-acetylcholinesterase activity of Ocimum essential oils and to correlate ...
Ocimum is a genus of considerable importance in traditional medicine worldwide. The goal of this study was to examine the anti-acetylcholinesterase activity of Ocimum essential oils and to correlate the activity with their chemical profiles using a metabolome based GC-MS approach coupled to chemometrics. Further, molecular docking was adopted to rationalize the activity of some essential oil isolates. Essential oil prepared from the four species O. basilicum, O. africanum, O. americanum, and O. minimum exhibited significant anti-acetylcholinesterase activity with (IC50 0.22, 0.175, 0.57 and 0.152 mg/mL, respectively) comparable to that of physostigmine (IC50 0.27 mg/mL). The phenylpropanoids (i.e. estragole) constituted the most dominant chemical group in O. basilicum (sweet basil) and O. minimum, whereas camphor (a ketone) was the most abundant in O. africanum and O. americanum. Supervised and unsupervised multivariate data analyses clearly separated O. africanum and O. americanum from other accessions, with estragole, camphor and, to less extent, β-linalool contributing to species segregation. Estragole was found the most active AchE inhibitor (IC50 0.337 µM) followed by cineole (IC50 2.27 µM), camphor (IC50 21.43 µM) and eugenol (IC50 40.32 µM). Molecular docking revealed that these compounds bind to key amino acids in the catalytic domain of AchE, similar to standard drugs.
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- Pretreatment and prophylaxis against nerve agent poisoning: Are undesirable behavioral side effects unavoidable? [Review]
- NBNeurosci Biobehav Rev 2016; 71:657-670
- The threat of chemical warfare agents like nerve agents requires life saving measures of medical pretreatment combined with treatment after exposure. Pretreatment (pyridostigmine) may cause some side...
The threat of chemical warfare agents like nerve agents requires life saving measures of medical pretreatment combined with treatment after exposure. Pretreatment (pyridostigmine) may cause some side effects in a small number of individuals. A comprehensive research on animals has been performed to clarify effects on behavior. The results from these studies are far from unambiguous, since pyridostigmine may produce adverse effects on behavior in animals in relatively high doses, but not in a consistent way. Other animal studies have examined the potential of drugs like physostigmine, galantamine, benactyzine, trihexyphenidyl, and procyclidine, but they all produce marked behavioral impairment at doses sufficient to contribute to protection against a convulsant dose of soman. Attempts have also been made to develop a combination of drugs capable of assuring full protection (prophylaxis) against nerve agents. However, common to all combinations is that they at anticonvulsant doses cause behavioral deficits. Therefore, the use of limited pretreatment doses may be performed without marked side effects followed by post-exposure therapy with a combination of drugs.