- Enhanced Cholinergic Activity Improves Cerebral Blood Flow during Orthostatic Stress. [Journal Article]
- FNFront Neurol 2017; 8:103
- Cerebral blood flow (CBF) and consequently orthostatic tolerance when upright depends on dilation of the cerebral vasculature in the face of reduced perfusion pressure associated with the hydrostatic...
Cerebral blood flow (CBF) and consequently orthostatic tolerance when upright depends on dilation of the cerebral vasculature in the face of reduced perfusion pressure associated with the hydrostatic gradient. However, it is still unclear if cholinergic activation plays a role in this dilation. To determine if enhancing central cholinergic activity with the centrally acting acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, physostigmine would increase CBF when upright compared to the peripherally acting acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, neostigmine, or saline. We performed a randomized double-blind dose-ranging study that took place over 3 days in a hospital-based research lab. Eight healthy controls (six women and two men, mean age, 26 years; range 21-33) were given infusions of physostigmine, neostigmine, or saline on three different days. Five-minute tilts were repeated at baseline (no infusion), Dose 1 (0.2 μg/kg/min physostigmine; 0.1 μg/kg/min neostigmine) and Dose 2 (0.6 μg/kg/min physostigmine or 0.3 μg/kg/min neostigmine), and placebo (0.9% NaCl). Cerebral blood velocity, beat-to-beat blood pressure, and end-tidal CO2 were continuously measured during tilts. Physostigmine (0.6 μg/kg/min) resulted in higher cerebral blood velocity during tilt (90.5 ± 1.5%) than the equivalent neostigmine (85.5 ± 2.6%) or saline (84.8 ± 1.7%) trials (P < 0.05). This increase occurred despite a greater postural hypocapnia, suggesting physostigmine had a direct vasodilatory effect on the cerebral vasculature. Cerebral hypoperfusion induced by repeated tilts was eliminated by infusion of physostigmine not neostigmine. In conclusion, this study provides the first evidence that enhancement of central, not peripheral, cholinergic activity attenuates the physiological decrease in CBF seen during upright tilt. These data support the need for further research to determine if enhancing central cholinergic activity may improve symptoms in patients with symptomatic orthostatic intolerance.
- Identification of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors using homogenous cell-based assays in quantitative high-throughput screening platforms. [Journal Article]
- BJBiotechnol J 2017 Mar 14
- Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is an enzyme responsible for metabolism of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter associated with muscle movement, cognition, and other neurobiological processes. Inhibition of...
Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is an enzyme responsible for metabolism of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter associated with muscle movement, cognition, and other neurobiological processes. Inhibition of AChE activity can serve as a therapeutic mechanism, but also cause adverse health effects and neurotoxicity. In order to efficiently identify AChE inhibitors from large compound libraries, homogenous cell-based assays in high-throughput screening platforms are needed. In this study, a fluorescent method using Amplex Red (10-acetyl-3,7-dihydroxyphenoxazine) and the Ellman absorbance method were both developed in a homogenous format using a human neuroblastoma cell line (SH-SY5Y). An enzyme-based assay using Amplex Red was also optimized and used to confirm the potential inhibitors. These three assays were used to screen 1368 compounds, which included a library of pharmacologically active compounds (LOPAC) and 88 additional compounds from the Tox21 program, at multiple concentrations in a quantitative high-throughput screening (qHTS) format. All three assays exhibited exceptional performance characteristics including assay signal quality, precision, and reproducibility. A group of inhibitors were identified from this study, including known (e.g. physostigmine and neostigmine bromide) and potential novel AChE inhibitors (e.g. chelerythrine chloride and cilostazol). These results demonstrate that this platform is a promising means to profile large numbers of chemicals that inhibit AChE activity.
- Hippocampal α7 nicotinic ACh receptors contribute to modulation of depression-like behaviour in C57BL/6J mice. [Journal Article]
- BJBr J Pharmacol 2017 Mar 06
- CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that ACh signalling through α7 nAChRs in the hippocampus contributes to regulation of a subset of depression-like behaviours when ACh is increased, as can occur under stressful conditions. These studies also provide evidence for sex differences that may be relevant for treatments of mood disorders based on cholinergic signalling.
- Assessment of anti-cholinesterase activity and cytotoxicity of cagaita (Eugenia dysenterica) leaves. [Journal Article]
- FCFood Chem Toxicol 2017 Feb 24
- Eugenia dysenterica ex DC Mart. (Myrtaceae) is a Brazilian tree with pharmacological and biological properties. The aqueous leaf extract, rich in polyphenols, was tested in the human neuroblastoma ce...
Eugenia dysenterica ex DC Mart. (Myrtaceae) is a Brazilian tree with pharmacological and biological properties. The aqueous leaf extract, rich in polyphenols, was tested in the human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y to evaluate its effect on cell viability. The extract and two isolated compounds were also assessed for the potential inhibitory activity on acetylcholinesterase, an enzyme related to Alzheimer's disease. A simple chromatographic method using Sephadex LH-20 was developed to separate catechin and quercetin from the aqueous leaf extract of E. dysenterica. Identification was carried out by spectroscopic techniques IR, UV, and (1)H and (13)C NMR. The IC50 values were obtained by constructing dose-response curves on a graph with percentage inhibition versus log of inhibitor concentration and compared with physostigmine, a well-known AChE inhibitor. The extract was toxic for SH-SY5Y cells at concentrations higher than 7.8 μg/ml given for 24 h. The decline in SH-SY5Y cell viability appears to be related to its antiproliferative activity. The extract also showed relatively moderate acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of 66.33% ± 0.52% at 1.0 mg/ml with an IC50 value of 155.20 ± 2.09 μg/ml. Physostigmine, quercetin, and catechin showed IC50 values of 18.69 ± 0.07, 46.59 ± 0.49, and 42.39 ± 0.67 μg/ml, respectively.
- Effects of intra-hippocampal microinjection of vitamin B12 on the orofacial pain and memory impairments induced by scopolamine and orofacial pain in rats. [Journal Article]
- PBPhysiol Behav 2017 Mar 01; 170:68-77
- In the present study, we investigated the effects of microinjection of vitamin B12 into the hippocampus on the orofacial pain and memory impairments induced by scopolamine and orofacial pain. In keta...
In the present study, we investigated the effects of microinjection of vitamin B12 into the hippocampus on the orofacial pain and memory impairments induced by scopolamine and orofacial pain. In ketamine-xylazine anesthetized rats, the right and left sides of the dorsal hippocampus (CA1) were implanted with two guide cannulas. Orofacial pain was induced by subcutaneous injection of formalin (1.5%, 50μl) into the right vibrissa pad, and the durations of face rubbing were recorded at 3-min blocks for 45min. Morris water maze (MWM) was used for evaluation of learning and memory. Finally, locomotor activity was assessed using an open-field test. Vitamin B12 attenuated both phases of formalin-induced orofacial pain. Prior administration of naloxone and naloxonazine, but not naltrindole and nor-binaltorphimine, prevented this effect. Vitamin B12 and physostigmine decreased latency time as well as traveled distance in Morris water maze. In addition, these chemicals improved scopolamine-induced memory impairment. The memory impairment induced by orofacial pain was improved by vitamin B12 and physostigmine used alone. Naloxone prevented, whereas physostigmine enhanced the memory improving effect of vitamin B12 in the pain-induced memory impairment. All the above-mentioned chemicals did not alter locomotor activity. The results of the present study showed that at the level of the dorsal hippocampus, vitamin B12 modulated orofacial pain through a mu-opioid receptor mechanism. In addition, vitamin B12 contributed to hippocampal cholinergic system in processing of memory. Moreover, cholinergic and opioid systems may be involved in improving effect of vitamin B12 on pain-induced memory impairment.
- Planarian cholinesterase: in vitro characterization of an evolutionarily ancient enzyme to study organophosphorus pesticide toxicity and reactivation. [Journal Article]
- ATArch Toxicol 2016 Dec 18
- The freshwater planarian Dugesia japonica has recently emerged as an animal model for developmental neurotoxicology and found to be sensitive to organophosphorus (OP) pesticides. While previous activ...
The freshwater planarian Dugesia japonica has recently emerged as an animal model for developmental neurotoxicology and found to be sensitive to organophosphorus (OP) pesticides. While previous activity staining of D. japonica, which possess a discrete cholinergic nervous system, has shown acylthiocholine catalysis, it is unknown whether this is accomplished through an acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), or a hybrid esterase and how OP exposure affects esterase activity. Here, we show that the majority of D. japonica cholinesterase (DjChE) activity departs from conventional AChE and BChE classifications. Inhibition by classic protonable amine and quaternary reversible inhibitors (ethopropazine, donepezil, tacrine, edrophonium, BW284c51, propidium) shows that DjChE is far less sensitive to these inhibitors than human AChE, suggesting discrete differences in active center and peripheral site recognition and structures. Additionally, we find that different OPs (chlorpyrifos oxon, paraoxon, dichlorvos, diazinon oxon, malaoxon) and carbamylating agents (carbaryl, neostigmine, physostigmine, pyridostigmine) differentially inhibit DjChE activity in vitro. DjChE was most sensitive to diazinon oxon and neostigmine and least sensitive to malaoxon and carbaryl. Diazinon oxon-inhibited DjChE could be reactivated by the quaternary oxime, pralidoxime (2-PAM), and the zwitterionic oxime, RS194B, with RS194B being significantly more potent. Sodium fluoride (NaF) reactivates OP-DjChE faster than 2-PAM. As one of the most ancient true cholinesterases, DjChE provides insight into the evolution of a hybrid enzyme before the separation into distinct AChE and BChE enzymes found in higher vertebrates. The sensitivity of DjChE to OPs and capacity for reactivation validate the use of planarians for OP toxicology studies.
- Recent advances in acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors and Reactivators: an update on the patent literature (2012-2015). [Review]
- EOExpert Opin Ther Pat 2017; 27(4):455-476
- Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is the major enzyme that hydrolyzes acetylcholine, a key neurotransmitter for synaptic transmission, into acetic acid and choline. Mild inhibition of AChE has been shown t...
Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is the major enzyme that hydrolyzes acetylcholine, a key neurotransmitter for synaptic transmission, into acetic acid and choline. Mild inhibition of AChE has been shown to have therapeutic relevance in Alzheimer's disease (AD), myasthenia gravis, and glaucoma among others. In contrast, strong inhibition of AChE can lead to cholinergic poisoning. To combat this, AChE reactivators have to be developed to remove the offending AChE inhibitor, restoring acetylcholine levels to normal. Areas covered: This article covers recent advances in the development of acetylcholinesterase modulators, including both inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase for the efforts in development of new chemical entities for treatment of AD, as well as re-activators for resurrection of organophosphate bound acetylcholinesterase. Expert opinion: Over the past three years, research efforts have continued to identify novel small molecules as AChE inhibitors for both CNS and peripheral diseases. The more recent patent activity has focused on three AChE ligand design areas: derivatives of known AChE ligands, natural product based scaffolds and multifunctional ligands, all of which have produced some unique chemical matter with AChE inhibition activities in the mid picomolar to low micromolar ranges. New AChE inhibitors with polypharmacology or dual inhibitory activity have also emerged as highlighted by new AChE inhibitors with dual activity at L-type calcium channels, GSK-3, BACE1 and H3, although most only show low micromolar activity, thus further research is warranted. New small molecule reactivators of organophosphate-inhibited AChE have also been disclosed, which focused on the design of neutral ligands with improved pharmaceutical properties and blood-brain barrier (BBB) penetration. Gratifyingly, some research in this area is moving away from the traditional quaternary pyridinium oximes AChE reactivators, while still employing the necessary reactivation group (oximes). However, selectivity over inhibition of native AChE enzyme, effectiveness of reactivation, broad-spectrum reactivation against multiple organophosphates and reactivation of aged-enzyme continue to be hurdles for this area of research.
- The E Loop of the Transmitter Binding Site Is a Key Determinant of the Modulatory Effects of Physostigmine on Neuronal Nicotinic α4β2 Receptors. [Journal Article]
- MPMol Pharmacol 2017; 91(2):100-109
- Physostigmine is a well known inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase, which can also activate, potentiate, and inhibit acetylcholine receptors, including neuronal nicotinic receptors comprising α4 and β2 ...
Physostigmine is a well known inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase, which can also activate, potentiate, and inhibit acetylcholine receptors, including neuronal nicotinic receptors comprising α4 and β2 subunits. We have found that the two stoichiometric forms of this receptor differ in the effects of physostigmine. The form containing three copies of α4 and two of β2 was potentiated at low concentrations of acetylcholine chloride (ACh) and physostigmine, whereas the form containing two copies of α4 and three of β2 was inhibited. Chimeric constructs of subunits indicated that the presence of inhibition or potentiation depended on the source of the extracellular ligand binding domain of the subunit. Further sets of chimeric constructs demonstrated that a portion of the ACh binding domain, the E loop, is a key determinant. Transferring the E loop from the β2 subunit to the α4 subunit resulted in strong inhibition, whereas the reciprocal transfer reduced inhibition. To control the number and position of the incorporated chimeric subunits, we expressed chimeric constructs with subunit dimers. Surprisingly, incorporation of a subunit with an altered E loop had similar effects whether it contributed either to an intersubunit interface containing a canonical ACh binding site or to an alternative interface. The observation that the α4 E loop is involved suggests that physostigmine interacts with regions of subunits that contribute to the ACh binding site, whereas the lack of interface specificity indicates that interaction with a particular ACh binding site is not the critical factor.
- Synthetic analogs of stryphnusin isolated from the marine sponge Stryphnus fortis inhibit acetylcholinesterase with no effect on muscle function or neuromuscular transmission. [Journal Article]
- OBOrg Biomol Chem 2016 Nov 29; 14(47):11220-11229
- The marine secondary metabolite stryphnusin (1) was isolated from the boreal sponge Stryphnus fortis, collected off the Norwegian coast. Given its resemblance to other natural acetylcholinesterase an...
The marine secondary metabolite stryphnusin (1) was isolated from the boreal sponge Stryphnus fortis, collected off the Norwegian coast. Given its resemblance to other natural acetylcholinesterase antagonists, it was evaluated against electric eel acetylcholinesterase and displayed inhibitory activity. A library of twelve synthetic phenethylamine analogs, 2a-7a and 2b-7b, containing tertiary and quaternary amines respectively were synthesized to investigate the individual structural contributions to the activity. Compound 7b was the strongest competitive inhibitor of both acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase with IC50 values of 57 and 20 μM, respectively. This inhibitory activity is one order of magnitude higher than the positive control physostigmine, and is comparable with several other marine acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. The physiological effect of compound 7b on muscle function and neuromuscular transmission was studied and revealed a selective mode of action at the investigated concentration. This data is of importance as the interference of therapeutic acetylcholinesterase inhibitors with neuromuscular transmission can be problematic and lead to unwanted side effects. The current findings also provide additional insights into the structure-activity relationship of both natural and synthetic acetylcholinesterase inhibitors.
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- Reversal of cardiac vagal effects of physostigmine by adjunctive muscarinic blockade. [Journal Article]
- NNeurotoxicology 2016; 57:174-182
- Pre-treatment with reversible acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors is an effective strategy for reducing lethality following organophosphate nerve agent exposure. AChE inhibition may have unwanted ...
Pre-treatment with reversible acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors is an effective strategy for reducing lethality following organophosphate nerve agent exposure. AChE inhibition may have unwanted cardiac side effects, which could be negated by adjunctive anti-cholinergic therapy. The aims of the present study were to examine the concentration-dependent effects of physostigmine on cardiac responses to vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), to test whether adjunctive treatment with hyoscine can reverse these effects and to assess the functional interaction and electrophysiological consequences of a combined pre-treatment. Studies were performed in an isolated innervated rabbit heart preparation. The reduction in heart rate with VNS was augmented by physostigmine (1-1000nmol/L), in a concentration-dependent manner - with an EC50 of 19nmol/L. Hyoscine was shown to be effective at blocking the cardiac responses to VNS with an IC50 of 11nmol/L. With concomitant perfusion of physostigmine, the concentration-response curve for hyoscine was shifted downward and to the right, increasing the concentration of hyoscine required to normalise (to control values) the effects of physostigmine on heart rate. At the lowest concentration of hyoscine examined (1nmol/L) a modest potentiation of heart rate response to VNS (+15±3%) was observed. We found no evidence of cardiac dysfunction or severe electrophysiological abnormalities with either physostigmine or hyoscine alone, or as a combined drug-therapy. The main finding of this study is that hyoscine, at concentrations greater than 10(-8)M, is effective at reversing the functional effects of physostigmine on the heart. However, low-concentrations of hyoscine may augment cardiac parasympathetic control.