- Associations between CSF cortisol and CSF norepinephrine in cognitively normal controls and patients with amnestic MCI and AD dementia. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Geriatr Psychiatry 2018 Feb 15
- CONCLUSIONS: Enhanced responsiveness of the HPA axis to noradrenergic stimulatory regulation in AD and disruption of the blood brain barrier may contribute to these findings. Because brainstem noradrenergic stimulatory regulation of the HPA axis is substantially increased by both acute and chronic stress, these findings are also consistent with AD participants experiencing higher levels of acute and chronic stress.
- A ten-year follow-up study of treatment outcome of craniopharyngiomas. [Journal Article]
- SMSwiss Med Wkly 2018 Feb 14; 148:w14521
- CONCLUSIONS: Rates of hypothalamic obesity and long-term pituitary deficiencies are substantial, with postoperative diabetes insipidus being a potential marker for hypothalamic obesity development. Besides long-term monitoring of endocrine deficiencies with consideration of osteodensitometry, early weight control programmes and continuing multidisciplinary care are mandatory in craniopharyngioma patients.
- Sleep disturbances in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: prevalence, pathophysiology, impact and management strategies. [Review]
- NSNat Sci Sleep 2018; 10:45-64
- Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex endocrine disorder affecting the reproductive, metabolic and psychological health of women. Clinic-based studies indicate that sleep disturbances and dis...
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex endocrine disorder affecting the reproductive, metabolic and psychological health of women. Clinic-based studies indicate that sleep disturbances and disorders including obstructive sleep apnea and excessive daytime sleepiness occur more frequently among women with PCOS compared to comparison groups without the syndrome. Evidence from the few available population-based studies is supportive. Women with PCOS tend to be overweight/obese, but this only partly accounts for their sleep problems as associations are generally upheld after adjustment for body mass index; sleep problems also occur in women with PCOS of normal weight. There are several, possibly bidirectional, pathways through which PCOS is associated with sleep disturbances. The pathophysiology of PCOS involves hyperandrogenemia, a form of insulin resistance unique to affected women, and possible changes in cortisol and melatonin secretion, arguably reflecting altered hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function. Psychological and behavioral pathways are also likely to play a role, as anxiety and depression, smoking, alcohol use and lack of physical activity are also common among women with PCOS, partly in response to the distressing symptoms they experience. The specific impact of sleep disturbances on the health of women with PCOS is not yet clear; however, both PCOS and sleep disturbances are associated with deterioration in cardiometabolic health in the longer term and increased risk of type 2 diabetes. Both immediate quality of life and longer-term health of women with PCOS are likely to benefit from diagnosis and management of sleep disorders as part of interdisciplinary health care.
- Chronic exposure to low dose of bisphenol A impacts on the first round of spermatogenesis via SIRT1 modulation. [Journal Article]
- SRSci Rep 2018 Feb 13; 8(1):2961
- Spermatogenesis depends on endocrine, autocrine and paracrine communications along the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad axis. Bisphenol A (BPA), an estrogen-mimic endocrine disrupting chemical, is an env...
Spermatogenesis depends on endocrine, autocrine and paracrine communications along the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad axis. Bisphenol A (BPA), an estrogen-mimic endocrine disrupting chemical, is an environmental contaminant used to manufacture polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins with toxic effects for male reproduction. Here we investigated whether the chronic exposure to low BPA doses affects spermatogenesis through the modulation of SIRT1, a NAD+-dependent deacetylase involved in the progression of spermatogenesis, with outcomes on apoptosis, oxidative stress, metabolism and energy homeostasis. BPA exposure via placenta first, and lactation and drinking water later, affected the body weight gain in male offspring at 45 postnatal days and the first round of spermatogenesis, with impairment of blood testis barrier, reactive oxygen species production, DNA damage and decreased expression of SIRT1. The analysis of SIRT1 downstream molecular pathways revealed the increase of acetyl-p53Lys370, γH2AX foci, the decrease of oxidative stress defenses and the higher apoptotic rate in the testis of treated animals, with partial rescue at sex maturation. In conclusion, SIRT1 pathways disruption after BPA exposure can have serious consequences on the first round of spermatogenesis.
- Epitope-specific monoclonal antibodies to FSHβ increase bone mass. [Journal Article]
- PNProc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2018 Feb 12
- Pituitary hormones have long been thought solely to regulate single targets. Challenging this paradigm, we discovered that both anterior and posterior pituitary hormones, including FSH, had other fun...
Pituitary hormones have long been thought solely to regulate single targets. Challenging this paradigm, we discovered that both anterior and posterior pituitary hormones, including FSH, had other functions in physiology. We have shown that FSH regulates skeletal integrity, and, more recently, find that FSH inhibition reduces body fat and induces thermogenic adipose tissue. A polyclonal antibody raised against a short, receptor-binding epitope of FSHβ was found not only to rescue bone loss postovariectomy, but also to display marked antiobesity and probeiging actions. Questioning whether a single agent could be used to treat two medical conditions of public health importance--osteoporosis and obesity--we developed two further monoclonal antibodies, Hf2 and Mf4, against computationally defined receptor-binding epitopes of FSHβ. Hf2 has already been shown to reduce body weight and fat mass and cause beiging in mice on a high-fat diet. Here, we show that Hf2, which binds mouse Fsh in immunoprecipitation assays, also increases cortical thickness and trabecular bone volume, and microstructural parameters, in sham-operated and ovariectomized mice, noted on microcomputed tomography. This effect was largely recapitulated with Mf4, which inhibited bone resorption by osteoclasts and stimulated new bone formation by osteoblasts. These effects were exerted in the absence of alterations in serum estrogen in wild-type mice. We also reconfirm the existence of Fshrs in bone by documenting the specific binding of fluorescently labeled FSH, FSH-CH, in vivo. Our study provides the framework for the future development of an FSH-based therapeutic that could potentially target both bone and fat.
- Amenorrhoea and reversible infertility due to obstructive hydrocephalus: literature review and case report. [Journal Article]
- BJBr J Neurosurg 2018 Feb 12; :1-4
- CONCLUSIONS: Hydrocephalus can cause endocrine dysfunction, including amenorrhoea, which may reverse with CSF diversion. Therefore, cranial imaging is an important component in the evaluation of such endocrine abnormalities.
- Autopsy case report of intravascular large B-cell lymphoma with neoplastic PD-L1 expression. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Clin Exp Hematop 2018 Feb 08
- Intravascular large B-cell lymphoma (IVLBCL) is a rare and clinically distinctive entity characterized by the almost exclusive growth of large cells within the lumen of blood vessels in particular ca...
Intravascular large B-cell lymphoma (IVLBCL) is a rare and clinically distinctive entity characterized by the almost exclusive growth of large cells within the lumen of blood vessels in particular capillaries. Reports of this peculiar disease, do not commonly address the PD-L1 expression on IVLBCL tumor cells. Here, we describe a 51-year-old Japanese woman who presented with rapidly progressive cognitive decline and higher brain dysfunction. CT scan and MRI revealed multiple ischemic foci in the cerebral hemispheres, ground-glass opacity in the lungs, and splenomegaly. Random skin biopsy for IVLBCL diagnosis yielded negative results. The patient experienced a rapidly deteriorating clinical course with no treatment, and died from the disease after 3 months of hospitalization. Post-mortem examination revealed systemic intravascular plugging of lymphoma cells, without mass lesions in the central nervous system or in visceral organs such as the lungs, liver, pituitary gland, ovaries, and uterus. The tumor cells were positive for CD10, CD20, BCL2, BCL6, and MUM1, but not other lineage-specific markers. Notably, the tumor cells showed strong PD-L1 expression. Our case was diagnosed as IVLBCL with neoplastic PD-L1 expression. These findings suggest that PD-L1 is associated with immune evasion of IVLBCL and may play a role in the pathogenesis and peculiar biological behavior of this unique disease. Additionally, PD-L1 may represent a possible therapeutic target for immune check-point inhibitors.
- Rearing conditions and life history influence the progress of gametogenesis and reproduction performances in pikeperch males and females. [Journal Article]
- AAnimal 2018 Feb 08; :1-12
- Pikeperch (Sander lucioperca) is a highly valuable fish in Europe. However, development of aquaculture of pikeperch is highly limited due to seasonality of production. This can be overcome by the con...
Pikeperch (Sander lucioperca) is a highly valuable fish in Europe. However, development of aquaculture of pikeperch is highly limited due to seasonality of production. This can be overcome by the controlled reproduction of domesticated fish. The first steps of domestication process may induce changes at anatomical, physiological and molecular levels, thereby affecting a variety of biological functions. While there is abundant literature on their effects on stress and growth for example, these effects on reproduction received limited attention notably in pikeperch, a promising candidate for the development of aquaculture. To answer the question of this life-history effect on pikeperch's reproduction, we compared two groups (weight: 1 kg) originated from Czech Republic and with the same domestication level (F0). The first group was a recirculating aquatic system cultured one (2 years, previously fed with artificial diet, never exposed to natural changes in temperature/photoperiod conditions) and the second one was a pond cultured group (3 to 4 years, bred under natural feeding and temperature/photoperiod). The wild group successfully spawned, while the farmed one did not spawn at all. During the program, gonadosomatic indexes of both males and females were significantly higher for the wild fish, as well as the sexual steroids. Gene expression analysis revealed significantly lower LH transcript levels at the pituitary level for the farmed females and lower FSH transcript levels at the pituitary level for the males. In conclusion this study showed that the previous rearing conditions (e.g. culture system, age, diet, etc.) alter the further progress of gametogenesis and the reproductive performances in response to controlled photothermal program for both sexes in pikeperch.
- Brain damage and neurological symptoms induced by T-2 toxin in rat brain. [Journal Article]
- TLToxicol Lett 2018 Jan 27; 286:96-107
- T-2 toxin, a trichothecene mycotoxin, is a common contaminant in food and animal feed, and is also present in processed cereal products. The most common route of T-2 toxin exposure in humans is throu...
T-2 toxin, a trichothecene mycotoxin, is a common contaminant in food and animal feed, and is also present in processed cereal products. The most common route of T-2 toxin exposure in humans is through dietary ingestion. The cytotoxic effects of T-2 toxin include modifications to feeding behavior, nervous disorders, cardiovascular alterations, immunosuppression, and hemostatic derangements. However, to date, effects on the central nervous system (CNS) have rarely been reported. In the present study, female Wistar rat were given a single dose of T-2 toxin at 2 mg/kg b.w. and were sacrificed at one, three, and seven days post-exposure. Histopathological analysis and transmission electron microscope (TEM) observations were used to investigate injury to the brain and pituitary gland. Damage to the brain and pituitary at the molecular level was detected by real time-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), western blot, and immunohistochemical assays. Liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometer/mass spectrometer (LC-MS/MS) was used to investigate T-2 concentration in the brain. The results showed that pathological lesions were obvious in the brain at three days post-exposure; lesions in the pituitary were not observed until seven days post-exposure. Autophagy in the brain and apoptosis in the pituitary suggest that T-2 toxin may induce different acute reactions in different tissues. Importantly, low concentrations of T-2 toxin in the brain were observed in only one rat. Responsible for the above mentioned, we hypothesize that brain damage caused by this toxin may be due to the ability of the toxin to directly cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Therefore, given its widespread pollution in food, we should pay more attention to the neurotoxic effects of the T-2 toxin, which may have widespread implications for human health.
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- Spexin in the half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis): molecular cloning, expression profiles, and physiological effects. [Journal Article]
- FPFish Physiol Biochem 2018 Feb 05
- Spexin (SPX), a novel neuropeptide discovered by the bioinformatics approach, has been shown to exert pleiotropic functions in mammals. However, little information regarding the physiological role of...
Spexin (SPX), a novel neuropeptide discovered by the bioinformatics approach, has been shown to exert pleiotropic functions in mammals. However, little information regarding the physiological role of SPX is available in teleosts. As a first step, we cloned the spexin gene from a flatfish, the half-smooth tongue sole. The open reading frame (ORF) of tongue sole spexin contained 363 nucleotides encoding a 120 amino acid (aa) preprohormone with a calculated molecular mass and isoelectric point of 14.06 kDa and 5.86, respectively. The tongue sole SPX precursor contained a 27 aa signal peptide and a 14 aa mature peptide flanked by two dibasic protein cleavage sites (RR and GRR). Tissue distribution analysis showed that spexin mRNA could be detected in various tissues, notably in the brain. In addition, fasting stimulated the hypothalamic expression of spexin mRNA. Intraperitoneal injection of SPX increased gnih and gnrh3 mRNA levels in the hypothalamus; however, SPX inhibited the pituitary expression of gh, fshβ, and gthα mRNAs. Overall, our results reveal the existence of a functional SPX in the tongue sole, which could represent an important factor in the neuroendocrine control of flatfish reproduction and growth, and the spexin mRNA expression is regulated by feeding status.