- Different regulation of cortisol and corticosterone in the subterranean rodent Ctenomys talarum: responses to dexamethasone, angiotensin II, potassium, and diet. [Journal Article]
- GCGen Comp Endocrinol 2018 May 18
- When harmful environmental stimuli occur, glucocorticoids (GCs), cortisol and corticosterone are currently used to evaluate stress status in vertebrates, since their secretions are primarily associat...
When harmful environmental stimuli occur, glucocorticoids (GCs), cortisol and corticosterone are currently used to evaluate stress status in vertebrates, since their secretions are primarily associated to an increased activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. To advance in our comprehension about GCs regulation, we evaluated the subterranean rodent Ctenomys talarum to assess cortisol and corticosterone response to (1) the negative feedback of the HPA axis using the dexamethasone (DEX) suppression test, (2) angiotensin II (Ang II), (3) potassium (K+) intake, and (4) different diets (vegetables, grasses, acute fasting). Concomitantly, several indicators of individual condition (body mass, neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio, blood glucose, triglycerides and hematocrit) were measured for diet treatments. Results confirm the effect of DEX on cortisol and corticosterone in recently captured animals in the field but not on corticosterone in captive animals. Data suggest that Ang II is capable of stimulating corticosterone, but not cortisol, secretion. Neither cortisol nor corticosterone were responsive to K+ intake. Cortisol levels increased in animals fed with grasses in comparison to those fed with vegetables while corticosterone levels were unaffected by diet type. Moreover, only cortisol responded to fasting. Overall, these results confirm that cortisol and corticosterone are not interchangeable hormones in C. talarum.
- Natural history of Rathke's Cleft Cysts: A retrospective analysis of a two centers experience. [Journal Article]
- CEClin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2018 May 21
- CONCLUSIONS: Our data offer guidance in decision making regarding the management of RCC patients and confirm the safety of conservative treatment in asymptomatic patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Sex-dependent association of circulating sex steroids and pituitary hormones with treatment-free survival in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients. [Journal Article]
- AHAnn Hematol 2018 May 21
- Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is not considered a hormone-regulated cancer although sex is a recognized risk factor with men more frequently diagnosed and developing progressive disease. We hypo...
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is not considered a hormone-regulated cancer although sex is a recognized risk factor with men more frequently diagnosed and developing progressive disease. We hypothesized that variable hormonal exposure may have a sexually dimorphic influence on treatment-free survival (TFS). In 156 CLL cases, we quantitatively profiled 29 circulating steroids (progesterone, adrenal precursors, androgens, estrogens, and catechol estrogens) as well as luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone. Median TFS was shorter for men than that for women (80.7 vs. 135.0 months, P = 0.033). Circulating hormone profiles in CLL patients were significantly different from those of healthy donors. In male CLL cases, higher LH levels were associated with shorter TFS (adjusted hazard ratio (HRadj) 2.11; P = 0.004). In female CLL cases, high levels of the potent androgens testosterone and dihydrotestosterone and the sum of methoxy estrogens were associated with an improved TFS with HRadj values of 0.24 (P = 0.007), 0.54 (P = 0.023), and 0.31 (P = 0.034), respectively. Reduced TFS was observed for women with CLL exhibiting high expression of the steroid-inactivating UGT2B17 enzyme. This study is the first to establish a link between the outcome of CLL patients, sex steroids, and pituitary hormones, revealing a sex-specific hormonal imbalance associated with disease progression.
- Van Wyk Grumbach Syndrome: A Rare Consequence of Hypothyroidism. [Journal Article]
- IJIndian J Pediatr 2018 May 19
- Long standing hypothyroidism presenting as an ovarian mass has been well described in literature as the Van Wyk Grumbach syndrome (hypothyroidism, isosexual precocious puberty and ovarian mass). Here...
Long standing hypothyroidism presenting as an ovarian mass has been well described in literature as the Van Wyk Grumbach syndrome (hypothyroidism, isosexual precocious puberty and ovarian mass). Here, authors report this entity in a 11 y 7 mo old girl child who was referred to a surgeon in view of intestinal obstruction along with a multiloculated ovarian cyst. On evaluation, she was found to have raised serum creatinine, short stature, delayed bone age and pituitary enlargement. She was diagnosed with autoimmune thyroiditis and was started on replacement therapy with thyroxine, after which the ovarian cysts regressed. This entity should be kept in mind in cases of ovarian cysts, especially those with isosexual precocity, to prevent unnecessary evaluation and surgical misadventures.
- Accelerated pre-senile systemic amyloidosis in PACAP knockout mice - a protective role of PACAP in age-related degenerative processes. [Journal Article]
- JPJ Pathol 2018 May 17
- Dysregulation of neuropeptides may play an important role in aging-induced impairments. Among them, pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a potent cytoprotective peptide that ...
Dysregulation of neuropeptides may play an important role in aging-induced impairments. Among them, pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a potent cytoprotective peptide that provides an endogenous control against a variety of tissue-damaging stimuli. We hypothesized that the progressive decline of PACAP throughout life, and the well-known general cytoprotective effects of PACAP lead to age-related pathophysiological changes in PACAP deficiency, supported by the increased vulnerability to various stressors of animals partially or totally lacking PACAP. Using young and aging CD1 PACAP knockout (KO) and wild type (WT) mice, we demonstrated pre-senile amyloidosis in young PACAP KO animals and showed that senile amyloidosis appeared accelerated, more generalized, more severe, and affected more individuals. Histopathology showed age-related systemic amyloidosis with mainly kidney, spleen, liver, skin, thyroid, intestinal, tracheal and esophageal involvement. Mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis, re-confirmed with immunohistochemistry, revealed that apolipoprotein-AIV was the main amyloid protein in the deposits together with several accompanying proteins. Although the local amyloidogenic protein expression was disturbed in KO animals, no difference was found in laboratory lipid parameters, suggesting a complex pathway leading to increased age-related degeneration with amyloid deposit in the absence of PACAP. In spite of no marked inflammatory histological changes or blood test parameters, we detected a disturbed cytokine profile that possibly creates a pro-inflammatory milieu favoring amyloid deposition. In summary, here we describe accelerated systemic senile amyloidosis in PACAP gene deficient mice, which might indicate an early aging phenomenon in this mouse strain. Thus, PACAP KO mice could serve as a model of accelerated aging with human relevance. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Safety of commercial airflight in patients with brain tumors: a case series. [Journal Article]
- JNJ Neurooncol 2018 May 17
- CONCLUSIONS: Most patients with brain and skull base tumors can travel safely via commercial airflight with acceptable symptom exacerbation. However, consideration should be given to administering corticosteroids and possibly anticonvulsants to patients who are symptomatic and/or have relatively large tumors with mass effect and peritumoral edema.
- Infrasellar Endoscopic Endonasal Approach for a Pituitary Adenoma Extending into the Third Ventricle, with Anterior Displacement of the Pituitary Gland. [Journal Article]
- JNJ Neurol Surg B Skull Base 2018; 79(Suppl 2):S233-S234
- Objectives The current video presents the nuances of the infrasellar endoscopic endonasal approach for a pituitary adenoma extending into the third ventricle, with anterior displacement of the pitui...
Objectives The current video presents the nuances of the infrasellar endoscopic endonasal approach for a pituitary adenoma extending into the third ventricle, with anterior displacement of the pituitary gland. Design The video analyzes the presentation, preoperative workup and imaging, surgical steps and technical nuances of the surgery, the clinical outcome, and follow-up imaging. Setting The patient was treated by a skull base team consisting of a neurosurgeon and an ENT surgeon at a teaching academic institution. Participants The case refers to 73-year-old female patient who was found to have a sellar mass after failure of vision to improve with cataract surgery. She also reported a several-month history of progressive loss of vision along with daily retro-orbital headaches. The adenoma extended into the clivus as well as in the retrosellar and suprasellar regions, eroding into the floor of the third ventricle. The normal gland was displaced anteriorly. Main Outcome Measures The main outcome measures consisted of reversal of patient symptoms (headaches and visual disturbance), recurrence-free survival based on imaging, as well as absence of any complications. Results The patient's headaches and visual fields improved. There was no evidence of recurrence. Conclusion The infrasellar endoscopic endonasal approach is safe and effective for pituitary adenomas extending into the third ventricle, with anterior displacement of the pituitary gland. The link to the video can be found at: https://youtu.be/zp_06mEyRvY .
- Hypophyseal Involvement in Immunoglobulin G4-Related Disease: A Retrospective Study from a Single Tertiary Center. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Endocrinol 2018; 2018:7637435
- This study aims to outline the clinical features and outcomes of IgG4-related hypophysitis (IgG4-RH) patients in a tertiary medical center. We reviewed clinical manifestations and imaging and pituita...
This study aims to outline the clinical features and outcomes of IgG4-related hypophysitis (IgG4-RH) patients in a tertiary medical center. We reviewed clinical manifestations and imaging and pituitary function tests at baseline, as well as during follow-up. Ten patients were included. The mean age at diagnosis of IgG4-RH was 48.4 (16.0-64.0) years. An average of 3 (0-9) extrapituitary organs were involved. Five patients had panhypopituitarism, three had only posterior hypopituitarism, one had only anterior hypopituitarism, and one had a normal pituitary function. One patient in our study had pituitary mass biopsy, lacking IgG4-positive cells despite lymphocyte infiltration forming an inflammatory pseudotumor. Five patients with a clinical course of IgG4-RH less than nine months and a whole course of IgG4-RD less than two years were managed with glucocorticoids, while three patients with a longer history were administered glucocorticoids plus immunosuppressive agents. One patient went through surgical excision, and one patient was lost to follow-up. All patients showed a prompt response clinically, but only three patients had normalized serum IgG4 levels. Two patients who took medications for less than six months relapsed. Conclusions. IgG4-RD is a broad disease, and all physicians involved have to be aware of the possibility of pituitary dysfunction. Younger patients should be expected. The histopathological feature of pituitary gland biopsy could be atypical. For patients with a longer history, the combination of GC and immunosuppressive agents is favorable. Early and adequate courses of treatment are crucial for the management of IgG4-RH. With GC and/or immunosuppressant treatment, however, pituitary function or diabetes insipidus did not improve considerably.
- Somatopause, weaknesses of the therapeutic approaches and the cautious optimism based on experimental ageing studies with soy isoflavones. [Review]
- EJEXCLI J 2018; 17:279-301
- The pathological phenomenon of somatopause, noticeable in hypogonadal ageing subjects, is based on the growth hormone (GH) production and secretion decrease along with the fall in GH binding protein ...
The pathological phenomenon of somatopause, noticeable in hypogonadal ageing subjects, is based on the growth hormone (GH) production and secretion decrease along with the fall in GH binding protein and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) levels, causing different musculoskeletal, metabolic and mental issues. From the perspective of safety and efficacy, GH treatment is considered to be highly controversial, while some other therapeutic approaches (application of IGF-1, GH secretagogues, gonadal steroids, cholinesterase-inhibitors or various combinations) exhibit more or less pronounced weaknesses in this respect. Soy isoflavones, phytochemicals that have already demonstrated the health benefits in treated elderly, at least experimentally reveal their potential for the somatopausal symptoms remediation. Namely, genistein enhanced GHRH-stimulated cAMP accumulation and GH release in rat anterior pituitary cells; refreshed and stimulated the somatotropic system (hypothalamic nuclei and pituitary GH cells) function in a rat model of the mild andropause, and stimulated the GH output in ovariectomized ewes as well as the amplitude of GH pulses in the rams. Daidzein, on the other hand, increased body mass, trabecular bone mass and decreased bone turnover in the animal model of severe andropause, while both isoflavones demonstrated blood cholesterol-lowering effect in the same model. These data, which necessarily need to be preclinically and clinically filtered, hint some cautious optimism and call for further innovative designing of balanced soy isoflavone-based therapeutics.
New Search Next
- Pituitary apoplexy following lumbar fusion surgery in prone position: A case report. [Case Reports]
- MMedicine (Baltimore) 2018; 97(19):e0676
- CONCLUSIONS: Even though the incidence is low, PA has been related to blood pressure fluctuations or vasospasm during surgery. PA should be considered during differential diagnosis in cases of postoperative severe headache or ophthalmic complications.