- Demonstration of Infectious Transgression through the Skull Base Occurring 9 years after Pituitary Adenoma Resection. [Journal Article]
- WNWorld Neurosurg 2018 Aug 13
- CONCLUSIONS: This case demonstrates the fact that patients with pituitary lesions who have foreign material used for surgical closure can present with infections many years after the initial intervention. Furthermore, with appropriate clinical diagnosis and treatment, the reactive inflammation caused by sellar infection is reversible. We review the literature regarding the risk factors and management strategies for delayed postoperative sellar infections.
- 7Does experimental cortisol elevation mediate risk-taking and antipredator behaviour in a wild teleost fish? [Journal Article]
- CBComp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 2018 Aug 09
- The hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) axis is centrally implicated in stressor mitigation in teleost fishes. Sustained HPI axis activation can be detrimental to the physiological functioning of...
The hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) axis is centrally implicated in stressor mitigation in teleost fishes. Sustained HPI axis activation can be detrimental to the physiological functioning of an organism and can result in fitness-related trade-offs. Predator-induced mortality is known to be higher in stressed fish than in unstressed conspecifics, suggesting a role for the HPI axis in mediating fish behaviour. However, the underlying specific mechanism(s) for this phenomenon is(are) unknown. The purpose of the current study was to address how the HPI axis influences risk-taking and antipredator behaviours in a wild teleost, the pumpkinseed sunfish (Lepomis gibbosus). Here, individual juvenile pumpkinseed were implanted either with cocoa butter as a sham control or with a biologically-relevant concentration of cortisol. Forty-eight hours post-implantation, fish were assessed for behavioural metrics associated with boldness and risk taking in three sequential behavioural tests: (i) a predation-risk test, (ii) an exploration tendency test, and (iii) a shoaling tendency test, with test order randomized among different trials. Cortisol treatment had no influence on antipredator, exploratory or shoaling behaviours. However, post-attack swimming duration (in predation-risk test) and exploratory activity (in Z-maze exploration test) were significantly affected by body mass. Collectively, our results indicate that cortisol may not have a role in mediating sociability, boldness and risk-taking behaviours in pumpkinseed sunfish, at least under the current laboratory conditions. However, cortisol may nonetheless play a role in mediating predator-prey interactions in fishes in more natural environmental settings that were not considered here.
- Sleep quality is differentially related to adiposity in adults. [Journal Article]
- PPsychoneuroendocrinology 2018 Jul 25; 98:46-51
- CONCLUSIONS: Poor sleep quality is associated with greater visceral adiposity and leptin secretion. Further research is needed to probe potential cause and effect relationships among visceral adipose tissue, leptin, and sleep quality.
- Optical coherence tomography retinal ganglion cell complex analysis for the detection of early chiasmal compression. [Journal Article]
- PPituitary 2018 Aug 10
- CONCLUSIONS: These patients show that OCT-GCC analysis is more sensitive than visual field testing with standard automated perimetry in the detection of compressive chiasmopathy or optic neuropathy. These cases and previous studies suggest that OCT-GCC analysis may be used in addition to visual field testing to evaluate patients with lesions compressing the chiasm.
- A Rare Case of Thyrotropin-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma Coexisting with Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Presenting with Visual Disturbance Without Hyperthyroidism. [Journal Article]
- WNWorld Neurosurg 2018 Aug 07
- CONCLUSIONS: Herein, we report the first case of TSHoma with DTC that presented with visual disturbance without any clinical feature of hyperthyroidism and reviewed the 13 reported cases of TSHoma coexisting with DTC. The optimal treatment strategy in patients with TSHoma and coexistent DTC has not been established, and individualized therapeutic strategies are needed.
- Serum concentrations of interleukin 18 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 correlate with depression severity in men with psoriasis. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2018; 13(8):e0201589
- CONCLUSIONS: High concentrations of interleukin 18 and low concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 may be associated with depression severity in men with psoriasis. Thus, further studies should examine whether effective anti-inflammatory treatments or vitamin D3 supplementation can improve depression outcomes in these patients.
- The Coexistence of Growth Hormone-Producing Pituitary Adenoma and Rathke Cleft Cyst: How Can We Diagnosis Preoperation? [Journal Article]
- JCJ Craniofac Surg 2018 Aug 03
- Pituitary adenoma (PA) rarely coexists with Rathke's cleft cyst (RCC). Previously, only 13 cases of patients with growth hormone (GH)-producing PA and concomitant RCC have been reported. Here, the au...
Pituitary adenoma (PA) rarely coexists with Rathke's cleft cyst (RCC). Previously, only 13 cases of patients with growth hormone (GH)-producing PA and concomitant RCC have been reported. Here, the authors report a 54-year-old female patient with a GH-secreting PA coexisting with an RCC. Acromegaly was diagnosed according to the physical examination and endocrine data. Preoperatively, the coronal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contained 2 different signal intensities, these unusually MRI findings for the intrasellar mass were rarely. According to our clinical experience for diagnosis of PA and RCC, besides GH-producing PA in this case, but the possibility of concomitant RCC should be considered. One-and-a-half nostril endoscopic transsphenoidal approach was performed. Intraoperatively, the adenoma was successfully removed and a large amount of grayish fluid from the cyst was released. The endocrine testing was normal soon after the operation and the patient remained well for a follow-up period of 3 months. The postoperative MRI (obtained 3 months after surgery) showed no intrasellar and suprasellar mass. The authors retrospectively analyzed the all 14 cases of concomitant GH-secreting PAs and RCCs and summarized MRI characteristics. When preoperative MRI contained 2 different signal intensities, one mass lesion showed low or isointense signal on the T1-weighted and T2-weighted images, whereas the other lesion showed low signal on the T1-weighted images and hyperintense on the T2-weighted images, the collision MRI features may be helpful for the preoperative diagnosis of concomitant PAs and RCCs.
- Chronic Hippocampal Abnormalities and Blunted HPA Axis in an Animal Model of Repeated Unpredictable Stress. [Journal Article]
- FBFront Behav Neurosci 2018; 12:150
- Incidence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) ranges from 3 to 30% in individuals exposed to traumatic events, with the highest prevalence in groups exposed to combat, torture, or rape. To date,...
Incidence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) ranges from 3 to 30% in individuals exposed to traumatic events, with the highest prevalence in groups exposed to combat, torture, or rape. To date, only a few FDA approved drugs are available to treat PTSD, which only offer symptomatic relief and variable efficacy. There is, therefore, an urgent need to explore new concepts regarding the biological responses causing PTSD. Animal models are an appropriate platform for conducting such studies. Herein, we examined the chronic behavioral and neurobiological effects of repeated unpredictable stress (RUS) in a mouse model. 12 weeks-old C57BL/6J male mice were exposed to a 21-day RUS paradigm consisting of exposures to a predator odor (TMT) whilst under restraint, unstable social housing, inescapable footshocks and social isolation. Validity of the model was assessed by comprehensive examination of behavioral outcomes at an acute timepoint, 3 and 6 months post-RUS; and molecular profiling was also conducted on brain and plasma samples at the acute and 6 months timepoints. Stressed mice demonstrated recall of traumatic memories, passive stress coping behavior, acute anxiety, and weight gain deficits when compared to control mice. Immunoblotting of amygdala lysates showed a dysregulation in the p75NTR/ProBDNF, and glutamatergic signaling in stressed mice at the acute timepoint. At 6 months after RUS, stressed mice had lower plasma corticosterone, reduced hippocampal CA1 volume and reduced brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels. In addition, glucocorticoid regulatory protein FKBP5 was downregulated in the hypothalamus of stressed mice at the same timepoint, together implicating an impaired hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal-axis. Our model demonstrates chronic behavioral and neurobiological outcomes consistent with those reported in human PTSD cases and thus presents a platform through which to understand the neurobiology of stress and explore new therapeutic interventions.
- Prolactin Biology and Laboratory Measurement: An Update on Physiology and Current Analytical Issues. [Review]
- CBClin Biochem Rev 2018; 39(1):3-16
- Prolactin is a 23 kDa single chain protein of 199 amino acids synthesised and released principally by lactotrophs in the anterior pituitary gland. The secretion is mainly under inhibitory control by ...
Prolactin is a 23 kDa single chain protein of 199 amino acids synthesised and released principally by lactotrophs in the anterior pituitary gland. The secretion is mainly under inhibitory control by hypothalamic dopamine and regulated in a negative feedback manner, with prolactin itself providing the afferent signal: short-loop feedback. The main function of prolactin is during pregnancy and lactation in the development of mammary glands, milk synthesis and maintenance of milk secretion. Serum prolactin levels rise rapidly during pregnancy with increase in the size and number of lactotrophs. During lactation suckling induces rapid secretion of prolactin via a neuroendocrine reflex pathway. In the absence of pregnancy, hyperprolactinaemia may present with symptoms of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism including menstrual disturbance and infertility or visual symptoms from a pituitary mass effect by a prolactinoma, the most common pituitary tumour. Hyperprolactinaemia is diagnosed by laboratory measurement of serum prolactin. There is considerable variability in routinely available prolactin immunoassays as a result of differing reactivity towards monomeric prolactin and macroprolactin and lack of commutability of the WHO 3rd International Standard between routine methods. Macroprolactinaemia is a relatively common cause of interference in the prolactin assay that may lead to incorrect diagnosis and unnecessary investigations. Measurement of prolactin post polyethylene glycol precipitation (PEG) when prolactin levels are above the reference interval is routinely used to identify macroprolactin, however harmonisation of PEG precipitation process and reporting may improve clinical care.
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- Age-related changes in estradiol and longitudinal associations with fat mass in men. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2018; 13(8):e0201912
- CONCLUSIONS: In healthy men, circulating estradiol is primarily dependent on testosterone. With increasing fat mass, estradiol decreases less than testosterone. From a clinical standpoint these data indicate that obesity is associated with a change in the testosterone to estradiol ratio, but a change in estradiol does not occur unless some other pathology is present.