- Pilot study of novel lab methodology and testing of platelet function in adolescent women with heavy menstrual bleeding. [Journal Article]
- PRPediatr Res 2017 Nov 22
- CONCLUSIONS: Participants with and without BD exhibited aberrant platelet function in several assays in response to select agonists.Pediatric Research accepted article preview online, 22 November 2017. doi:10.1038/pr.2017.298.
- Von Willebrand's disease: case report and review of literature. [Case Reports]
- PAPan Afr Med J 2017; 27:147
- Von Willebrand Disease (VWD) is the most common human inherited bleeding disorder due to a defect of Von Willebrand Factor (VWF), which a glycoprotein crucial for platelet adhesion to the subendothel...
Von Willebrand Disease (VWD) is the most common human inherited bleeding disorder due to a defect of Von Willebrand Factor (VWF), which a glycoprotein crucial for platelet adhesion to the subendothelium after vascular injury. VWD include quantitative defects of VWF, either partial (type 1 with VWF levels < 50 IU/dL) or virtually total (type 3 with undetectable VWF levels) and also qualitative defects of VWF (type 2 variants with discrepant antigenic and functional VWF levels). The most bleeding forms of VWD usually do not concern type 1 patients with the mildest VWF defects (VWF levels between 30 and 50IU/dL). Von willebrand factor is a complex multimeric protein with two functions: it forms a bridge between the platelets and areas of vascular damage and it binds to and stabilizes factor VIII, which is necessary for the clotting cascade. By taking a clinical history of bleeding (mucocutaneous bleeding symptoms suggestive of a primary haemostatic disorder, a quantitative or qualitative abnormality of VWF is possible) it is important to think about VWD and to make the appropriate diagnosis. If the VWD is suspected diagnostic tests should include an activated partial thromboplastin time, bleeding time, factor VIII: C Ristocetin cofactor and vWF antigen. Additional testing of ristocetin induced plattlet adhesion (RIPA) the multimeric structure and collagen binding test and genanalysis allow diagnosing the different types of von. Willebrand Disease. The treatment of choice in mild forms is the synthetic agent desmopressin. In patients with severe type 1, type 2B, 2N and type 3 or in people who do not response to desmopressin, the appropriate treatment is a factor VIII concentrate that is rich of VWF. We report a case of infant in 27-month-old boy who had been referred due to haemorrhagic shock. His birth histories, his familie's social history and developmental milestones were unremarkable. He was born at full term with no antenatal or perinatal complications. Prior to the symptoms, the child was on a normal diet and was thriving appropriately. The child presented one days before his admission trauma to the inner face of the lower lip that caused an external acute bleeding loss. The laboratory data showed unfortunately, the most severe form of Von Willebrand's Disease; Type 3. The management was based on erythrocyte and fresh-frozen plasma (FFP) transfusions with administration of factor VII with good evolution.
- Cardiovascular and Hemostatic Disorders: SOCE and Ca2+ Handling in Platelet Dysfunction. [Review]
- AEAdv Exp Med Biol 2017; 993:453-472
- Among the Ca2+ entry mechanisms in platelets, store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) plays a prominent role as it is necessary to achieve full activation of platelet functions and replenish intracellular C...
Among the Ca2+ entry mechanisms in platelets, store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) plays a prominent role as it is necessary to achieve full activation of platelet functions and replenish intracellular Ca2+ stores. In platelets, as in other non-excitable cells, SOCE has been reported to involve the activation of plasma membrane channels by the ER Ca2+ sensor STIM1. Despite electrophysiological studies are not possible in human platelets, indirect analyses have revealed that the Ca2+-permeable channels involve Orai1 and, most likely, TRPC1 subunits. A relevant role for the latter has not been found in mouse platelets. There is a body of evidence revealing a number of abnormalities in SOCE or in its molecular regulators that result in qualitative platelet disorders and, as a consequence, altered platelet responsiveness upon stimulation with multiple physiological agonists. Platelet SOCE abnormalities include STIM1 and Orai1 mutations. This chapter summarizes the current knowledge in this field, as well as the disorders associated to platelet SOCE dysfunction.
- Whole Blood Platelet Aggregometry. [Journal Article]
- MMMethods Mol Biol 2017; 1646:333-347
- Light transmittance aggregometry is the historical reference method for platelet function testing and continues to be used extensively. Whole blood impedance lumiaggregometry represents an updated me...
Light transmittance aggregometry is the historical reference method for platelet function testing and continues to be used extensively. Whole blood impedance lumiaggregometry represents an updated methodology that provides for simplified specimen management, an assay milieu that replicates in vivo platelet activation conditions, improved reproducibility, and near-patient testing. While the impedance-based whole blood aggregometer with luminescence channel is becoming the standard for platelet function testing using this methodology, at least three near-patient whole blood instruments are available, each employing its unique technology. We provide descriptions of whole blood lumiaggregometry and three near-patient systems. We include the principle of operation, materials, and stepwise example protocols and speculate on the importance of concordance among the platforms.
- Application of a strain rate gradient microfluidic device to von Willebrand's disease screening. [Journal Article]
- LCLab Chip 2017 Jul 25; 17(15):2595-2608
- Von Willebrand's disease (VWD) is the most common inherited bleeding disorder caused by either quantitative or qualitative defects of von Willebrand factor (VWF). Current tests for VWD require relati...
Von Willebrand's disease (VWD) is the most common inherited bleeding disorder caused by either quantitative or qualitative defects of von Willebrand factor (VWF). Current tests for VWD require relatively large blood volumes, have low throughput, are time-consuming, and do not incorporate the physiologically relevant effects of haemodynamic forces. We developed a microfluidic device incorporating micro-contractions that harnesses well-defined haemodynamic strain gradients to initiate platelet aggregation in citrated whole blood. The microchannel architecture has been specifically designed to allow for continuous real-time imaging of platelet aggregation dynamics. Subjects aged ≥18 years with previously diagnosed VWD or who presented for evaluation of a bleeding disorder, where the possible diagnosis included VWD, were tested. Samples were obtained for device characterization as well as for pathology-based testing. Platelet aggregation in the microfluidic device is independent of platelet amplification loops but dependent on low-level platelet activation, GPIb/IX/V and integrin αIIbβ3engagement. Microfluidic output directly correlates with VWF antigen levels and is able to sensitively detect aggregation defects associated with VWD subtypes. Testing demonstrated a strong correlation with standard clinical laboratory-based tests. Head-to-head comparison with PFA100® demonstrated equivalent, if not improved, sensitivity for screening aggregation defects associated with VWD. This strain rate gradient microfluidic prototype has the potential to be a clinically useful, rapid and high throughput-screening tool for VWD as well as other strain-dependent platelet disorders. In addition, the microfluidic device represents a novel approach to examine the effects of high magnitude/short duration (ms) strain rate gradients on platelet function.
- Myeloid neoplasms with germ line RUNX1 mutation. [Review]
- IJInt J Hematol 2017; 106(2):183-188
- Familial platelet disorder with propensity to myeloid malignancies (FPD/AML) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by quantitative and/or qualitative platelet defects with a tendency to dev...
Familial platelet disorder with propensity to myeloid malignancies (FPD/AML) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by quantitative and/or qualitative platelet defects with a tendency to develop a variety of hematological malignancies. Heterozygous germ line mutations in the RUNX1 gene are responsible genetic events for FPD/AML. Notably, about half of individuals in the family with germ line mutations in RUNX1 develop overt hematological malignancies. The latency is also relatively long as an average age at diagnosis is more than 30 years. Similar to what is observed in sporadic hematological malignancies, acquired additional genetic events cooperate with inherited RUNX1 mutations to progress the overt malignant phase. Reflecting recent increased awareness of hematological malignancies with germ line mutations, FPD/AML was added in the revised WHO 2016 classification. In this review, we provide an update on FPD/AML with recent clinical and experimental findings.
- The role of thromboelastometry in the assessment and treatment of coagulopathy in liver transplant patients. [Journal Article]
- EEinstein (Sao Paulo) 2017 Apr-Jun; 15(2):243-246
- Perioperative monitoring of coagulation is vital to assess bleeding risks, diagnose deficiencies associated with hemorrhage, and guide hemostatic therapy in major surgical procedures, such as liver t...
Perioperative monitoring of coagulation is vital to assess bleeding risks, diagnose deficiencies associated with hemorrhage, and guide hemostatic therapy in major surgical procedures, such as liver transplantation. Routine static tests demand long turnaround time and do not assess platelet function; they are determined on plasma at a standard temperature of 37°C; hence these tests are ill-suited for intraoperative use. In contrast, methods which evaluate the viscoelastic properties of whole blood, such as thromboelastogram and rotational thromboelastometry, provide rapid qualitative coagulation assessment and appropriate guidance for transfusion therapy. These are promising tools for the assessment and treatment of hyper- and hypocoagulable states associated with bleeding in liver transplantation. When combined with traditional tests and objective assessment of the surgical field, this information provides ideal guidance for transfusion strategies, with potential improvement of patient outcomes. RESUMO A monitorização perioperatória da coagulação é fundamental para estimar o risco de sangramento, diagnosticar deficiências causadoras de hemorragia e guiar terapias hemostáticas durante procedimentos cirúrgicos de grande porte, como o transplante hepático. Os testes estáticos, comumente usados na prática clínica, são insatisfatórios no intraoperatório, pois demandam tempo e não avaliam a função plaquetária; são determinados no plasma e realizados em temperatura padrão de 37°C. Os métodos que avaliam as propriedades viscoelásticas do sangue total, como o tromboelastograma e a tromboelastometria rotacional, podem suprir as deficiências dos testes estáticos tradicionais, uma vez que permitem avaliar a coagulação de forma rápida e qualitativa, guiando a terapia transfusional de forma adequada. A tromboelastometria rotacional mostrou-se promissora na avaliação e no tratamento de estados de hipercoagulação e hipocoagulação, associados a sangramento no transplante hepático. Estas informações, combinadas com os testes tradicionais e uma avaliação objetiva do campo cirúrgico, promovem um cenário ótimo para guiar as estratégias transfusionais e potencialmente melhorar o desfecho destes pacientes.
- Recognition and management of platelet-refractory bleeding in patients with Glanzmann's thrombasthenia and other severe platelet function disorders. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Gen Med 2017; 10:95-99
- Patients with rare qualitative platelet disorders or platelet function disorders (PFDs) may present to the hospital physician with severe bleeding episodes or excessive surgical bleeding. Although st...
Patients with rare qualitative platelet disorders or platelet function disorders (PFDs) may present to the hospital physician with severe bleeding episodes or excessive surgical bleeding. Although standard treatment consists of platelet transfusions, repeated transfusions may result in the development of antiplatelet antibodies (APA) or clinical refractoriness, rendering further platelet therapy ineffective. In such settings, an approved treatment option for patients with Glanzmann's thrombasthenia (GT), one of the well-known rare PFDs, is recombinant activated coagulation factor VII (rFVIIa). Data regarding the efficacy of rFVIIa in patients with GT and platelet refractoriness are available from a large patient registry, an international survey, and multiple case reports and demonstrate efficacy in patients with and without refractoriness or APA. This article reviews the rFVIIa clinical data in patients with GT and platelet refractoriness and discusses clinical implications relevant to the hospital-based physician. Because uncontrolled bleeding can be life-threatening, hospital physicians should be alert to the signs of platelet refractoriness, be able to recognize continued internal or external bleeding, and know how to adapt treatment regimens for the effective management of bleeding. The management of patients who receive rFVIIa should occur in consultation with a hematologist with experience in PFDs, and patients with suspected platelet refractoriness should be referred to such a hematologist as early as possible. A critical unmet need is the development of a definition of an adequate response to platelet transfusion, which would facilitate early recognition of platelet refractoriness in patients with PFDs who exhibit a normal platelet count.
- Independent adjudicator assessments of platelet refractoriness and rFVIIa efficacy in bleeding episodes and surgeries from the multinational Glanzmann's thrombasthenia registry. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Hematol 2017; 92(7):646-652
- Glanzmann's thrombasthenia (GT) is a rare congenital bleeding disorder associated with decreased platelet aggregation due to qualitative/quantitative deficiencies of the fibrinogen receptor. Severe b...
Glanzmann's thrombasthenia (GT) is a rare congenital bleeding disorder associated with decreased platelet aggregation due to qualitative/quantitative deficiencies of the fibrinogen receptor. Severe bleeding episodes and perioperative bleeding are typically managed with platelet transfusions, although patients can develop anti-platelet antibodies or experience clinical refractoriness. The GT Registry (GTR) was established to collect efficacy/safety data on hemostatic treatments for GT, including recombinant factor VIIa (rFVIIa). At the request of the United States Food and Drug Administration, three hematology experts evaluated platelet refractoriness, antibody status, and rFVIIa efficacy data on a case-by-case basis to support a potential indication for rFVIIa in GT. Adjudication included 195 patients with 810 events (619 severe bleeding episodes, 192 surgeries), and a consensus algorithm was developed to describe adjudicators' coding of refractoriness and antibody status based on treatment patterns over time. Most rFVIIa-treated events were in patients without refractoriness or antibodies. Adjudicators rated most rFVIIa-treated bleeding episodes as successful (251/266, 94.4%; rFVIIa only, 101/109, 92.7%; rFVIIa ± platelets ± other agents, 150/157, 95.5%); efficacy was consistent in patients with platelet refractoriness ± antibodies (75/79, 94.9%), antibodies only (10/10, 100.0%), and neither/unknown (166/177, 93.8%). Adjudicators also rated most rFVIIa-treated surgeries as successful (159/160, 99.4%; rFVIIa only, 65/66, 98.5%; rFVIIa ± platelets ± other agents, 94/94, 100.0%); efficacy was consistent in patients with platelet refractoriness ± antibodies (69/70, 98.6%), antibodies only (24/24, 100.0%), and neither/unknown (66/66, 100.0%). Unblinding the adjudicators to investigator efficacy ratings changed few assessments. Doses of rFVIIa were narrowly distributed, regardless of other hemostatic agents used.
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- Epistaxis as a Common Presenting Symptom of Glanzmann's Thrombasthenia, a Rare Qualitative Platelet Disorder: Illustrative Case Examples. [Journal Article]
- CRCase Rep Emerg Med 2017; 2017:8796425
- Children often present to emergency departments (EDs) with uncontrollable nose bleeding. Although usually due to benign etiologies, epistaxis may be the presenting symptom of an inherited bleeding di...
Children often present to emergency departments (EDs) with uncontrollable nose bleeding. Although usually due to benign etiologies, epistaxis may be the presenting symptom of an inherited bleeding disorder. Whereas most bleeding disorders are detected through standard hematologic assessments, diagnosing rare platelet function disorders may be challenging. Here we present two case reports and review diagnostic and management challenges of platelet function disorders with a focus on Glanzmann's thrombasthenia (GT). Patient 1 was a 4-year-old boy with uncontrolled epistaxis. His medical history included frequent and easy bruising. Previous laboratory evaluation revealed only mild microcytic anemia. An otolaryngologist stopped the bleeding, and referral to a pediatric hematologist led to the definitive diagnosis of GT. Patient 2 was a 2.5-year-old girl with severe epistaxis and a history of milder recurrent epistaxis. She had a bruise on her abdomen with a palpable hematoma and many scattered petechiae. Previous assessments revealed no demonstrable hemostatic anomalies. Platelet aggregation studies were performed following referral to a pediatric hematologist, leading to the diagnosis of GT. As evidenced by these cases, the ED physician may often be the first to evaluate severe or recurrent epistaxis and should recognize indications for coagulation testing and hematology consultation/referral for advanced hematologic assessments.