- Plasma exosomes regulate systemic blood pressure in rats. [Journal Article]
- BBBiochem Biophys Res Commun 2018 Jun 15
- Exosomes, the smallest extracellular vesicle, contain various molecules and mediate cell-cell communication. A number of studies demonstrate exosomes are involved in important physiological and patho...
Exosomes, the smallest extracellular vesicle, contain various molecules and mediate cell-cell communication. A number of studies demonstrate exosomes are involved in important physiological and pathological processes. Moreover, microRNA (miRNA) regulating hypertension development through the suppression of certain translation was recently reported. However, roles of exosomes containing various molecules including miRNA on development of essential hypertension have not been examined. We tested the hypothesis that plasma exosomes regulate systemic blood pressure in normotensive and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY) and SHR (5-10-week-old) were intraperitoneally administrated with exosomes derived from plasma in WKY or SHR weekly for 6 weeks. Exosomes were isolated by an ultracentrifuge method. SHR-derived exosomes significantly increased systolic blood pressure in WKY, while WKY-derived exosomes decreased it in SHR. In WKY, SHR-derived exosomes induced modest structural changes of thoracic aorta, such as wall thickening and decreased abundance of collagen, which were similar to the changes observed in SHR. On the contrary, WKY-derived exosomes tended to reverse the changes in SHR. WKY-derived exosomes significantly suppressed the increased prostaglandin F2α-induced contraction of mesenteric arterial smooth muscle in SHR. In addition, wet weight and perivascular fibrosis of left ventricles in WKY were significantly increased by SHR-derived exosomes, while the fibrosis but not ventricular weight was significantly decreased by WKY-derived exosomes in SHR. We for the first time demonstrated that plasma exosomes can modulate blood pressure as well as structure and function of blood vessels and heart in both normotensive and hypertensive rats.
- MMP-2 and MMP-9 contribute to the angiogenic effect produced by hypoxia/15-HETE in pulmonary endothelial cells. [Journal Article]
- JMJ Mol Cell Cardiol 2018 Jun 15
- Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) are the predominant gelatinases in the developing lung. Studies have shown that the expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 is upregula...
Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) are the predominant gelatinases in the developing lung. Studies have shown that the expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 is upregulated in hypoxic fibroblasts, 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15-HETE) regulated fibroblasts migration via modulating MMP-2 or MMP-9, and that hypoxia/15-HETE is a predominant contributor to the development of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) through increased angiogenesis. However, the roles of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in pulmonary arterial endothelial cells (PAECs) angiogenesis as well as the molecular mechanism of hypoxia-regulated MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression have not been identified. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in PAEC proliferation and vascular angiogenesis and to determine the effects of hypoxia-induced 15-HETE on the expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9. Western blot, immunofluorescence, and real-time PCR were used to measure the expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in hypoxic PAECs. Immunohistochemical staining, flow cytometry, and tube formation as well as cell proliferation, viability, scratch-wound, and Boyden chamber migration assays were used to identify the roles and relationships between MMP-2, MMP-9, and 15-HETE in hypoxic PAECs. We found that hypoxia increased MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression in pulmonary artery endothelium both in vivo and in vitro in a time-dependent pattern. Moreover, administration of the MMP-2 and MMP-9 inhibitor MMI-166 significantly reversed hypoxia-induced increases in right ventricular systemic pressure (RVSP), right ventricular function, and thickening of the tunica media. Furthermore, up-regulation of MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression was induced by 15-HETE, which regulates PAEC proliferation, migration, and cell cycle transition that eventually leads to angiogenesis. Our study demonstrated that hypoxia increases the expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 through the 15-lipoxygenase/15-HETE pathway, and that MMP-2 and MMP-9 promote PAEC angiogenesis. These findings suggest that MMP-2 and MMP-9 may serve as new potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of PAH.
- Rosai-Dorfman disease masquerading as Uveal Melanoma: Case report and review of literature. [Journal Article]
- HOHematol Oncol Stem Cell Ther 2018 Jun 15
- CONCLUSIONS: RDD can present as an intraocular mass that mimics ciliary body melanoma. This case emphasizes the importance of diagnostic biopsy before considering the final therapy in unclear cases, mainly when associated with unusual systemic features like lymphadenopathy.
- Clinical features and outcome in horses with severe large intestinal thickening diagnosed with transabdominal ultrasonography: 25 cases (2003-2010). [Journal Article]
- JAJ Am Vet Med Assoc 2018 Jul 01; 253(1):108-116
- OBJECTIVE To describe clinical features and outcome of horses with severe large intestinal thickening diagnosed with transabdominal ultrasonography.
OBJECTIVE To describe clinical features and outcome of horses with severe large intestinal thickening diagnosed with transabdominal ultrasonography.
- Lung and diaphragm ultrasound as predictors of success in weaning from mechanical ventilation. [Journal Article]
- CUCrit Ultrasound J 2018 Jun 18; 10(1):12
- CONCLUSIONS: Interobserver agreement was excellent for LUSm and moderate-good for TI. A low TI value or high LUSm value indicates high risk of weaning failure.
- Imaging of Kingella kingae musculoskeletal infections in children: a series of 5 cases. [Journal Article]
- EREmerg Radiol 2018 Jun 16
- CONCLUSIONS: Disproportionate synovial thickening, prominent peri-articular myositis, and/or characteristic sites of involvement demonstrating imaging features of infection or inflammation in a young child with mild infectious symptoms and elevated inflammatory markers should invoke the possibility of an underlying K. kingae infection.
- Lymphedema secondary to limited cutaneous systemic sclerosis. [Journal Article]
- BCBMJ Case Rep 2018 Jun 15; 2018
- Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is an autoimmune connective tissue disease characterised by vascular abnormalities, immune system activation and fibrosis. Lymphatic involvement in SSc was described more rec...
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is an autoimmune connective tissue disease characterised by vascular abnormalities, immune system activation and fibrosis. Lymphatic involvement in SSc was described more recently and starts in early stages. This report describes a 46-year-old patient who developed over the last 2 years asymmetric lymphedema in lower extremities. Compromise in lymphatic drainage was confirmed by lymphoscintigraphy. She also presented Raynaud's phenomenon, a scleroderma pattern in nailfold capillaroscopy, cutaneous thickening and anticentromere antibodies, which together resulted in a new diagnosis of limited cutaneous SSc. Treatment with methotrexate, prednisolone and lymphatic drainage resulted in lymphedema improvement. To our knowledge, this is the first case of grade 2 lymphedema in the setting of anticentromere-positive limited cutaneous SSc. We highlight the importance of considering rheumatic diseases in the differential diagnosis of lymphedema.
- Phenotype analyses of IL-10-producing Foxp3- CD4+ T cells increased by subcutaneous immunotherapy in allergic airway inflammation. [Journal Article]
- IIInt Immunopharmacol 2018 Jun 14; 61:297-305
- CONCLUSIONS: We successfully developed an airway allergic model for SCIT. It was suggested that most of IL-10-producing Foxp3- CD4+ regulatory T cells increased by SCIT in the lungs were CD49b+ CD4+ regulatory T cells, but neither Th2 cells nor Tr1 cells.
- A real-time loop-mediated isothermal amplification method for rapid detection of Lawsonia intracellularis in porcine fecal samples. [Journal Article]
- JMJ Microbiol Methods 2018 Jun 13
- Porcine proliferative enteritis is a common diarrheal disease characterized by thickening of the intestinal mucosa in swine due to enterocyte proliferation, which is caused by Lawsonia intracellulari...
Porcine proliferative enteritis is a common diarrheal disease characterized by thickening of the intestinal mucosa in swine due to enterocyte proliferation, which is caused by Lawsonia intracellularis. In this study, a real-time loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was developed to detect L. intracellularis based on the conserved region of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene. The optimal reaction conditions of the real-time LAMP was 65 °C for 60 min. The LAMP products could be detected by both real-time turbidity and direct visual inspection. The assay was specific for L. intracellularis, as no cross-reaction was observed with other pathogens. The detection limit of the real-time LAMP assay was 1.4 × 10-1pg of L. intracellularis DNA, which was the same as that of real-time PCR and approximately 100 times more sensitive than that of conventional PCR. Of the 136 clinical samples, L. intracellularis DNA was identified in 60 samples by real-time LAMP, which was the same as real-time PCR and higher than conventional PCR (36.8%, 50/136). The specific, sensitive and rapid real-time LAMP assay developed in this study could be a useful alternative tool in point-of-care (POC) diagnosis of L. intracellularis infection.
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- Constitutive relation for the system-spanning dynamically jammed region in response to impact of cornstarch and water suspensions. [Journal Article]
- PRPhys Rev E 2018; 97(5-1):052602
- We experimentally characterize the impact response of concentrated suspensions consisting of cornstarch and water. We observe that the suspensions support a large normal stress-on the order of MPa-wi...
We experimentally characterize the impact response of concentrated suspensions consisting of cornstarch and water. We observe that the suspensions support a large normal stress-on the order of MPa-with a delay after the impactor hits the suspension surface. We show that neither the delay nor the magnitude of the stress can yet be explained by either standard rheological models of shear thickening in terms of steady-state viscosities, or impact models based on added mass or other inertial effects. The stress increase occurs when a dynamically jammed region of the suspension in front of the impactor propagates to the opposite boundary of the container, which can support large stresses when it spans between solid boundaries. We present a constitutive relation for impact rheology to relate the force on the impactor to its displacement. This can be described in terms of an effective modulus but only after the delay required for the dynamically jammed region to span between solid boundaries. Both the modulus and the delay are reported as a function of impact velocity, fluid height, and weight fraction. We report in a companion paper the structure of the dynamically jammed region when it spans between the impactor and the opposite boundary [Allen et al., Phys. Rev. E 97, 052603 (2018)10.1103/PhysRevE.97.052603]. In a direct follow-up paper, we show that this constitutive model can be used to quantitatively predict, for example, the trajectory and penetration depth of the foot of a person walking or running on cornstarch and water [Mukhopadhyay et al., Phys. Rev. E 97, 052604 (2018)10.1103/PhysRevE.97.052604].