- Transient High-Glucose Stimulation Induces Persistent Inflammatory Factor Secretion from Rat Glomerular Mesangial Cells via an Epigenetic Mechanism. [Journal Article]
- CPCell Physiol Biochem 2018 Sep 19; 49(5):1747-1754
- CONCLUSIONS: Transient high-glucose stimulation can induce the persistent secretion of inflammatory factors from rat glomerular mesangial cells via histone modification.
- Organophosphate Ester (OPE) Transport, Fate and Emissions in Toronto, Canada, Estimated using an Updated Multimedia Urban Model (MUM). [Journal Article]
- ESEnviron Sci Technol 2018 Sep 19
- Organophosphate esters (OPEs), used as flame retardants and plasticizers, occur at relatively high concentrations in urban air and surface waters. We tested the hypothesis that some OPEs could be con...
Organophosphate esters (OPEs), used as flame retardants and plasticizers, occur at relatively high concentrations in urban air and surface waters. We tested the hypothesis that some OPEs could be considered persistent and mobile organic compounds (PMOCs), using the poly-parameter linear free energy relationship-modified Multimedia Urban Model (ppLFER-MUM) in Toronto, Canada, as a case study. Modelled air emissions of ∑6OPEs of 3,300 (190 - 190,000) kg yr-1 were 10 - 100 times higher than emissions of polychlorinated biphenyls (∑5PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (∑5PBDEs). Model results suggested measured ∑6OPE stream concentrations of ~2,000 ng L-1 originate from emissions to urban air transferred to water mostly via precipitation. Water transport removed 7-27% of total air inputs compared to 0.1-10% for PCBs and 2-10% for PBDEs. Chlorinated OPEs were efficiently transported via surface water due to their persistence and high solubility. Loadings of ∑6OPEs to Lake Ontario from wastewater treatment plants, streams and atmospheric deposition were 70, 18 and 13%, respectively, of ∑6OPE loadings of 3,100 (1,200 - 45,000) kg yr-1. Our results support the hypothesis that three chlorinated OPEs, tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris(chloroisopropyl)phosphate (TCiPP), tris(1,3-dichloroisopropyl)phosphate (TDiCPP), fit the profile of PMOCs due to their mobility and persistence in surface waters.
- Rainfall trends and variation in the Maasai Mara ecosystem and their implications for animal population and biodiversity dynamics. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2018; 13(9):e0202814
- Rainfall exerts a controlling influence on the availability and quality of vegetation and surface water for herbivores in African terrestrial ecosystems. We analyse temporal trends and variation in r...
Rainfall exerts a controlling influence on the availability and quality of vegetation and surface water for herbivores in African terrestrial ecosystems. We analyse temporal trends and variation in rainfall in the Maasai Mara ecosystem of East Africa and infer their implications for animal population and biodiversity dynamics. The data originated from 15 rain gauges in the Mara region (1965-2015) and one station in Narok Town (1913-2015), in Kenya's Narok County. This is the first comprehensive and most detailed analysis of changes in rainfall in the region of its kind. Our results do not support the current predictions of the International Panel of Climate Change (IPCC) of very likely increases of rainfall over parts of Eastern Africa. The dry season rainfall component increased during 1935-2015 but annual rainfall decreased during 1962-2015 in Narok Town. Monthly rainfall was more stable and higher in the Mara than in Narok Town, likely because the Mara lies closer to the high-precipitation areas along the shores of Lake Victoria. Predominantly deterministic and persistent inter-annual cycles and extremely stable seasonal rainfall oscillations characterize rainfall in the Mara and Narok regions. The frequency of severe droughts increased and floods intensified in the Mara but droughts became less frequent and less severe in Narok Town. The timings of extreme droughts and floods coincided with significant periodicity in rainfall oscillations, implicating strong influences of global atmospheric and oceanic circulation patterns on regional rainfall variability. These changing rainfall patterns have implications for animal population dynamics. The increase in dry season rainfall during 1935-2015 possibly counterbalanced the impacts of resource scarcity generated by the declining annual rainfall during 1965-2015 in Narok Town. However, the increasing rainfall extremes in the Mara can be expected to create conditions conducive to outbreaks of infectious animal diseases and reduced vegetation quality for herbivores, particularly when droughts and floods persist over multiple years. The more extreme wet season rainfall may also alter herbivore space use, including migration patterns.
- Concussion History and Cognitive Function in a Large Cohort of Adolescent Athletes. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Sports Med 2018 Sep 19; :363546518798801
- CONCLUSIONS: On the basis of objective performance metrics for cognitive function, concussions had a more persistent effect on cognitive function than previously thought. The age at which an individual has his or her first concussion may be an important factor in determining long-lasting cognitive effects.
- Persistent abdominal pain related to portal vein thrombosis in young adult with sickle cell disease. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Hematol 2018 Sep 19
- Muscle does not drive persistent post-traumatic elbow contracture in a rat model. [Journal Article]
- MNMuscle Nerve 2018 Sep 19
- CONCLUSIONS: Muscle is a transient contributor to motion loss in our rat model of post-traumatic elbow contracture. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Clinical and genetic analysis of distal renal tubular acidosis in three Chinese children. [Journal Article]
- RFRen Fail 2018; 40(1):520-526
- CONCLUSIONS: We report the clinical and molecular characteristics of dRTA patients from China. The four novel mutations detected in our study extend the spectrum of gene mutations associated with primary dRTA. Furthermore, our study confirms the effect of early treatment in improving growth for dRTA patient and provides insight into the effects of rhGH on dRTA patients who were diagnosed late and exhibiting a persistent growth delay despite appropriate therapy.
- Presence of chromosomal abnormalities in fetuses with isolated ventriculomegaly on prenatal ultrasound in China. [Journal Article]
- MGMol Genet Genomic Med 2018 Sep 19
- CONCLUSIONS: The risk of chromosomal abnormalities for fetuses with isolated VM is high, especially when it is severe, bilateral, the first presence occurs in mid-gestation and is not resolved.
- Pancreatic islet of Langerhans' cytoarchitecture and ultrastructure in normal glucose tolerance and in type 2 diabetes mellitus. [Review]
- DODiabetes Obes Metab 2018; 20 Suppl 2:137-144
- While a number of structural and cellular abnormalities occur in the islet of Langerhans in diabetes, and in particular in type 2 diabetes, the focus has been mostly on the insulin producing β-cells ...
While a number of structural and cellular abnormalities occur in the islet of Langerhans in diabetes, and in particular in type 2 diabetes, the focus has been mostly on the insulin producing β-cells and only more recently on glucagon producing α- and δ-cells. There is ample evidence that in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), in addition to a progressive decline in β-cell function and associated insulin resistance in a number of insulin-sensitive tissues, alterations in glucagon secretion are also present and may play an important role in the pathogenesis of hyperglycemia both in the fasting and in the postprandial state. Recently, a number of studies have showed that there are also functional and structural alterations in glucagon-producing α-cells and somatostatin-producing δ-cells. Thus, it is becoming increasingly clear that multiple cellular alterations of multiple cell types occur, which adds even more complexity to our understanding of the pathophysiology of this common and severe disease. We believe that persistent efforts to increase the understanding of the pathophysiology of hormone secretion in the islets of Langerhans will also improve our capability to better prevent and treat diabetes mellitus.
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- Overweight and obesity as major, modifiable risk factors for urinary incontinence in young to mid-aged women: a systematic review and meta-analysis. [Review]
- ORObes Rev 2018 Sep 19
- The purpose of this review and meta-analysis was to evaluate overweight and obesity as risk factors for urinary incontinence in young to mid-aged women. Understanding these relationships during this ...
The purpose of this review and meta-analysis was to evaluate overweight and obesity as risk factors for urinary incontinence in young to mid-aged women. Understanding these relationships during this life stage is important as early onset increases the risk for developing severe and persistent incontinence. A systematic search resulted in 497 citations, 14 of which were retained for review. Data were analysed by overweight and obesity and by subtype of urinary incontinence - stress, urge, mixed and severe. When compared with 'normal' body mass index, overweight was associated with a one-third increase in risk of urinary incontinence (relative risk = 1.35, 95% confidence interval = 1.20-1.53), while the risk was doubled in women with obesity (relative risk = 1.95, 95% confidence interval = 1.58-2.42). When estimates were pooled according to urinary incontinence subtype, there was no statistical difference in risk. Overweight and obesity are strong predictors of urinary incontinence, with a significantly greater risk observed for obesity. Clinical advice to young women at risk of, or presenting with, obesity should not be limited to metabolic health only but should emphasize the role of excess weight on pelvic floor weakening and subsequent risk of incontinence.