- Insight into photocatalytic activity, universality and mechanism of copper/chlorine surface dual-doped graphitic carbon nitride for degrading various organic pollutants in water. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Colloid Interface Sci 2018 Dec 03; 538:462-473
- It is still a challenging work to realize the universality of photocatalytic materials for unselective removing various organic pollutants in water. Here a surface dual-doped Cu/Cl-g-C3N4 photocataly...
It is still a challenging work to realize the universality of photocatalytic materials for unselective removing various organic pollutants in water. Here a surface dual-doped Cu/Cl-g-C3N4 photocatalyst is firstly prepared, which exhibits much more superior photocatalytic performance for degrading multifarious persistent organic pollutants including tetracycline hydrochloride (TC-HCl), o-chlorophenol, bisphenol A and 2-mercaptobenzothiazole in water than pure g-C3N4. The high-efficiency and unselective photocatalytic degradation performance derives from the surface dual-doped effect of Cu/Cl elements on g-C3N4, which results in the extended visible light harvest range, elevated CB potential and improved the separation efficiency of charge carriers. The intermediate products, degradation pathway, degree of mineralization and reaction mechanism of representative TC-HCl pollutant over the surface dual-doped Cu/Cl-g-C3N4 photocatalyst are revealed in depth. This work makes an important development for treating the persistent organic pollutants in the water environments by exploiting new, low-cost and high-efficiency photocatalytic materials.
- Linking organochlorine contaminants with demographic parameters in free-ranging common bottlenose dolphins from the northern Adriatic Sea. [Journal Article]
- STSci Total Environ 2018 Dec 04; 657:200-212
- Marine top predators, including marine mammals, are known to bio-accumulate persistent pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), a serious conservation concern for these species. Although ...
Marine top predators, including marine mammals, are known to bio-accumulate persistent pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), a serious conservation concern for these species. Although PCBs declined in European seas since the 1970s-1980s ban, considerable levels still persist in European and Mediterranean waters. In cetaceans, stranded animals are a valuable source of samples for pollutant studies, but may introduce both known and unknown biases. Biopsy samples from live, free-ranging cetaceans offer a better alternative for evaluating toxicological burdens of populations, especially when linked to known histories of identified individuals. We evaluated PCB and other organochlorine contaminants in free-ranging common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from the Gulf of Trieste (northern Adriatic Sea), one of the most human-impacted areas in the Mediterranean Sea. Biopsies were collected from 32 male and female dolphins during 2011-2017. All animals were photo-identified and are part of a well-known population of about 150 individuals monitored since 2002. We tested for the effects of sex, parity and social group membership on contaminant concentrations. Males had significantly higher organochlorine concentrations than females, suggesting offloading from reproducing females to their offspring via gestation and/or lactation. Furthermore, nulliparous females had substantially higher concentrations than parous ones, providing further support for maternal offloading of contaminants. Overall, 87.5% of dolphins had PCB concentrations above the toxicity threshold for physiological effects in experimental marine mammal studies (9 mg/kg lw), while 65.6% had concentrations above the highest threshold published for marine mammals based on reproductive impairment in ringed seals (41 mg/kg lw). The potential population-level effects of such high contaminant levels are of concern particularly in combination with other known or suspected threats to this population. We demonstrate the utility of combining contaminant data with demographic parameters such as sex, reproductive output, etc., resulting from long-term studies.
- Do concentrations of perfluoroalkylated acids (PFAAs) in isopods reflect concentrations in soil and songbirds? A study using a distance gradient from a fluorochemical plant. [Journal Article]
- STSci Total Environ 2018 Dec 07; 657:111-123
- Perfluoroalkylated acids (PFAAs) are persistent chemicals that have been detected globally in the environment and in wildlife. Although it is known that PFAAs sorb to solid matrices, little is known ...
Perfluoroalkylated acids (PFAAs) are persistent chemicals that have been detected globally in the environment and in wildlife. Although it is known that PFAAs sorb to solid matrices, little is known on PFAA concentrations in soils. PFAA pollution has often been studied in aquatic invertebrates. However, this has rarely been done on terrestrial species. In the present study, we examined whether the concentrations of 15 PFAAs in isopods (Oniscidae), collected at a fluorochemical plant and in four other areas, representing a gradient in distance from the pollution source (1 km to 11 km), were related to those in the soil and in eggs of a songbird, the great tit (Parus major), collected in the same areas. Additionally, we examined the effect of physicochemical properties such as total organic carbon (TOC) and clay content on the relationship between the concentrations in soil and isopods. Finally, we examined the composition profile in the soil and isopods. Mean PFOS and PFOA concentrations of 1700 ng/g dw and 24 ng/g dw were detected in the soil at the plant. PFOS and PFPeA were the dominant PFAAs in isopods and were detected at mean concentrations of 253 and 108 ng/g ww, respectively. The great tit eggs showed elevated mean PFOS concentrations of 55,970 ng/g ww. In most cases, PFAA concentrations decreased with increasing distance from the plant. As PFAA concentrations in isopods were correlated with concentrations in the soils, isopods could serve as a bioindicator for PFAA concentrations in soils. Additionally, there were indications that isopods could also serve as a bioindicator for PFAA concentrations in eggs of great tits. However, these indications were only the case at two locations, showing the need to further monitor the possibilities of using isopods as a bioindicator for PFAA concentrations in song bird eggs. CAPSULE: Elevated PFAA concentrations in isopods reflected concentrations in songbird eggs and in soil, indicating that trophic transfer of PFAAs from soil, via isopods, to songbirds might play a role in the PFAA exposure of terrestrial songbirds.
- Serious Asthma Events with Mometasone Furoate Plus Formoterol Compared With Mometasone Furoate. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Allergy Clin Immunol 2018 Dec 08
- CONCLUSIONS: The addition of formoterol to mometasone maintenance therapy did not increase the risk of serious asthma-related events and reduced the risk of asthma exacerbation.
- Management of persistent juvenile angiofibroma after endoscopic resection: Analysis of a single institution series of 74 patients. [Journal Article]
- HNHead Neck 2018 Dec 10
- CONCLUSIONS: pJAs may have the tendency to regress spontaneously or remain stable. In selected cases, avoiding treatment of nongrowing pJA in critical areas is a prudent option.
- Role of ADHD in the Co-occurrence between Heavy Alcohol Use and Depression Trajectories in Adulthood. [Journal Article]
- ACAlcohol Clin Exp Res 2018 Dec 10
- CONCLUSIONS: Due to the strengthening association between heavy drinking and depression for adults in their late 20s, and increasing depression for adults with ADHD histories, individuals with ADHD may be at greater risk for co-occurring depression and binge drinking. Negative reinforcement-related alcohol use may strengthen as these individuals age toward the fourth decade of life. More rigorous testing of this possibility is warranted. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Impaired pressure natriuresis and non-dipping blood pressure in Rats with early type 1 diabetes mellitus. [Journal Article]
- JPJ Physiol 2018 Dec 07
- Type 1 diabetes mellitus increases cardiovascular risk: hypertension amplifies this risk. Pressure natriuresis regulates long-term blood pressure. We induced type 1 diabetes in rats by streptozotocin...
Type 1 diabetes mellitus increases cardiovascular risk: hypertension amplifies this risk. Pressure natriuresis regulates long-term blood pressure. We induced type 1 diabetes in rats by streptozotocin injection and after three weeks demonstrated a substantial impairment of pressure natriuresis: acute increases in blood pressure did not increase renal medullary blood flow, and tubular sodium reabsorption was not downregulated. Proximal tubule sodium reabsorption, measured by lithium clearance, was unaffected. Insulin reduced blood glucose in diabetic rats, and rescued the pressure natriuresis response without influencing lithium clearance. However, insulin did not restore medullary blood flow. On radiotelemetry, diastolic blood pressure was increased in diabetic rats, and its diurnal variation was reduced. Increases in medullary blood flow and decreases in distal tubule sodium reabsorption that offset acute rises in BP are impaired in early type 1 diabetes. Their impairment could be a target for preventing hypertension in type 1 diabetes.
- Bcl-2 inhibitors enhance FGFR inhibitor-induced mitochondrial-dependent cell death in FGFR2 mutant endometrial cancer. [Journal Article]
- MOMol Oncol 2018 Dec 08
- Endometrial cancer is the most commonly diagnosed gynaecological malignancy. Unfortunately, 15-20% of women demonstrate persistent or recurrent tumours that are refractory to current chemotherapies. ...
Endometrial cancer is the most commonly diagnosed gynaecological malignancy. Unfortunately, 15-20% of women demonstrate persistent or recurrent tumours that are refractory to current chemotherapies. We previously identified activating mutations in Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 2 (FGFR2) in 12% (stage I/II) to 17% (stage III/IV) endometrioid ECs and found that these mutations are associated with shorter progression-free and cancer-specific survival. Although FGFR inhibitors are undergoing clinical trials for treatment of several cancer types, little is known about the mechanism by which they induce cell death. We show that treatment with BGJ398, AZD4547 and PD173074 causes mitochondrial depolarization, cytochrome c release, and impaired mitochondrial respiration in two FGFR2-mutant EC cell lines (AN3CA and JHUEM2). Despite this mitochondrial dysfunction, we were unable to detect caspase activation following FGFR inhibition; furthermore, the pan-caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK was unable to prevent cell death, suggesting that the cell death is caspase-independent. Furthermore, while FGFR inhibition led to an increase in LC3 puncta, treatment with Bafilomycin did not further increase lipidated LC3, suggesting that FGFR inhibition led to a block in autophagosome degradation. We confirmed that cell death is mitochondrial dependent as it can be blocked by overexpression of Bcl-2 and/or Bcl-XL. Importantly we show that combining FGFR inhibitors with the BH3 mimetics ABT737/ABT263 markedly increased cell death in vitro and is more effective than BGJ398 alone in vivo, where it leads to marked tumour regression. This work may have implications for the design of clinical trials to treat a wide range of patients with FGFR-dependent malignancies.
- Facilitators and barriers to the implementation of motivational interviewing for bullying perpetration in school settings. [Journal Article]
- SJScand J Psychol 2018 Dec 11
- Bullying is a perplexing and persistent problem with negative consequences for all involved. Schools are assigned considerable responsibility for the management of bullying because of its prevalence ...
Bullying is a perplexing and persistent problem with negative consequences for all involved. Schools are assigned considerable responsibility for the management of bullying because of its prevalence amongst youth. Despite considerable efforts over decades to curtail bullying through the use of anti-bullying policies and other school-based interventions, the rates of young people who frequently bully has not decreased significantly. Motivational Interviewing (MI) is a relational and affirming conversational method that strengthens an individual's motivation and commitment to change, overcoming ambivalence toward the problem. The aim of the current study was to provide preliminary insight into the feasibility of incorporating MI into student service repertoires for addressing bullying. Ten staff participants from six secondary schools, who had roles in bullying intervention within their respective schools, were offered training in MI and invited to use and monitor this method in their practice as an intervention for students who perpetrate bullying. Results indicated a number factors which influenced the uptake of MI in schools. Facilitators enabling the use of MI included practitioner's professional background, administrative support, training and implementation of MI. Barriers to the use of MI included time pressure and administrative expectations, school roles and system limitations, and preconceptions and the stigma of bullying.
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- Otopathology in Angiosarcoma of the Temporal Bone. [Journal Article]
- LLaryngoscope 2018 Dec 11
- CONCLUSIONS: Angiosarcoma of the temporal bone can arise in the setting of chronic otitis media. In this case, postmortem temporal bone sections demonstrated viable cancer despite chemoradiation. Inflammatory infiltrates crossing from the middle ear/mastoid into the labyrinth and central nervous system illustrate pathways for the development of otogenic meningitis.