- Analysis of different levels of positive end-expiratory pressure during lung retrieval for transplantation: an experimental study. [Journal Article]
- BJBraz J Med Biol Res 2019; 52(7):e8585
- Atelectasis and inadequate oxygenation in lung donors is a common problem during the retrieval of these organs. Nevertheless, the use of high positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) is not habitual d…
Atelectasis and inadequate oxygenation in lung donors is a common problem during the retrieval of these organs. Nevertheless, the use of high positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) is not habitual during procedures of lung retrieval. Twenty-one Sprague-Dawley male consanguineous rats were used in the study. The animals were divided into 3 groups according to the level of PEEP used: low (2 cmH2O), moderate (5 cmH2O), and high (10 cmH2O). Animals were ventilated with a tidal volume of 6 mL/kg. Before lung removal, the lungs were inspected for the presence of atelectasis. When atelectasis was detected, alveolar recruitment maneuvers were performed. Blood gasometric analysis was performed immediately. Finally, the lungs were retrieved, weighed, and submitted to histological analysis. The animals submitted to higher PEEP showed higher levels of oxygenation with the same tidal volumes PO2=262.14 (PEEP 2), 382.4 (PEEP 5), and 477.0 (PEEP 10). The occurrence of atelectasis was rare in animals with a PEEP of 10 cmH2O, which therefore required less frequent recruitment maneuvers (need for recruitment: PEEP 2=100%, PEEP 5 =100%, and PEEP 10=14.3%). There was no change in hemodynamic stability, occurrence of pulmonary edema, or other histological injuries with the use of high PEEP. The use of high PEEP (10 cmH2O) was feasible and probably a beneficial strategy for the prevention of atelectasis and the optimization of oxygenation during lung retrieval. Clinical studies should be performed to confirm this hypothesis.
- The utility of pulmonary function testing in the preoperative risk stratification of patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement. [Journal Article]
- CCCatheter Cardiovasc Interv 2019 Jul 16
- CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that isolated abnormalities in spirometry are a poor indicator of clinically relevant outcomes in TAVR. When classified correctly, COPD does not predict clinically relevant postoperative outcomes.
- Reduced deformability contributes to impaired deoxygenation-induced ATP release from red blood cells of older adult humans. [Journal Article]
- JPJ Physiol 2019 Jul 16
- CONCLUSIONS: Red blood cells (RBCs) release ATP in response to deoxygenation, which can increase blood flow to help match oxygen supply with tissue metabolic demand. This release of ATP is impaired in RBCs from older adults, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. In this study, improving RBC deformability in older adults restored deoxygenation-induced ATP release, whereas decreasing RBC deformability in young adults reduced ATP release to that of older adults. In contrast, treating RBCs with a phosphodiesterase 3 inhibitor did not affect ATP release in either age group, possibly due to intact intracellular signalling downstream of deoxygenation as indicated by preserved cAMP and ATP release responses to pharmacological Gi protein activation in RBCs from older adults. These findings are the first to demonstrate that the age-related decrease in RBC deformability is a primary mechanism of impaired deoxygenation-induced ATP release, which may have implications for treating impaired vascular control with advancing age.
- Hypercapnic hypoxia as a potential means to extend life expectancy and improve physiological activity in mice. [Journal Article]
- BBiogerontology 2019 Jul 15
- The application of combined hypoxia and hypercapnia (hypercapnic hypoxia) during respiratory exercises results in a maximum increase in resistance to acute hypoxia and ischemic tolerance of the brain…
The application of combined hypoxia and hypercapnia (hypercapnic hypoxia) during respiratory exercises results in a maximum increase in resistance to acute hypoxia and ischemic tolerance of the brain. The results of those researches allow the assumption that hypercapnic hypoxia is a promising method for prophylaxis, treatment, and rehabilitation, as well as a means to increase life expectancy. The study was conducted to verify the hypothesis that it is possible to extend the life span through regular courses of respiratory exercises with hypercapnic hypoxia. In the present experimental research carried out on mice, the geroprotective effect of regular hypercapnic-hypoxic exercises (PO2-90 mm Hg and PCO2-50 mm Hg) was assessed in the context of the average life expectancy and the main criteria of its quality (reproductive function, muscle strength, and behavior). Results suggest that with regular training, life span is extended significantly by 16%. This result was accompanied by improved reproductive and cognitive functions, increased motor and search activities, and physical stamina in old age mices. This important phenomenon is accompanied by improved reproductive and cognitive functions, high motor function and search activity, as well as better physical stamina in old-aged mices. Recurring respiratory training under combined hypoxia and hypercapnia (hypercapnic hypoxia) during the lifetime significantly extended the life span of mice in the experiments.
- More homogeneous capillary flow and oxygenation in deeper cortical layers correlate with increased oxygen extraction. [Journal Article]
- EElife 2019 Jul 15; 8
- Our understanding of how capillary blood flow and oxygen distribute across cortical layers to meet the local metabolic demand is incomplete. We addressed this question by using two-photon imaging of …
Our understanding of how capillary blood flow and oxygen distribute across cortical layers to meet the local metabolic demand is incomplete. We addressed this question by using two-photon imaging of resting-state microvascular oxygen partial pressure (PO2) and flow in the whisker barrel cortex in awake mice. Our measurements in layers I-V show that the capillary red-blood-cell flux and oxygenation heterogeneity, and the intracapillary resistance to oxygen delivery, all decrease with depth, reaching a minimum around layer IV, while the depth-dependent oxygen extraction fraction is increased in layer IV, where oxygen demand is presumably the highest. Our findings suggest that more homogeneous distribution of the physiological observables relevant to oxygen transport to tissue is an important part of the microvascular network adaptation to local brain metabolism. These results will inform the biophysical models of layer-specific cerebral oxygen delivery and consumption and improve our understanding of the diseases that affect cerebral microcirculation.
- Water Uptake and Transport Properties of La1-xCaxScO3-α Proton-Conducting Oxides. [Journal Article]
- MMaterials (Basel) 2019 Jul 10; 12(14)
- In this study, oxide materials La1-xCaxScO3-α (x = 0.03, 0.05 and 0.10) were synthesized by the citric-nitrate combustion method. Single-phase solid solutions were obtained in the case of calcium con…
In this study, oxide materials La1-xCaxScO3-α (x = 0.03, 0.05 and 0.10) were synthesized by the citric-nitrate combustion method. Single-phase solid solutions were obtained in the case of calcium content x = 0.03 and 0.05, whereas a calcium-enriched impurity phase was found at x = 0.10. Water uptake and release were studied by means of thermogravimetric analysis, thermodesorption spectroscopy and dilatometry. It was shown that lower calcium content in the main phase leads to a decrease in the water uptake. Conductivity was measured by four-probe direct current (DC) and two-probe ascension current (AC) methods at different temperatures, pO2 and pH2O. The effects of phase composition, microstructure and defect structure on electrical conductivity, as well as correlation between conductivity and water uptake experiments, were discussed. The contribution of ionic conductivity of La1-xCaxScO3-α rises with decreasing temperature and increasing humidity. The domination of proton conductivity at temperatures below 500 °C under oxidizing and reducing atmospheres is exhibited. Water uptake and release as well as transport properties of La1-xCaxScO3-α are compared with the properties of similar proton electrolytes, La1-xSrxScO3-α, and the possible reasons for their differences were discussed.
- Modelling the relationships between haemoglobin oxygen affinity and the oxygen cascade in humans. [Journal Article]
- JPJ Physiol 2019 Jul 09
- CONCLUSIONS: Haemoglobin affinity is an integral concept in exercise physiology that impacts oxygen uptake, delivery and consumption. How chronic alterations in haemoglobin affinity impact physiology is unknown. Using human haemoglobin variants we demonstrate that the affinity of haemoglobin for oxygen is highly correlated with haemoglobin concentration. Using the Fick equation, we modelled how altered haemoglobin affinity and the associated haemoglobin concentration influences oxygen consumption at rest and during exercise via alterations in cardiac output and mixed-venous PO2 . The combination of low oxygen affinity haemoglobin and reduced haemoglobin concentration seen in vivo may be unable to support oxygen uptake during moderate or heavy exercise.
- Anoxygenic photosynthesis and the delayed oxygenation of Earth's atmosphere. [Journal Article]
- NCNat Commun 2019 Jul 09; 10(1):3026
- The emergence of oxygenic photosynthesis created a new niche with dramatic potential to transform energy flow through Earth's biosphere. However, more primitive forms of photosynthesis that fix CO2 i…
The emergence of oxygenic photosynthesis created a new niche with dramatic potential to transform energy flow through Earth's biosphere. However, more primitive forms of photosynthesis that fix CO2 into biomass using electrons from reduced species like Fe(II) and H2 instead of water would have competed with Earth's early oxygenic biosphere for essential nutrients. Here, we combine experimental microbiology, genomic analyses, and Earth system modeling to demonstrate that competition for light and nutrients in the surface ocean between oxygenic phototrophs and Fe(II)-oxidizing, anoxygenic photosynthesizers (photoferrotrophs) translates into diminished global photosynthetic O2 release when the ocean interior is Fe(II)-rich. These results provide a simple ecophysiological mechanism for inhibiting atmospheric oxygenation during Earth's early history. We also find a novel positive feedback within the coupled C-P-O-Fe cycles that can lead to runaway planetary oxygenation as rising atmospheric pO2 sweeps the deep ocean of the ferrous iron substrate for photoferrotrophy.
- Implantable microchip containing oxygen-sensing paramagnetic crystals for long-term, repeated, and multisite in vivo oximetry. [Journal Article]
- BMBiomed Microdevices 2019 Jul 08; 21(3):71
- EPR oximetry is established as a viable method for measuring the tissue oxygen level (partial pressure of oxygen, pO2) in animal models; however, it has not yet been established for measurements in h…
EPR oximetry is established as a viable method for measuring the tissue oxygen level (partial pressure of oxygen, pO2) in animal models; however, it has not yet been established for measurements in humans. EPR oximetry requires an oxygen-sensing paramagnetic probe (molecular or particulate) to be placed at the site/organ of measurement, which may pose logistical and safety concerns, including invasiveness of the probe-placement procedure as well as lack of temporal stability and sensitivity for long-term (repeated) measurements, and possible toxicity in the short- and long-term. In the past, we have developed an implantable oxygen-sensing probe, called OxyChip, which we have successfully established for oximetry in pre-clinical animal models (Hou et al. Biomed. Microdevices 20, 29, 2018). Currently, OxyChip is being evaluated in a limited clinical trial in cancer patients. A major limitation of OxyChip is that it is a large (1.4 mm3) implant and hence not suitable for measuring oxygen heterogeneity that may be present in solid tumors, chronic wounds, etc. In this report, we describe the development of a substantially smaller version of OxyChip (0.07 mm3 or 70 cubic micron), called mChip, that can be placed in the tissue of interest using a 23G syringe-needle with minimal invasiveness. Using in vitro and in vivo models, we have shown that the microchip provides adequate EPR sensitivity, stability, and biocompatibility and thus enables robust, repeated, and simultaneous measurement from multiple implants providing mean and median pO2 values in the implanted region. The mChips will be particularly useful for those applications that require repeated measurements of mean/median pO2 in superficial tissues and malignancies.
New Search Next
- Comparison of Systemic Effects of Midazolam, Ketamine, and Isoflurane Anaesthesia in Rabbits. [Journal Article]
- JVJ Vet Res 2019; 63(2):275-283
- CONCLUSIONS: Anaesthetic agents may increase programmed apoptosis. The MKI anaesthetics combination was found to cause less cell destruction in general than the other study groups. It was indicated that MKI was the safer anaesthetic combination in rabbits.