- Colchicum genus in the writings of ancient Greek and Byzantine physicians. [Journal Article]
- CPCurr Pharm Des 2018 Jan 14
- The plants of the Colchicum family were known during the archaic period in Greece for their deleterious properties. Later on, they were used for the treatment of podagra. The treatment was introduced...
The plants of the Colchicum family were known during the archaic period in Greece for their deleterious properties. Later on, they were used for the treatment of podagra. The treatment was introduced by the ancient Greek physicians and passed on to the Byzantine and Arabian physicians to endure until nowadays. The first plant was most probably named "Medea" from the notorious Colchican witch. As the most common member of the family blossoms in autumn, the plant was named Colchicum autumnale. Various nominations were also used, such as Ephemeron, Hermodactyl, Anima articulorum and Surugen. Our article discusses them, while at the same time presents the most notable authorities who have used Colchicum plants in herbal medicine and toxicology.
- Gout - a guide for the general and acute physicians. [Review]
- CMClin Med (Lond) 2017; 17(1):54-59
- Gout is the most prevalent inflammatory arthritis and affects 2.5% of the general population in the UK. It is also the only arthritis that has the potential to be cured with safe, inexpensive and wel...
Gout is the most prevalent inflammatory arthritis and affects 2.5% of the general population in the UK. It is also the only arthritis that has the potential to be cured with safe, inexpensive and well tolerated urate-lowering treatments, which reduce serum uric acid by either inhibiting xanthine oxidase - eg allopurinol, febuxostat - or by increasing the renal excretion of uric acid. Of these, xanthine oxidase inhibitors are used first line and are effective in 'curing' gout in the vast majority of patients. Gout can be diagnosed on clinical grounds in those with typical podagra. However, in those with involvement of other joints, joint aspiration is recommended to demonstrate monosodium urate crystals and exclude other causes of acute arthritis, such as septic arthritis. However, a clinical diagnosis of gout can be made if joint aspiration is not feasible. This review summarises the current understanding of the pathophysiology, clinical presentation, investigations and treatment of gout.
- [Historical Study of the Etymological Form and Translational Process of Gout (Tongfeng,)]. [Historical Article]
- UUisahak 2015; 24(2):533-57
- This study aims to address questions regarding the translation of 'gout' into 'tongfeng ()' in East Asia. To this end, the formation process of the origins, 'gout' from Western medicine and 'tongfeng...
This study aims to address questions regarding the translation of 'gout' into 'tongfeng ()' in East Asia. To this end, the formation process of the origins, 'gout' from Western medicine and 'tongfeng' from Oriental medicine, and the translational process were investigated through the relevant records and literature dating from the 16th century on. Symptoms associated with gout were originally mentioned in ancient Egypt and various terminologies were used to refer to gout, such as podagra, cheiragra and gonogra. The word 'gout', which is derived from Latin, was used for the first time in the 13th century. The reason for this linguistic alteration is thought to be the need for a comprehensive term to cover the various terms for gout in symptomatic body parts, since it can occur concurrently in many joints. However, it took hundreds of years before gout was independently established as a medical term. In oriental medicine, terms describing diseases with features similar to gout include bibing (), lijiefeng (), baihufeng () and tongfeng (). Among them, the concept of 'tongfeng' has been established since the Jin and Yuan dynasties. The cause, prevention and various treatments for tongfeng were proposed throughout the Ming and Qing dynasties. The early translation of gout and tongfeng in East Asia, respectively, is estimated to have occurred in the 18th century. The first literature translating gout in China was 'An English and Chinese Vocabulary in the Court Dialect (yinghua yunfu lijie, )'. From the publication of this book until the late 19th century, gout was translated into an unfamiliar Chinese character 'Jiu feng jiao ()', likely because the translation was done mostly by foreign missionaries at the time, and they created a new word on the basis of Western medicine instead of researching and translating similar diseases in oriental medicine. In Japan, the first book translating gout was 'A Pocket Dictionary of the English and Japanese Language (Eiwa taiyaku shuchin jisho, )', Japan's the first English-Japanese translation dictionary. In this book, gout was translated into tongfeng, a word adopted from oriental medicine. These differences from China are thought to be caused by Rangaku doctors (), who, influenced by oriental medicine in the Jin and Yuan dynasties, played an important role in translating medical terminology at that time.
- [Gout and its manifestations, description and treatment in ancient times]. [Historical Article]
- CLCas Lek Cesk 2015; 154(4):194-5
- Gout is a very old disease, which exists for thousands of years. The first descriptions interpreted as the symptoms of gout can be found already in the Egyptian medical papyri dating to the 3rd mill....
Gout is a very old disease, which exists for thousands of years. The first descriptions interpreted as the symptoms of gout can be found already in the Egyptian medical papyri dating to the 3rd mill. BC. In the Ancient world, many physicians dealt with the causes, diagnostics and the treatments of gout, such as Hippocrates of Cos, Diocles of Carystus or Claudios Galenos. A personified gout (as the goddess Podagra) is also to be found in the Ancient mythology and culture. Several human remnants of the people suffering from gout are preserved from the Antiquity as well.
- Podagra. [Journal Article]
- IDIndian Dermatol Online J 2014; 5(Suppl 2):S134-5
- Veterans Affairs databases are accurate for gout-related health care utilization: a validation study. [Journal Article]
- ARArthritis Res Ther 2013; 15(6):R224
- CONCLUSIONS: VA databases are accurate for gout-related visits. These findings support their use for studies of health services and outcome studies. It remains to be seen if these findings are generalizable to other settings and databases.
- De Lapidibus podagra et chiragra in humano corpore productis (Rome, 1699): the contribution of Giovanni Battista Contoli to the description and classification of urinary tract stones. [Journal Article]
- JNJ Nephrol 2013 Dec 23; 26(Suppl. 22):136-138
- Perceptions of gout (podagra) during the Byzantine era, with a special focus on a poem by Michael Psellus. [Journal Article]
- JNJ Nephrol 2013 Dec 23; 26(Suppl. 22):110-112
- Gouty tophi on the ear: a review. [Review]
- CCutis 2013; 92(4):190-2
- Although the classic location of gouty tophi is the great toe (podagra), gouty tophi of the ear also is common and is worth including in the differential diagnosis in patients presenting with ear les...
Although the classic location of gouty tophi is the great toe (podagra), gouty tophi of the ear also is common and is worth including in the differential diagnosis in patients presenting with ear lesions. Other entities presenting as papules or nodules on the ear include chondrodermatitis nodularis helicis (CNH), actinic keratosis, basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, verruca vulgaris, amyloids, rheumatoid nodules, and elastotic nodules. If tophaceous gout is suspected, alcohol fixation of the biopsy specimen is preferable, as it enables visualization of characteristic needle-shaped urate crystals.
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- [Foot lesions]. [Review]
- IInternist (Berl) 2013; 54(11):1330-6
- The foot is the target organ of a variety of internal diseases. Of upmost importance is the diabetic foot syndrome (DFS). Its complex pathophysiology is driven by the diabetic neuropathy, a vastly wo...
The foot is the target organ of a variety of internal diseases. Of upmost importance is the diabetic foot syndrome (DFS). Its complex pathophysiology is driven by the diabetic neuropathy, a vastly worsening effect is contributed by infection and ischemia. Seemingly localised lesions have the potential for phlegmone and septicaemia if not diagnosed and drained early. The acral lesions of peripheral artery occlusive disease (PAOD) have unique features as well. However, their life-threatening potential is lower than that of DFS even if the limb is critical. Notably, isolated foot lesions with a mere venous cause may arise from insufficient perforator veins; the accompanying areas of haemosiderosis will lead the diagnostic path. Cholesterol embolization (blue toe syndrome, trash foot) elicits a unique clinical picture and will become more frequent with increasing numbers of catheter-based procedures. Finally, descriptions are given of podagra and of foot mycosis as disease entities not linked to perfusion. The present review focuses on the depiction of disease and its diagnosis, leaving therapeutic considerations untouched.