- Endothelial maintenance in health and disease: importance of sex differences. [Review]
- PRPharmacol Res 2017 Jan 17
- The vascular endothelium has emerged as more than just an inert monolayer of cells lining the vascular bed. It represents the interface between the blood stream and vessel wall, and has a strategic r...
The vascular endothelium has emerged as more than just an inert monolayer of cells lining the vascular bed. It represents the interface between the blood stream and vessel wall, and has a strategic role in regulating vascular homeostasis by the release of vasoactive substances. Endothelial dysfunction contributes to the development and progression of cardiovascular disease. Recognition of sex-specific factors implicated in endothelial cell biology is important for the identification of clinically relevant preventive and/or therapeutic strategies. This review aims to give an overview of the recent advances in understanding the importance of sex specific observations in endothelial maintenance, both in healthy and diseased conditions. The female endothelium is highlighted in the context of polycystic ovary syndrome and pre-eclampsia. Furthermore, sex differences are explored in chronic kidney disease, which is currently appreciated as one of public health priorities. Overall, this review endorses integration of sex analysis in experimental and patient-oriented research in the exciting field of vascular biology.
- Effect of vitamin D supplementation on polycystic ovary syndrome: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. [Review]
- CTComplement Ther Clin Pract 2017; 26:53-60
- CONCLUSIONS: Evidence from available RCTs suggests vitamin D supplementation may be beneficial for follicular development and menstrual cycle regulation in patients with PCOS. Additional high-quality RCTs are required to confirm the effectiveness of vitamin D on PCOS.
- Racial and Ethnic Differences in the Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) Metabolic Phenotype. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Obstet Gynecol 2017 Jan 16
- CONCLUSIONS: Hispanic women with PCOS have the most severe phenotype, both in terms of hyperandrogenism and metabolic criteria. Non-Hispanic Black women have an overall milder polycystic ovarian syndrome phenotype than Hispanics and in some respects, than Non-Hispanic White women.
- Increased risk of disordered eating in polycystic ovary syndrome. [Journal Article]
- FSFertil Steril 2017 Jan 16
- CONCLUSIONS: Women with PCOS, especially those with concurrent anxiety symptoms but independent of obesity, have a significantly increased risk of abnormal EDE-Q scores. Our findings suggest the need for routine screening for ED in this population.
- Shedding new light on female fertility: The role of vitamin D. [Review]
- RERev Endocr Metab Disord 2017 Jan 19
- In the last decades several studies suggested that vitamin D is involved in the modulation of the reproductive process in women due to the expression of VDR and 1α-hydroxylase in reproductive tissues...
In the last decades several studies suggested that vitamin D is involved in the modulation of the reproductive process in women due to the expression of VDR and 1α-hydroxylase in reproductive tissues such as ovary, uterus, placenta, pituitary and hypothalamus. Vitamin D has also a role in the regulation of sex hormone steroidogenesis. Increasing evidence suggests that vitamin D might have a regulatory role in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)-associated symptoms, including ovulatory dysfunction, insulin resistance and hyperandrogenism. Vitamin D deficiency also has been reported to contribute to the pathogenesis of endometriosis due to its immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties. Although most of the studies supported a role of vitamin D in the onset of these diseases, randomized controlled trials to assess the efficacy of vitamin D supplementation have never been performed. In this review we critically discuss the role of vitamin D in female fertility, starting from in vitro and in vivo studies, focusing our attention on the two most frequent causes of female infertility: PCOS and endometriosis.
- Assessment of the body composition of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Gynaecol Obstet 2016 Nov 21
- CONCLUSIONS: The present study demonstrated increased truncal and leg fat among women with PCOS. The study did not detect any difference in insulin parameters but larger studies could be more suitably powered to investigate this. CLINICALTRIALS.GOV: NCT02467751.
- Hyperandrogenemia in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: prevalence, characteristics and association with body mass index. [Journal Article]
- HMHorm Mol Biol Clin Investig 2017 Jan 18
- CONCLUSIONS: This study showed high prevalence of hyperandrogenemia in PCOS women. Women with BMI≤25 kg/m2 have significant differences in androgens, WBC, neutrophils and HOMA-IR and women with BMI≥25 kg/m2 in androgens, TSH and cortisol according to the presence or not of hyperandrogenemia.
- Nutrients as novel therapeutic approaches for metabolic disturbances in polycystic ovary syndrome. [Review]
- EJEXCLI J 2016; 15:551-564
- Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine disorders among women. This disease is characterized by infertility, menstrual dysfunction, and hyperandrogenism. Also, PCOS is of...
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine disorders among women. This disease is characterized by infertility, menstrual dysfunction, and hyperandrogenism. Also, PCOS is often associated with hyperlipidemia and impaired glucose tolerance, conditions that are associated with cardiovascular disorder, type 2 diabetes, cancer and hypertension. Evidence supports that some nutrients may affect the hormonal and metabolic disturbances of PCOS. Here in this study, we aimed to review the available literature that assessed the nutrients such as inostol, isoflavonids, resveratrol, vitamin D, and PUFA (polyunsaturated fatty acids), known to influence the hormonal and metabolic disturbances of PCOS, along with the strategies and future directions of nutrient supplementations in such patients.
- Obese adolescents with polycystic ovarian syndrome have elevated cardiovascular disease risk markers. [Journal Article]
- VMVasc Med 2017 Jan 01; :1358863X16682107
- Women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) have evidence of subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, insulin resistance, an important factor in the development of CVD in adults, is commo...
Women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) have evidence of subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, insulin resistance, an important factor in the development of CVD in adults, is common in adolescents with PCOS, yet data in adolescents are limited. Therefore, we sought to measure insulin resistance and CVD markers in obese youth with and without PCOS. Thirty-six PCOS and 17 non-PCOS adolescent girls who were obese, sedentary, and non-hypertensive were recruited from clinics located within the Children's Hospital Colorado. Following 3 days of controlled diet and restricted exercise, fasting plasma samples were obtained prior to a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp. PCOS girls were more insulin resistant than controls (glucose infusion rate 5.24±1.86 mg/kg/min vs 9.10±2.69; p<0.001). Girls with PCOS had blood pressure in the normal range, but had greater carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) (0.49±0.07 mm vs 0.44±0.06; p=0.038), beta stiffness index (5.1±1.3 U vs 4.4±0.9; p=0.037), and reduced arterial compliance (1.95±0.47 mm(2)/mmHg × 10(-1) vs 2.13±0.43; p=0.047). PCOS girls had a normal mean lipid profile, yet had a more atherogenic lipoprotein cholesterol distribution and had persistent elevations of free fatty acids despite hyperinsulinemia (68±28 μmol/mL vs 41±10; p=0.001), both potential contributors to CVD. Free fatty acid concentrations correlated best with all CVD markers. In summary, adolescent girls with PCOS have greater cIMT and stiffer arteries than girls without PCOS, perhaps related to altered lipid metabolism, even when clinical measures of blood pressure and cholesterol profiles are 'normal'. Therefore, management of adolescent PCOS should include assessment of CVD risk factor development.
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- Diagnostic and management challenges from childhood, puberty through to transition in severe insulin resistance due to insulin receptor mutations. [Case Reports]
- PDPediatr Diabetes 2017 Jan 17
- Two Caucasian girls, both of normal weight and body mass indices, were diagnosed with type A insulin resistance (IR) in childhood. Case 1 presented with premature adrenarche aged 7 years, then by age...
Two Caucasian girls, both of normal weight and body mass indices, were diagnosed with type A insulin resistance (IR) in childhood. Case 1 presented with premature adrenarche aged 7 years, then by age 12 years had hirsutism, acne, acanthosis nigricans, and asymptomatic diabetes. Subsequent investigation revealed raised adiponectin (15.3 mg/L) and heterozygous p.Pro1205Leu mutation in the INSR gene encoding the insulin receptor. She experienced postprandial hypoglycaemia on metformin; acarbose was trialled and discontinued aged 16 years, as she became normoglycaemic. Hirsutism was treated with topical eflornithine, oral spironolactone and flutamide, and laser therapy. Unfortunately, diabetes reemerged in young adulthood with obesity. Case 2: during an emergency admission for acute abdominal pain aged 11 years, hyperglycaemia was noted which led to further investigation. An oral glucose tolerance test showed diabetes and ultrasound showed polycystic ovaries. Further investigations revealed raised adiponectin (18 mg/L) and compound heterozygous mutations in the INSR gene: p.Pro1263Ala and p.Ser748Leu (latter probable normal variant). She was treated with metformin and experienced postprandial hypoglycaemia. Symptoms of hyperandrogenism were controlled by flutamide. She maintained a healthy weight and reassessment at young adulthood showed resolution of diabetes. Type A IR may present in childhood with overlapping features of common endocrine entities such as premature adrenarche and polycystic ovarian syndrome. Patients with abnormal glucose tolerance yet normal weight merit screening with adiponectin; raised adiponectin levels prompt insulin receptor mutational analysis. Postprandial hypoglycaemia is characteristic. Management includes optimization of glycaemic control with oral hypoglycaemic agents and maintenance of healthy weight, and controlling the effects of hyperandrogenism.