- The use of cyproterone acetate/ethinyl estradiol in hyperandrogenic skin symptoms - a review. [Journal Article]
- EJEur J Contracept Reprod Health Care 2017 Apr 27; :1-10
- CONCLUSIONS: This review provides a comprehensive overview about the efficacy of CPA 2 mg/EE 35 μg in the treatment of hyperandrogenic skin symptoms, thus allowing both health care professionals and women to balance the risks and benefits of treatment based on evidence.
- Mice endometrium receptivity in early pregnancy is impaired by maternal hyperinsulinemia. [Journal Article]
- MMMol Med Rep 2017 Mar 14
- Previous studies have investigated the lower embryo implantation rates in women with polycystic ovary syndrome, obesity and type 2 diabetes, and specifically the association between the abnormal oocy...
Previous studies have investigated the lower embryo implantation rates in women with polycystic ovary syndrome, obesity and type 2 diabetes, and specifically the association between the abnormal oocyte and embryo and hyperinsulinemia. The importance of hyperinsulinemia on maternal endometrium receptivity remains to be elucidated. The present study used a hyperinsulinemic mouse model to determine whether hyperinsulinemia may affect endometrial receptivity. An insulin intervention mouse model was first established. The serum levels of insulin, progesterone and estradiol were subsequently detected by ELISA assay analysis. The number of implantation sites was recorded using Trypan blue dye and the morphology of mice uteri was investigated using hematoxylin and eosin staining. The expression levels of molecular markers associated with endometrial receptivity were detected by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction, western blotting and immunohistochemistry analyses. Finally, the importance of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) expression following insulin treatment was determined. Mice treated with insulin developed insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia. The number of implantation sites following insulin treatment did not differ between the control and insulin‑treated groups. Additionally, no significant morphological alterations in mice uteri between control and insulin‑treated groups were observed. However, the expression levels of estrogen receptor (Esr) 1, Esr2, progesterone receptor and homeobox A10 associated with endometrial receptivity, were imbalanced during endometrium receptivity when maternal hyperinsulinemia was induced. Western blot analysis revealed that expression levels of endometrial phosphorylated (p)‑mTOR and p‑ribosomal protein S6 kinase β‑1 were significantly greater in the insulin‑treated group. These results demonstrated that although an embryo may implant into endometrium, mice endometrium receptivity in early pregnancy may be impaired by maternal hyperinsulinemia. In addition, mTOR signaling may be involved in this process. The present study provides preliminary results demonstrating that female reproduction may be compromised during hyperinsulinemia, which requires further investigation in future studies.
- Correction: Should All Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Be Screened for Metabolic Parameters?: A Hospital-Based Observational Study. [Published Erratum]
- PlosPLoS One 2017; 12(4):e0176806
- [This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0167036.].
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0167036.].
- Current Dilemmas in Defining the Boundaries of Disease. [Journal Article]
- JMJ Med Philos 2017 Apr 21
- Boorse's biostatistical theory states that diseases should be defined in ways that reflect disturbances of biological function and that are objective and value free. We use three examples from contem...
Boorse's biostatistical theory states that diseases should be defined in ways that reflect disturbances of biological function and that are objective and value free. We use three examples from contemporary medicine that demonstrate the complex issues that arise when defining the boundaries of disease: polycystic ovary syndrome, chronic kidney disease, and myocardial infarction. We argue that the biostatistical theory fails to provide sufficient guidance on where the boundaries of disease should be drawn, contains ambiguities relating to choice of reference class, and is out of step with medical processes for identifying disease boundaries. Although proponents of the biostatistical theory might regard these practical issues as irrelevant to the aim of providing a theoretical account of disease, we take them to indicate the need for a theoretical account that is adequate for current needs-including limiting new forms of medicalization that are driven by the identification of disease based on dysfunction. Our processes for determining the boundaries for disease need to recognize that there is no value-free method for making these decisions.
- Epidemiology of ovarian cancer: a review. [Journal Article]
- CBCancer Biol Med 2017; 14(1):9-32
- Ovarian cancer (OC) is the seventh most commonly diagnosed cancer among women in the world and the tenth most common in China. Epithelial OC is the most predominant pathologic subtype, with five majo...
Ovarian cancer (OC) is the seventh most commonly diagnosed cancer among women in the world and the tenth most common in China. Epithelial OC is the most predominant pathologic subtype, with five major histotypes that differ in origination, pathogenesis, molecular alterations, risk factors, and prognosis. Genetic susceptibility is manifested by rare inherited mutations with high to moderate penetrance. Genome-wide association studies have additionally identified 29 common susceptibility alleles for OC, including 14 subtype-specific alleles. Several reproductive and hormonal factors may lower risk, including parity, oral contraceptive use, and lactation, while others such as older age at menopause and hormone replacement therapy confer increased risks. These associations differ by histotype, especially for mucinous OC, likely reflecting differences in etiology. Endometrioid and clear cell OC share a similar, unique pattern of associations with increased risks among women with endometriosis and decreased risks associated with tubal ligation. OC risks associated with other gynecological conditions and procedures, such as hysterectomy, pelvic inflammatory disease, and polycystic ovarian syndrome, are less clear. Other possible risk factors include environmental and lifestyle factors such as asbestos and talc powder exposures, and cigarette smoking. The epidemiology provides clues on etiology, primary prevention, early detection, and possibly even therapeutic strategies.
- Intracytoplasmic oxidative stress reverses epigenetic modifications in polycystic ovary syndrome. [Journal Article]
- RFReprod Fertil Dev 2017 Apr 26
- In polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), substantial genetic and environmental alterations, along with hyperandrogenism, affect the quality of oocytes and decrease ovulation rates. To determine the mecha...
In polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), substantial genetic and environmental alterations, along with hyperandrogenism, affect the quality of oocytes and decrease ovulation rates. To determine the mechanisms underlying these alterations caused specifically by an increase in plasma androgens, the present study was performed in experimentally-induced PCOS mice. As the study model, female B6D2F1 mice were treated with dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA, 6mg per 100g bodyweight). After 20 days, oocytes at the germinal vesicle and metaphase II stages were retrieved from isolated ovaries and subsequent analyses of oocyte quality were performed for each mouse. DHEA treatment resulted in excessive abnormal morphology and decreased polar body extrusion rates in oocytes, and was associated with an increase in oxidative stress. Analysis of fluorescence intensity revealed a significant reduction of DNA methylation and dimethylation of histone H3 at lysine 9 (H3K9) in DHEA-treated oocytes, which was associated with increased acetylation of H4K12. Similarly, mRNA expression of DNA methyltransferase-1 and histone deacetylase-1 was significantly decreased in DHEA-treated mice. There was a significant correlation between excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and increased histone acetylation, which is a novel finding and may provide new insights into the mechanism causing PCOS. The results of the present study indicate that epigenetic modifications of oocytes possibly affect the quality of maturation and ovulation rates in PCOS, and that the likely mechanism may be augmentation of intracytoplasmic ROS.
- [Analysis of funding of projects on obstetrics and gynecology supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China from 2007 to 2016]. [Journal Article]
- ZFZhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi 2017 Apr 25; 52(4):254-260
- CONCLUSIONS: The number of researches invested will be increased for the scientific research in obstetrics and gynecology especially the areas of research focus, although the amount allocated for each will be decreased relatively. Besides, multidisciplinary work will be performed so as to develop obstetrics and gynecology of China to a high level.
- High Prevalence of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Adolescents: Is There a Difference Depending on the NIH and Rotterdam Criteria? [Journal Article]
- HRHorm Res Paediatr 2017 Apr 24; 87(5):333-341
- CONCLUSIONS: Adolescents with T1DM had a high prevalence of PCOS. More differences between PCOS and non-PCOS patients were found using the NIH criteria, suggesting that clinical characteristics might be more accurate for diagnosing PCOS in girls with T1DM. A family history of T2DM is associated with a high risk of PCOS.
- AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGISTS AND AMERICAN COLLEGE OF ENDOCRINOLOGY GUIDELINES FOR MANAGEMENT OF DYSLIPIDEMIA AND PREVENTION OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE. [Journal Article]
- EPEndocr Pract 2017; 23(Suppl 2):1-87
- CONCLUSIONS: This CPG is a practical tool that endocrinologists, other health care professionals, health-related organizations, and regulatory bodies can use to reduce the risks and consequences of dyslipidemia. It provides guidance on screening, risk assessment, and treatment recommendations for a range of individuals with various lipid disorders. The recommendations emphasize the importance of treating low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in some individuals to lower goals than previously endorsed and support the measurement of coronary artery calcium scores and inflammatory markers to help stratify risk. Special consideration is given to individuals with diabetes, familial hypercholesterolemia, women, and youth with dyslipidemia. Both clinical and cost-effectiveness data are provided to support treatment decisions.
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- Myoinositol combined with alpha-lipoic acid may improve the clinical and endocrine features of polycystic ovary syndrome through an insulin-independent action. [Journal Article]
- GEGynecol Endocrinol 2017 Apr 23; :1-4
- The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of a combined treatment with alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) and myoinositol (MYO) on clinical, endocrine and metabolic features of women affected by polyc...
The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of a combined treatment with alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) and myoinositol (MYO) on clinical, endocrine and metabolic features of women affected by polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). In this pilot cohort study, forty women with PCOS were enrolled and clinical, hormonal and metabolic parameters were evaluated before and after a six-months combined treatment with ALA and MYO daily. Studied patients experienced a significant increase in the number of cycles in six months (p < 0.01). The free androgen index (FAI), the mean androstenedione and DHEAS levels significantly decreased after treatment (p < 0.05). Mean SHBG levels significantly raised (p < 0.01). A significant improvement in mean Ferriman-Gallwey (F-G) score (p < 0.01) and a significant reduction of BMI (p < 0.01) were also observed. A significant reduction of AMH levels, ovarian volume and total antral follicular count were observed in our studied women (p< 0.05). No significant changes occurred in gluco-insulinaemic and lipid parameters after treatment. The combined treatment of ALA and MYO is able to restore the menstrual pattern and to improve the hormonal milieu of PCOS women, even in the absence of apparent changes in insulin metabolism.