- Food restriction promotes damage reduction in rat models of type 2 diabetes mellitus. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2018; 13(6):e0199479
- There are several animal models of type 2 diabetes mellitus induction but the comparison between models is scarce. Food restriction generates benefits, such as reducing oxidative stress, but there ar...
There are several animal models of type 2 diabetes mellitus induction but the comparison between models is scarce. Food restriction generates benefits, such as reducing oxidative stress, but there are few studies on its effects on diabetes. The objective of this study is to evaluate the differences in physiological and biochemical parameters between diabetes models and their responses to food restriction. For this, 30 male Wistar rats were distributed in 3 groups (n = 10/group): control (C); diabetes with streptozotocin and cafeteria-style diet (DE); and diabetes with streptozotocin and nicotinamide (DN), all treated for two months (pre-food restriction period). Then, the 3 groups were subdivided into 6, generating the groups CC (control), CCR (control+food restriction), DEC (diabetic+standard diet), DER (diabetic+food restriction), DNC (diabetic+standard diet) and DNR (diabetic+food restriction), treated for an additional two months (food restriction period). The food restriction (FR) used was 50% of the average daily dietary intake of group C. Throughout the treatment, physiological and biochemical parameters were evaluated. At the end of the treatment, serum biochemical parameters, oxidative stress and insulin were evaluated. Both diabetic models produced hyperglycemia, polyphagia, polydipsia, insulin resistance, high fructosamine, hepatic damage and reduced insulin, although only DE presented human diabetes-like alterations, such as dyslipidemia and neuropathy symptoms. Both DEC and DNC diabetic groups presented higher levels of protein carbonyl groups associated to lower antioxidant capacity in the plasma. FR promoted improvement of glycemia in DNR, lipid profile in DER, and insulin resistance and hepatic damage in both diabetes models. FR also reduced the protein carbonyl groups of both DER and DNR diabetic groups, but the antioxidant capacity was improved only in the plasma of DER group. It is concluded that FR is beneficial for diabetes but should be used in conjunction with other therapies.
- Cavernous sinus syndrome in dogs and cats: case series (2002-2015). [Journal Article]
- OVOpen Vet J 2018; 8(2):186-192
- The cavernous sinus (CS) is a paired venous sinus that runs along either side of the pituitary gland on the floor of the calvarium. Cavernous sinus syndrome (CSS) refers to deficits in more than one ...
The cavernous sinus (CS) is a paired venous sinus that runs along either side of the pituitary gland on the floor of the calvarium. Cavernous sinus syndrome (CSS) refers to deficits in more than one of the cranial nerves III, IV, V, and VI, as they are in close association in this region. The purpose of this study was to identify the presenting complaints, neurologic findings, diagnosis, and outcomes in dogs and cats with confirmed cavernous sinus syndrome (CSS). Medical records between 2002 and 2015 were reviewed. Inclusion criteria were neurologic signs consistent with CSS and advanced imaging and/or post-mortem examination. Thirteen dogs and 2 cats were included. Twelve dogs received advanced imaging. Post-mortem examination was performed on 2 cats and 3 dogs. Dogs were 6 -13 years (mean= 10.8 years) of age and comprised of several different breeds. Both cats were male neutered domestic shorthair, ages 3 and 14 years. Presenting complaints included mydriasis (N=4), behavior changes (N=3), hyporexia (N=3), ptosis (N=2), ataxia (N=2), pain (N=2), weakness (N=2), lethargy (N=2), and one each of epiphora, ocular swelling, polydipsia, seizures, facial muscle atrophy, dysphagia, and head tilt. Neurologic signs included ophthalmoparesis/plegia (N=13), reduced/absent pupillary light response (N= 11), mydriasis (N= 10), reduced/absent corneal sensation (N= 7), ptosis (N= 6), reduced facial sensation (N= 2), and enophthalmos (N=1). Thirteen patients had a mass lesion within the cavernous sinus, 6 of which were confirmed neoplastic via histopathology. Median survival time for the 4 patients treated with radiation therapy was 1035 days (range 150-2280). Median survival for the 4 patients that received medical treatment was 360 days (range 7-1260 days), and for the 5 non-treated patients 14 days (range 0-90 days). In conclusion mydriasis and ophthalmoplegia are common signs of CSS. A mass lesion within the CS is the most common cause. Survival time may be improved with radiation therapy.
- Diabetes Mellitus With Concurrent Cerebellar Degeneration and Necrosis in a Domestic Goose (Anser anser domesticus). [Journal Article]
- JAJ Avian Med Surg 2018; 32(2):122-127
- A 5-year-old sexually intact male Toulouse goose (Anser anser domesticus) was presented for ataxia, polyuria, and polydipsia. The goose was cachectic and exhibited head tremors. Results of plasma bio...
A 5-year-old sexually intact male Toulouse goose (Anser anser domesticus) was presented for ataxia, polyuria, and polydipsia. The goose was cachectic and exhibited head tremors. Results of plasma biochemical analysis and point-of-care glucometry revealed persistent hyperglycemia. Despite supportive care and oral glipizide, the goose died within 48 hours of presentation. Necropsy revealed severe pancreatic atrophy and fibrosis with regionally extensive cerebellar encephalomalacia and generalized Purkinje cell degeneration and necrosis. On a wet basis, hepatic zinc concentration was determined to be twice the reference interval by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Based on these findings, the pancreatic insufficiency with secondary diabetes mellitus was attributed to chronic zinc toxicosis. Despite birds' relative resistance to high blood glucose concentrations, prolonged hyperglycemia is suspected to have caused selective Purkinje cell degeneration and necrosis by glial activation, mitochondrial dysfunction, and glutamate toxicity, which resulted in the clinically observed motor deficits. This is consistent with experimental diabetic rat models. This case highlights the need for further investigation of the complex pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus in birds.
- Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus in initial stage of acute lymphoblastic leukemia and relapse after haploidentical hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation: A case report. [Journal Article]
- MMedicine (Baltimore) 2018; 97(24):e11157
- CONCLUSIONS: This case demonstrates unusual early renal involvement in ALL presenting with initial NDI. Interestingly, the NDI returned with the relapse of renal infiltration 1 year after haplo-SCT. This case suggests that NDI was probably secondary to renal leukemic infiltration.
- Excessive habit formation in schedule-induced polydipsia: microstructural analysis of licking among rat strains and involvement of the orbitofrontal cortex. [Journal Article]
- GBGenes Brain Behav 2018 Jun 07; :e12489
- Schedule-induced polydipsia (SIP) is an animal model of compulsive drinking that selects for individual differences and varies across rat strains. The aim of this study was to investigate excessive h...
Schedule-induced polydipsia (SIP) is an animal model of compulsive drinking that selects for individual differences and varies across rat strains. The aim of this study was to investigate excessive habit formation by analyzing the SIP licking microstructure among rat strains, and to compare the brain areas activated by SIP in different populations. Wistar, Long Evans, and Roman High- and Low-Avoidance rat strains were compared using a cluster analysis of two main variables, i.e., frequency of licking (percentage of inter-pellet intervals with drinking episodes) and intensity of licking (mean number of licks per inter-pellet interval), and were found to exhibit high intensity and frequent licking (Compulsive Drinkers; CD), low intensity but frequent licking (Habitual Drinkers; HD), and low intensity and low frequency licking (Low Drinkers; LD). The Wistar strain showed a higher frequency and intensity of licking, and had the largest group of CD rats when compared to the other strains. Regarding the acquisition of SIP, CD rats showed a higher intensity of licking when compared to the HD and LD rats. Moreover, c-Fos quantification revealed that rats in the CD group showed hyperactivity in the lateral orbitofrontal cortex and basolateral amygdala when compared to the LD group. Analyzing the SIP microstructure could be a valuable tool for understanding the role of excessive habit formation in the development of compulsive drinking and its underpinning neurobiological mechanisms.
- Antidiabetic Activity and Chemical Composition of Sanbai Melon Seed Oil. [Journal Article]
- EBEvid Based Complement Alternat Med 2018; 2018:5434156
- CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that SMSO had excellent antidiabetes effect and provided scientific basis for the use of SMSO as the functional ingredients production and dietary supplements production in the food and pharmaceutical industries.
- [Bartter syndrome, severe rare orphan kidney disease: a step towards therapy through pharmacogenetic and epidemiological studies]. [Editorial]
- GIG Ital Nefrol 2018; 35(3)
- Bartter syndromes (BS) types 1-5 are rare salt-losing tubulopathies presenting with overlapping clinical phenotypes including marked salt wasting and hypokalemia leading to polyuria, polydipsia, volu...
Bartter syndromes (BS) types 1-5 are rare salt-losing tubulopathies presenting with overlapping clinical phenotypes including marked salt wasting and hypokalemia leading to polyuria, polydipsia, volume contraction, muscle weakness and growth retardation. These diseases are due to an impairment of sodium, potassium, chloride reabsorption caused by mutations in genes encoding for ion channel or transporters expressed in specific nephron tubule segments. Particularly, BS type 3 is a clinically heterogeneous form caused by mutations in CLCNKB gene which encodes the ClC-Kb chloride channel involved in NaCl reabsorption in the renal tubule. Specific therapy for BS is lacking and the only pharmacotherapy up today available is purely symptomatic and characterized by limiting side effects. The improvement of our understanding of the phenotype/genotype correlation and of the precise pathogenic mechanisms associated with BS type 3 as well as the pharmacological characterization of ClC-K chloride channels are fundamental to design therapies tailored upon patients' mutation. This mini review focused on recent studies representing relevant forward steps in the field as well as noteworthy examples of how basic and clinical research can cooperate to gain insight into the pathophysiology of this renal channelopathy, paving the way for a personalized therapy.
- Risperidone-induced type 2 diabetes presenting with diabetic ketoacidosis. [Journal Article]
- EDEndocrinol Diabetes Metab Case Rep 2018; 2018
- A 28-year-old male presented with 2 days of vomiting and abdominal pain, preceded by 2 weeks of thirst, polyuria and polydipsia. He had recently started risperidone for obsessive-compulsive disorder....
A 28-year-old male presented with 2 days of vomiting and abdominal pain, preceded by 2 weeks of thirst, polyuria and polydipsia. He had recently started risperidone for obsessive-compulsive disorder. He reported a high dietary sugar intake and had a strong family history of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). On admission, he was tachycardic, tachypnoeic and drowsy with a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) of 10/15. We noted axillary acanthosis nigricans and obesity (BMI 33.2 kg/m2). Dipstick urinalysis showed ketonuria and glycosuria. Blood results were consistent with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), with hyperosmolar state. We initiated our DKA protocol, with intravenous insulin, fluids and potassium, and we discontinued risperidone. His obesity, family history of T2DM, acanthosis nigricans and hyperosmolar state prompted consideration of T2DM presenting with 'ketosis-prone diabetes' (KPD) rather than T1DM. Antibody markers of beta-cell autoimmunity were subsequently negative. Four weeks later, he had modified his diet and lost weight, and his metabolic parameters had normalised. We reduced his total daily insulin dose from 35 to 18 units and introduced metformin. We stopped insulin completely by week 7. At 6 months, his glucometer readings and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) level had normalised.
- 18F FDG-PET/CT for the Evaluation of Primary Eosinophilic Granuloma of the Hypothalamus. [Journal Article]
- JNJ Nucl Med Technol 2018 May 03
- A 21-year-old man presented with polyuria and polydipsia and was discovered to have diabetes insipidus due to eosinophilic granuloma of the hypothalamus. 18F FDG-PET/CT for metastatic work-up reveale...
A 21-year-old man presented with polyuria and polydipsia and was discovered to have diabetes insipidus due to eosinophilic granuloma of the hypothalamus. 18F FDG-PET/CT for metastatic work-up revealed an intensely FDG avid hypothalamic mass and no other sites of disease.
New Search Next
- The characteristics of clinical changes in primary hyperparathyroidism in Chinese patients. [Journal Article]
- JBJ Bone Miner Metab 2018 May 02
- In Western countries, the presentation of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) changed from a symptomatic to an asymptomatic disease after the 1970s, whereas in China, only one study has evaluated the ...
In Western countries, the presentation of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) changed from a symptomatic to an asymptomatic disease after the 1970s, whereas in China, only one study has evaluated the changing clinical characteristics and biochemical profiles of PHPT patients. The aim of this study was to explore changes in the clinical characteristics of PHPT in Chinese patients. Overall, 140 consecutive patients with PHPT were studied between January 1, 2010 and June 30, 2016. The patients were divided into two groups: 32 consecutive patients from January 1, 2010 to March 31, 2013 were included in group 1, and 108 consecutive patients from April 1, 2013 to June 30, 2016 were included in group 2. The most frequent complaints were ostealgia (46.02%), urolithiasis (41.59%), constipation (25.66%), fatigue (18.58%), polydipsia and polyuria (15.93%) and fracture history (15.04%). The number of cases in group 2 was 3.38-fold greater than that of group 1. The parathyroid hormone (PTH) and fasting blood glucose (FPG) levels were higher in group 1 than those in group 2 (p = 0.039, p < 0.001). In 62.14% of patients with PHPT, the proportion of the first diagnosis due to hypercalcemia found using a multichannel autoanalyzer in group 1 was lower than that found in group 2 (p = 0.039), and the proportion of the first diagnosis due to parathyroid lesions captured using routine neck ultrasonography in group 1 was higher than in group 2 (p = 0.003). The proportion of parathyroid carcinoma cases was higher in group 1 than group 2 (p = 0.036). Cases of PHPT increased with time, but the proportion of parathyroid carcinoma cases was lower in group 1 than that in group 2. Over time, the first diagnosis switched from parathyroid lesions captured by routine neck ultrasound to hypercalcemia found by a multichannel autoanalyser. At our centre, PHPT in Chinese patients still demonstrates classic characteristics.