- Antidiabetic Activity of Afobazole in Wistar Rats. [Journal Article]
- BEBull Exp Biol Med 2018 Sep 17
- Using the streptozotocin model of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Wistar rats, we compared antidiabetic activity of anxiolytic Afobazole with that of metformin. Afobazole in a dose of 10 mg/kg reduced st...
Using the streptozotocin model of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Wistar rats, we compared antidiabetic activity of anxiolytic Afobazole with that of metformin. Afobazole in a dose of 10 mg/kg reduced streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemia and polyphagia and prevented accumulation of malonic dialdehyde, being not inferior to metformin in a dose of 300 mg/kg, and was even more effective than metformin in body weight recovery, elimination of polydipsia, and preservation of these effects after treatment withdrawal.
- A 27-Month-Old Boy with Polyuria and Polydipsia. [Journal Article]
- CRCase Rep Pediatr 2018; 2018:4281217
- Psychogenic polydipsia is a well-described phenomenon in those with a diagnosed psychiatric disorder such as schizophrenia and anxiety disorders. Primary polydipsia is differentiated from psychogenic...
Psychogenic polydipsia is a well-described phenomenon in those with a diagnosed psychiatric disorder such as schizophrenia and anxiety disorders. Primary polydipsia is differentiated from psychogenic polydipsia by the lack of a clear psychotic disturbance. We present a case of a 27-month-old boy who presented with polyuria and polydipsia. Laboratory studies, imaging, and an observed water deprivation test were consistent with primary polydipsia. Polydipsia resolved after family limited his fluid intake and began replacing water drinking with other transition objects and behaviors for self-soothing. This case highlights the importance of water deprivation testing to differentiate between causes of polyuria, thereby avoiding misdiagnosis and iatrogenic hyponatremia. Secondly, primary polydipsia can result during the normal stages of child development without overt psychiatric disturbances.
- High fractional potassium excretion in symptomatic hyponatremia. [Letter]
- EJEur J Intern Med 2018 Sep 08
- Reduced cortical serotonin 5-HT2A receptor binding and glutamate activity in high compulsive drinker rats. [Journal Article]
- NNeuropharmacology 2018 Sep 07
- Serotonin2A receptors and glutamate signaling have been implicated in the pathophysiology and treatment of compulsive spectrum disorders. Schedule-Induced Polydipsia (SIP), characterized by excessive...
Serotonin2A receptors and glutamate signaling have been implicated in the pathophysiology and treatment of compulsive spectrum disorders. Schedule-Induced Polydipsia (SIP), characterized by excessive drinking under intermittent food reinforcement schedules, is a valid model for studying the compulsive phenotype in rats. We explored the expression, function, and neurochemistry of 5-HT2A receptors in the frontal cortex (FC) of rats with individual differences to compulsivity. Rats were selected for high (HD) versus low (LD) drinking on SIP. First, we measured 5-HT2A, 5-HT1A, and mGlu2/3 receptors and serotonin transporter binding in different brain regions. Second, we assessed the effect of microinfusion into the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of the 5-HT2A/C receptor agonist DOI, the mGlu2/3 agonist LY379268, and the combination of DOI with the 5-HT2A receptor antagonist M100907 and the 5-HT2C receptor antagonist SB242084. Finally, we measured the serotonin and glutamate efflux in mPFC in basal condition and after DOI local application. The compulsive HD rats showed a specific reduction of 5-HT2A receptor binding in FC compared to LD rats. The highest dose of DOI reduced compulsive drinking in HD rats on SIP, whereas LY379268 did not induce any significant effect. The 5-HT2A receptor antagonist M100907 reversed the DOI induced reduction on compulsive drinking in HD rats while blocking the 5-HT2C receptor did not affect SIP. Compulsive HD rats showed increased serotonin and decreased glutamate efflux in basal conditions that were modified by the DOI application. These findings indicate that reduced 5-HT2A receptor binding and glutamate neurochemical mechanisms may underlie compulsive behavior vulnerability.
- A causality dilemma: ARFID, malnutrition, psychosis, and hypomagnesemia. [Case Reports]
- IJInt J Eat Disord 2018 Sep 07
- We present a novel case of a woman with coincident occurrence of auditory and visual hallucinations, electrolyte disturbances, chloride unresponsive alkalosis, and an eating disorder. The patient was...
We present a novel case of a woman with coincident occurrence of auditory and visual hallucinations, electrolyte disturbances, chloride unresponsive alkalosis, and an eating disorder. The patient was ultimately diagnosed with Gitelman syndrome comorbid with schizophreniform disorder and avoidant restrictive food intake disorder. Eating disorders are often associated with electrolyte abnormalities which, in turn, can cause or contribute to other neuropsychiatric symptoms. At the same time, psychotic disorders can lead to food intake aversions or overconsumption of fluids with associated effects on electrolyte balance. In this case, a third factor, Gitelman syndrome, resulted in persistent hypomagnesemia with metabolic alkalosis and, while separate from her eating disorder, simultaneously reinforced the patient's strong food preferences, excessive fluid intake, and excessive movement related to her complaints of persistent joint pain.
- Non-functional duodenal neuroendocrine carcinoma: a rare cause of diabetes mellitus. [Journal Article]
- EDEndocrinol Diabetes Metab Case Rep 2018; 2018
- A 40-year-old Caucasian female presented with hyperglycaemia, polyuria, polydipsia and weight loss of 6 kg over a 1-month period. There was no personal or family history of malignancy or diabetes mel...
A 40-year-old Caucasian female presented with hyperglycaemia, polyuria, polydipsia and weight loss of 6 kg over a 1-month period. There was no personal or family history of malignancy or diabetes mellitus. On examination, she was jaundiced with pale mucous membranes and capillary glucose was 23.1 mmol/L. Initial investigations showed iron deficiency anaemia and obstructive pattern of liver function tests. HbA1c was diagnostic of diabetes mellitus at 79 mmol/mol. Malignancy was suspected and CT chest, abdomen and pelvis showed significant dilatation of intra- and extra-hepatic biliary tree including pancreatic duct, with periampullary 30 mm mass lesion projecting into lumen of duodenum. Enlarged nodes were seen around the superior mesenteric artery. This was confirmed on MRI liver. Fasting gut hormones were normal except for a mildly elevated somatostatin level. Chromogranin A was elevated at 78 pmol/L with normal chromogranin B. Duodenoscopy and biopsy showed possible tubovillous adenoma with low-grade dysplasia, but subsequent endoscopic ultrasound and biopsy revealed a grade 1, well differentiated neuroendocrine tumour. The patient was started on insulin, transfused to Hb >8 g/dL and Whipple's pancreatico-duodenectomy was undertaken. This showed a well-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma arising in duodenum (Grade G1 with Ki67: 0.5%), with areas of chronic pancreatitis and preservation of pancreatic islet cells. There was complete resolution of diabetes post Whipple's procedure and patient was able to come of insulin treatment. Her last HBA1C was 31 mmol/mol, 4 months post tumour resection.
- Diabetes Mellitus: a risk factor for drug toxicity. [Journal Article]
- RERev Esc Enferm USP 2018 Aug 23; 52:e03347
- CONCLUSIONS: The existence of Diabetes Mellitus resulted in an elevation of gentamicin nephrotoxicity, thus confirming the risk factor for drug nephrotoxicity.
- Distal renal tubular acidosis in sickle cell anemia. [Case Reports]
- SJSaudi J Kidney Dis Transpl 2018 Jul-Aug; 29(4):1000-1004
- We report a rare case of two young male siblings with sickle cell anemia who presented with bilateral lower limb deformities, failure to thrive, polyuria, and polydipsia. On investigations, they were...
We report a rare case of two young male siblings with sickle cell anemia who presented with bilateral lower limb deformities, failure to thrive, polyuria, and polydipsia. On investigations, they were found to have normal anion gap metabolic acidosis, hypokalemia, and nephrocalcinosis were seen on ultrasonography of the kidneys. These reports were suggestive of distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). They were started on oral alkali replacement and potassium therapy with which clinical improvement was seen. Conventionally, renal tubular dysfunction is thought to occur infrequently in patients with sickle cell anemia. Hence, we report this rare association between sickle cell anemia and dRTA.
- [Nephroblastoma in a 2-year-old female dog]. [Journal Article]
- TPTierarztl Prax Ausg K Kleintiere Heimtiere 2018; 46(4):265-270
- An intact female 2-year-old boxer presented with polydipsia, polyuria, and decreased feed intake. Palpation of the abdomen was painful. Sonography revealed an abdominal mass of the left kidney causin...
An intact female 2-year-old boxer presented with polydipsia, polyuria, and decreased feed intake. Palpation of the abdomen was painful. Sonography revealed an abdominal mass of the left kidney causing displacement of the organs located in the cranial and mid-abdomen. Dimen sion and invasiveness of the process were evaluated both by contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and contrast-enhanced computed tomography. Histopathological examination of a biopsy sample revealed a nephroblastoma. The case report describes the clinical, sonographic, and computed tomographic results and the outcome in the untreated dog over a period of 5 months.
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- Presentation, diagnostic assessment and surgical outcomes in primary hyperparathyroidism: a single centre's experience. [Journal Article]
- ECEndocr Connect 2018 Aug 23
- CONCLUSIONS: Clinical features associated with PHPT are not strongly related to biochemistry. Thiazide cessation does not appear to attenuate hypercalcaemia. PHPT remains the likeliest diagnosis in the presence of low CCCR. Ultrasound is highly discriminant when an adenoma is identified but surgical failure is more likely when more than one imaging modality is required.