- Protective effects of Alpinae Oxyphyllae Fructus extracts on lipopolysaccharide-induced animal model of Alzheimer's disease. [Journal Article]
- JEJ Ethnopharmacol 2018 Feb 12
- CONCLUSIONS: The present study demonstrated for the first time that AOF attenuated LPS-induced learning and memory impairment, which may be associated with its inhibitory effect on neuroinflammation, amyloids-β (Aβ) deposition and p-tau. This research provided a theoretical basis for elucidating the traditional theory of AOF, and was also the stepping stone to the next step.
- Clinical Profile of Diabetic Ketoacidosis in Adults in Dhulikhel Hospital. [Journal Article]
- KUKathmandu Univ Med J (KUMJ) 2017 Jan.-Mar.; 15(57):25-28
- Background Diabetic ketoacidosis is one of the life-threatening acute complications of diabetes mellitus. Despite the improvements in diabetic care, it remains a major clinical problem in clinical pr...
Background Diabetic ketoacidosis is one of the life-threatening acute complications of diabetes mellitus. Despite the improvements in diabetic care, it remains a major clinical problem in clinical practice. Objective To assess the clinical and laboratory profile of adults with diabetic ketoacidosis in Dhulikhel hospital. Method This is a descriptive cross-sectional study including adult patients admitted in Dhulikhel hospital from July 2014 to July 2016 with the diagnosis of diabetic ketoacidosis according to the guidelines of American diabetes association. The hospital records of these patients were reviewed for their clinical and biochemical profiles. Result Forty eight patients fulfilled the criteria of diabetic ketoacidosis and were included in the study. Seventy three percent of patients had type 2 diabetes mellitus. Twenty three percent of the patients were cases of newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus. Polyuria and polydipsia as presenting complaint was more common in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (p=0.002) whereas fever was more common in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients (p=0.03). Majority of patients had normal serum sodium and potassium level. Forty two percent of the patients have high serum urea level and just over one third had high serum creatinine level. The most common precipitating factor of diabetic ketoacidosis for patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus was omission of insulin whereas in type 2 diabetic patients was infection. Conclusion Diabetic ketoacidosis is complication of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. High degree of suspicion is needed for early detection of this life threatening condition especially in patients without history of diabetes mellitus.
- A COMPLEX ROLE FOR LIPOCALIN 2 IN BONE METABOLISM: GLOBAL ABLATION IN MICE INDUCES OSTEOPENIA CAUSED BY AN ALTERED ENERGY METABOLISM. [Journal Article]
- JBJ Bone Miner Res 2018 Feb 14
- Lipocalin 2 (Lcn2) is an adipokine that carries out a variety of functions in diverse organs. We investigated the bone phenotype and the energy metabolism of Lcn2 globally deleted mice (Lcn2-/-) at d...
Lipocalin 2 (Lcn2) is an adipokine that carries out a variety of functions in diverse organs. We investigated the bone phenotype and the energy metabolism of Lcn2 globally deleted mice (Lcn2-/-) at different ages. Lcn2-/-mice were largely osteopenic, exhibiting lower trabecular bone volume, lesser trabecular number and higher trabecular separation when compared to wild type (WT) mice. Lcn2-/-mice showed a lower osteoblast number and surface over bone surface, and subsequently a significantly lower bone formation rate, while osteoclast variables were unremarkable. Surprisingly, we found no difference in Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) activity or in nodule mineralization in Lcn2-/-calvaria osteoblast cultures, while less ALP-positive colonies were obtained from freshly isolated Lcn2-/-bone marrow stromal cells, suggesting a non-autonomous osteoblast response to Lcn2 ablation. Given that Lcn2-/-mice showed higher body weight and hyperphagia, we investigated whether their osteoblast impairment could be due to altered energy metabolism. Lcn2-/-mice showed lower fasted glycemia and hyperinsulinemia. Consistently, glucose tolerance was significantly higher in Lcn2-/-compared to WT mice, while insulin tolerance was similar. Lcn2-/-mice also exhibited polyuria, glycosuria, proteinuria and renal cortex vacuolization, suggesting a kidney contribution to their phenotype. Interestingly, the expression of the glucose transporter protein type 1, that conveys glucose into the osteoblasts and is essential for osteogenesis, was significantly lower in the Lcn2-/-bone, possibly explaining the in vivo osteoblast impairment induced by the global Lcn2 ablation. Taken together, these results unveil an important role of Lcn2 in bone metabolism, highlighting a link with glucose metabolism that is more complex than expected from the current knowledge. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- 'If there were water we should stop and drink': neurofibromatosis presenting with diabetes insipidus. [Journal Article]
- BCBMJ Case Rep 2018 Feb 11; 2018
- A 58-year-old right-handed woman presented to our institution with a 1-month history of polydipsia and polyuria. She had a remote history of neurofibroma excision by dermatology and, on examination, ...
A 58-year-old right-handed woman presented to our institution with a 1-month history of polydipsia and polyuria. She had a remote history of neurofibroma excision by dermatology and, on examination, was noted to meet the clinical diagnostic criteria for neurofibromatosis type 1. Laboratory investigations revealed hypernatraemia and elevated serum osmolality, accompanied by reduced urinary osmolality. A subsequent water deprivation test confirmed central diabetes insipidus, which responded to treatment with desmopressin. MRI of the brain showed pituitary enlargement, which raised the possibility of an underlying pituitary adenoma or, alternatively, lymphocytic hypophysitis. Both conditions have rarely been described in neurofibromatosis.
- Pharmacotherapy for Nocturia. [Review]
- CUCurr Urol Rep 2018 Feb 09; 19(1):8
- To assess current pharmacological principles used for treatment of nocturia/nocturnal polyuria.
To assess current pharmacological principles used for treatment of nocturia/nocturnal polyuria.
- Combined Administration of l-Carnitine and Ascorbic Acid Ameliorates Cisplatin-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Rats. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Am Coll Nutr 2018 Feb 09; :1-12
- CONCLUSIONS: l-Carnitine and vitamin C administration ameliorated CIS-induced nephrotoxicity due to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects.
- [Clinical observation of 5 cases of diabetes insipidus complicated with skeletal fluorosis]. [Journal Article]
- ZGZhongguo Gu Shang 2017 Jul 25; 30(7):651-655
- CONCLUSIONS: Long-term high intake of fluoride can cause skeletal fluorosis in patients with diabetes insipidus. The posterior decompression is effective for the majority of spinal canal stenosis caused by skeletal fluorosis.
- Reasons for lithium discontinuation in men and women with bipolar disorder: a retrospective cohort study. [Journal Article]
- BPBMC Psychiatry 2018 02 07; 18(1):37
- CONCLUSIONS: Stopping lithium treatment is common and occurs mostly due to adverse effects. It is important to discuss potential adverse effects with patients before initiation and continuously during lithium treatment, to reduce the frequency of potentially unnecessary discontinuations.
- Diagnostic and therapeutic recommendations for patients with nocturia. [Review]
- CECent European J Urol 2017; 70(4):388-393
- CONCLUSIONS: Desmopressin is an effective and safe first-line treatment option in pharmacological therapy of nocturia caused by nocturnal polyuria.
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- Systematic review of proposed definitions of nocturnal polyuria and population-based evidence of their diagnostic accuracy. [Journal Article]
- ACActa Clin Belg 2018 Feb 06; :1-7
- Background Evidence of diagnostic accuracy for proposed definitions of nocturnal polyuria is currently unclear. Purpose Systematic review to determine population-based evidence of the diagnostic accu...
Background Evidence of diagnostic accuracy for proposed definitions of nocturnal polyuria is currently unclear. Purpose Systematic review to determine population-based evidence of the diagnostic accuracy of proposed definitions of nocturnal polyuria based on data from frequency-volume charts. Methods Seventeen pre-specified search terms identified 351 unique investigations published from 1990 to 2016 in BIOSIS, Embase, Embase Alerts, International Pharmaceutical Abstract, Medline, and Cochrane. Thirteen original communications were included in this review based on pre-specified exclusion criteria. Data were extracted from each paper regarding subject age, sex, ethnicity, health status, sample size, data collection methods, and diagnostic discrimination of proposed definitions including sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value. Results The sample size of study cohorts, participant age, sex, ethnicity, and health status varied considerably in 13 studies reporting on the diagnostic performance of seven different definitions of nocturnal polyuria using frequency-volume chart data from 4968 participants. Most study cohorts were small, mono-ethnic, including only Caucasian males aged 50 or higher with primary or secondary polyuria that were compared to a control group of healthy men without nocturia in prospective or retrospective settings. Proposed definitions had poor discriminatory accuracy in evaluations based on data from subjects independent from the original study cohorts with findings being similar regarding the most widely evaluated definition endorsed by ICS. Conclusions Diagnostic performance characteristics for proposed definitions of nocturnal polyuria show poor to modest discrimination and are not based on sufficient level of evidence from representative, multi-ethnic population-based data from both females and males of all adult ages.