- Exposure to imipenem/cilastatin causes nephrotoxicity and even urolithiasis in Wistar rats. [Journal Article]
- TToxicology 2018 May 17; 404-405:59-67
- Imipenem/cilastatin is a broad-spectrum β-lactam antibiotic used to treat several bacterial infections. The present study was designed to validate the nephrotoxic effect of this drug in rats and to e...
Imipenem/cilastatin is a broad-spectrum β-lactam antibiotic used to treat several bacterial infections. The present study was designed to validate the nephrotoxic effect of this drug in rats and to explore its potentional urolithiatic effect. Thirty two Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: three experimental groups treated with different imipenem/cilastatin dosages (30, 50 and 80 mg/kg/day) and a control group.The experimental groups were given intraperitoneal imipenem/cilastatin injections twice daily for 7 days, and the control group was given intraperitoneal vehicle NaCl 0.9% solution. Nephrotoxic effect of this antibiotic was assessed based on urine and plasma biochemistry, oxidative stress parameters, histopathological examination and infrared spectroscopy characterization. Imipenem/cilastatin administration resulted in alkaline urine, polyuria, crystalluria, raised plasma levels of urea, creatinine and uric acid, decreased contents of plasma gamma glutamyltranspeptidase and alkaline phosphatase, oxidative stress status, malpighian metaplasia as well as crystal deposition in kidneys and urinary tracts of Wistar rats. In addition, the precise nature of the calculi was identified, being formed by imipenem/cilastatin, thus confirming their iatrogenic origin. In conclusion, this study demonstrated through rat model that subacute exposure to imipenem/cilastatin may induce nephrotoxicity and increase the risk for developing kidney stones even at therapeutic dose levels in a dose-dependent manner.
- Risperidone-induced type 2 diabetes presenting with diabetic ketoacidosis. [Journal Article]
- EDEndocrinol Diabetes Metab Case Rep 2018; 2018
- A 28-year-old male presented with 2 days of vomiting and abdominal pain, preceded by 2 weeks of thirst, polyuria and polydipsia. He had recently started risperidone for obsessive-compulsive disorder....
A 28-year-old male presented with 2 days of vomiting and abdominal pain, preceded by 2 weeks of thirst, polyuria and polydipsia. He had recently started risperidone for obsessive-compulsive disorder. He reported a high dietary sugar intake and had a strong family history of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). On admission, he was tachycardic, tachypnoeic and drowsy with a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) of 10/15. We noted axillary acanthosis nigricans and obesity (BMI 33.2 kg/m2). Dipstick urinalysis showed ketonuria and glycosuria. Blood results were consistent with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), with hyperosmolar state. We initiated our DKA protocol, with intravenous insulin, fluids and potassium, and we discontinued risperidone. His obesity, family history of T2DM, acanthosis nigricans and hyperosmolar state prompted consideration of T2DM presenting with 'ketosis-prone diabetes' (KPD) rather than T1DM. Antibody markers of beta-cell autoimmunity were subsequently negative. Four weeks later, he had modified his diet and lost weight, and his metabolic parameters had normalised. We reduced his total daily insulin dose from 35 to 18 units and introduced metformin. We stopped insulin completely by week 7. At 6 months, his glucometer readings and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) level had normalised.
- Ethnopharmacological uses, phytochemistry, biological activities, and therapeutic applications of Alpinia oxyphylla Miquel: A review. [Review]
- JEJ Ethnopharmacol 2018 May 05
- CONCLUSIONS: Modern pharmacological studies have supported many traditional uses of A. oxyphylla, including nervous system, urinary system and gastrointestinal system disease. There was convincing evidence in experimental animal models in support of its neuroprotection, secure essence, reduce urination, and anti-carcinogenic effects. However, all the reported pharmacological activities were carried out at pre-clinical level and the authors urge further investigation in clinical trials about these therapeutic fields of A. oxyphylla.
- 18F FDG-PET/CT for the Evaluation of Primary Eosinophilic Granuloma of the Hypothalamus. [Journal Article]
- JNJ Nucl Med Technol 2018 May 03
- A 21-year-old man presented with polyuria and polydipsia and was discovered to have diabetes insipidus due to eosinophilic granuloma of the hypothalamus. 18F FDG-PET/CT for metastatic work-up reveale...
A 21-year-old man presented with polyuria and polydipsia and was discovered to have diabetes insipidus due to eosinophilic granuloma of the hypothalamus. 18F FDG-PET/CT for metastatic work-up revealed an intensely FDG avid hypothalamic mass and no other sites of disease.
- The characteristics of clinical changes in primary hyperparathyroidism in Chinese patients. [Journal Article]
- JBJ Bone Miner Metab 2018 May 02
- In Western countries, the presentation of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) changed from a symptomatic to an asymptomatic disease after the 1970s, whereas in China, only one study has evaluated the ...
In Western countries, the presentation of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) changed from a symptomatic to an asymptomatic disease after the 1970s, whereas in China, only one study has evaluated the changing clinical characteristics and biochemical profiles of PHPT patients. The aim of this study was to explore changes in the clinical characteristics of PHPT in Chinese patients. Overall, 140 consecutive patients with PHPT were studied between January 1, 2010 and June 30, 2016. The patients were divided into two groups: 32 consecutive patients from January 1, 2010 to March 31, 2013 were included in group 1, and 108 consecutive patients from April 1, 2013 to June 30, 2016 were included in group 2. The most frequent complaints were ostealgia (46.02%), urolithiasis (41.59%), constipation (25.66%), fatigue (18.58%), polydipsia and polyuria (15.93%) and fracture history (15.04%). The number of cases in group 2 was 3.38-fold greater than that of group 1. The parathyroid hormone (PTH) and fasting blood glucose (FPG) levels were higher in group 1 than those in group 2 (p = 0.039, p < 0.001). In 62.14% of patients with PHPT, the proportion of the first diagnosis due to hypercalcemia found using a multichannel autoanalyzer in group 1 was lower than that found in group 2 (p = 0.039), and the proportion of the first diagnosis due to parathyroid lesions captured using routine neck ultrasonography in group 1 was higher than in group 2 (p = 0.003). The proportion of parathyroid carcinoma cases was higher in group 1 than group 2 (p = 0.036). Cases of PHPT increased with time, but the proportion of parathyroid carcinoma cases was lower in group 1 than that in group 2. Over time, the first diagnosis switched from parathyroid lesions captured by routine neck ultrasound to hypercalcemia found by a multichannel autoanalyser. At our centre, PHPT in Chinese patients still demonstrates classic characteristics.
- Preterm Glycosuria - New Data from a Continuous Glucose Monitoring System. [Journal Article]
- NNeonatology 2018 May 02; 114(1):87-92
- CONCLUSIONS: The renal glucose threshold in VLBW infants is between 150 and 180 mg/dL. A negative result for glycosuria is a reliable screening test to exclude hyperglycemia. Occurrence of glycosuria ≥1+ is an indication to test blood glucose.
- Decreased levels of keratin 8 sensitizes mice to streptozotocin-induced diabetes. [Journal Article]
- APActa Physiol (Oxf) 2018 May 02; :e13085
- CONCLUSIONS: Partial K8 deficiency reduces β-cell stress-tolerance and aggravates diabetes development in response to STZ, while there is no major susceptibility to HFD. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- [Calcitriol induced hypercalcemia in a hunting dog with a disseminated Paecilomyces variotii infection]. [Journal Article]
- SASchweiz Arch Tierheilkd 2018; 160(5):313-319
- A 5-year old hunting dog was presented with reduced appetite, weight loss and polyuria/polydipsia. Hematology and clinical chemistry revealed anemia, leukocytosis, increased liver enzymes, hypoalbumi...
A 5-year old hunting dog was presented with reduced appetite, weight loss and polyuria/polydipsia. Hematology and clinical chemistry revealed anemia, leukocytosis, increased liver enzymes, hypoalbuminemia and hypercalcemia. The cytological, pathohistological and microbiological examination identified a disseminated infection with the saprophytic mould fungus Paecilomyces variotii in the biopsies of the spleen and a lymph node. Determination of vitamin D metabolites confirmed a calcitriol induced hypercalcemia.
- Diabetes mellitus remission in a cat with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism after trilostane treatment. [Journal Article]
- JOJFMS Open Rep 2018 Jan-Jun; 4(1):2055116918767708
- An 8-year-old male neutered Persian cat was presented with polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia and muscle weakness associated with a 7 month history of diabetes mellitus (DM). The cat had initially been...
An 8-year-old male neutered Persian cat was presented with polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia and muscle weakness associated with a 7 month history of diabetes mellitus (DM). The cat had initially been treated with neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH) insulin 2 U q12h, followed by porcine lente insulin 2 U q12h and, most recently, 3 U glargine insulin q12h, without improvement of clinical signs. The cat also suffered from concurrent symmetrical bilateral alopecia of thorax and forelimbs, abdominal distension and lethargy. Hyperadrenocorticism (HAC), specifically pituitary-dependent HAC, was suspected and confirmed through abdominal ultrasonography demonstrating bilateral adrenal enlargement, and a low-dose dexamethasone suppression test using 0.1 mg/kg dexamethasone intravenously. Trilostane treatment (initially 10 mg/cat PO q24h then increased to 10 mg/cat PO q12h) was started and insulin sensitivity gradually improved, ultimately leading to diabetic remission after an increased in trilostane dose to 13mg/cat PO q12h, 14 months after the DM diagnosis and 7 months after the initiation of trilostane therapy.
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- Do uroflowmetry and post - void residual urine tests necessary in children with primary nocturnal enuresis? [Journal Article]
- IBInt Braz J Urol 2018 Mar 15; 44
- CONCLUSIONS: In managing pediatric enuresis, elevated PVR is a significant predictor for lower chance of complete response to treatment whether they had high DVSS or not.