- Mental health of unaccompanied asylum-seeking adolescents previously held in British detention centres. [Journal Article]
- CCClin Child Psychol Psychiatry 2018; 23(2):238-257
- CONCLUSIONS: There was a high prevalence of psychiatric disorder. The additional stress of age dispute procedures and detention was judged to have been harmful.
- Sports psychiatry: mental health and mental disorders in athletes and exercise treatment of mental disorders. [Review]
- EAEur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2018 Mar 21
- Sports psychiatry has developed for the past 3 decades as an emerging field within psychiatry and sports medicine. An International society has been established in 1994 and also national interest gro...
Sports psychiatry has developed for the past 3 decades as an emerging field within psychiatry and sports medicine. An International society has been established in 1994 and also national interest groups were implemented, mostly within the national organizations for psychiatry, some also containing the topic of exercise treatment of mental disorders. Where are we now 30 years later? We systematically but also selectively review the medical literature on exercise, sport, psychiatry, mental health and mental disorders and related topics. The number of publications in the field has increased exponentially. Most topics keep remaining on the agenda, e.g., head trauma and concussion, drug abuse and doping, performance enhancement, overtraining, ADHD or eating disorders. Supported by the growing literature, evidence-based recommendations have become available now in many clinical areas. A relatively new phenomenon is muscle dysmorphia, observed in weightlifters, bodybuilders but also in college students and gym users. Further, sports therapy of mental disorders has been studied by more and more high-quality randomized controlled clinical trials. Mostly as a complementary treatment, however, for some disorders already with a 1a evidence level, e.g., depression, dementia or MCI but also post-traumatic stress disorder. Being grown up and accepted nowadays, sports psychiatry still represents a fast-developing field. The reverse side of the coin, sport therapy of mental disorders has received a scientific basis now. Who else than sports psychiatry could advance sport therapy of mental disorders? We need this enthusiasm for sports and psychiatry for our patients with mental disorders and it is time now for a broadening of the scope. Optimized psychiatric prevention and treatment of athletes and ideal sport-related support for individuals with mental disorders should be our main purpose and goal.
- d-Serine is a potential biomarker for clinical response in treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder using (R,S)-ketamine infusion and TIMBER psychotherapy: A pilot study. [Journal Article]
- BBBiochim Biophys Acta 2018 Mar 18
- Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a chronic and debilitating condition that is often refractory to standard frontline antidepressant therapy. A promising new approach to PTSD therapy is admini...
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a chronic and debilitating condition that is often refractory to standard frontline antidepressant therapy. A promising new approach to PTSD therapy is administration of a single sub-anesthetic dose of (R,S)-ketamine (Ket). The treatment produces rapid and significant therapeutic response, which lasts for only 4-7 days. In one of our studies, the mean duration of response was increased to 33 days when Ket administration was combined with a mindfulness-based cognitive therapy, Trauma Interventions using Mindfulness Based Extinction and Reconsolidation (TIMBER). We now report the results from a 20-patient study, which examined the duration of sustained response with combined TIMBER-Ket therapy, TIMBER-K arm, relative to the response observed in a placebo-controlled arm, TIMBER-P. A significant difference in the duration of response was observed between TIMBER-K and TIMBER-P arms: 34.44 ± 19.12 days and 16.50 ± 11.39 days, respectively (p = 0.022). Previous studies identified a negative correlation between antidepressant response to Ket and basal plasma concentrations of d-serine (DSR). In this study, the basal DSR levels positively correlated with the pre-treatment severity of PTSD symptoms (Pearson's r = 0.42, p = 0.07) and patients with basal DSR level ≥ 3.5 μM displayed not only higher PTSD severity but also shorter duration of response. The data indicate that basal DSR levels may serve as a biomarker of the severity of PTSD symptoms and as a predictor of clinical response. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: d-Amino acids: biology in the mirror, edited by Dr. Loredano Pollegioni, Dr. Jean-Pierre Mothet and Dr. Molla Gianluca.
- Sex and spouse conditions influence symptoms of anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder in both patients admitted to intensive care units and their spouses. [Journal Article]
- RBRev Bras Ter Intensiva 2018 Mar 15; :0
- CONCLUSIONS: Female sex was associated with anxiety and depression, and spouses were more vulnerable to post-traumatic stress symptoms than the patients were. Increasing age and a later time of assessment were also associated with lower scores on the Impact of Event Scale.
- Pentoxifylline prevents post-traumatic stress disorder induced memory impairment. [Journal Article]
- BRBrain Res Bull 2018 Mar 17
- Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a disabling prevalent and difficult-to-treat psychiatric disorder, which can develop after the exposure to severe traumatic events such as those occurring duri...
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a disabling prevalent and difficult-to-treat psychiatric disorder, which can develop after the exposure to severe traumatic events such as those occurring during wars and natural disasters. Pentoxifylline (PTX) is a potent antioxidant, which has an important role in prevention of cognitive dysfunctions. In the present study, the effect of PTX on memory impairment induced by PTSD was investigated using the rat animal model. PTSD-like behavior was induced in animals using a single-prolonged stress (SPS) rat model of PTSD (2 h restrain, 20 min forced swimming, 15 min rest, 1-2 min diethyl ether exposure). PTX was administered intraperitoneally at a dose of 100 mg/kg/day. Spatial learning and memory were assessed using the radial arm water maze (RAWM). Changes in oxidative stress biomarkers, brain derived neuroptrophic factor (BDNF), and epigenetics (histones) in the hippocampus following treatments were measured using enzymatic assays. The result revealed that SPS impaired both short- and long- term memory (P < 0.05). Use of PTX prevented memory impairment induced by SPS. Furthermore, PTX normalized SPS induced changes in the hippocampus GSH/GSSG ratio, activity of catalase, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), BDNF, and certain histones levels. In conclusion, the SPS model of PTSD-like behavior induced memory impairment, whereas PTX prevented this impairment possibly through normalizing antioxidant mechanisms, BDNF and epigenetic changes in the hippocampus.
- Social Capital and Mental Health in Post-Disaster/Conflict Contexts: A Systematic Review. [Journal Article]
- DMDisaster Med Public Health Prep 2018 Mar 21; :1-12
- Social capital (SC) is highlighted as an important factor for post-crisis mental health outcomes. However, the heterogeneous nature of the construct makes it difficult to get a clear picture of the e...
Social capital (SC) is highlighted as an important factor for post-crisis mental health outcomes. However, the heterogeneous nature of the construct makes it difficult to get a clear picture of the evidence concerning the association between SC indices and mental health. This review examines how SC is conceptualized and measured, and the relationships with other variables in quantitative empirical studies investigating the associations between SC and mental health in post-disaster and post-conflict contexts. It includes primary data studies focusing on this association in civilian populations. Studies were identified by searching electronic databases, bibliographic mining, cited reference searching, and personal contact with experts. In total, 15 studies were included: 12 in post-natural disaster contexts and 3 in conflict-affected settings. Findings suggested that individual cognitive SC had an inverse association with post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety, and depression, and that ecological cognitive SC was positively associated with mental well-being. Individual structural SC (in the form of community networks) may be psychologically protective. However, most of the evidence was cross-sectional, limiting conclusions about causal relationships. More clarity and consistency is needed in the conceptualization and measurement of SC in order to inform post-crisis mental health interventions. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;page 1 of 12).
- Mental ill health and factors associated with men's use of intimate partner violence in Zimbabwe. [Journal Article]
- BPBMC Public Health 2018 Mar 20; 18(1):376
- CONCLUSIONS: IPV perpetration was associated with child abuse history, mental ill health, sexual relationship power and personal gender attitudes. Interventions to reduce IPV need to engage men to address gender inequality, mental ill health and reduce alcohol consumption.
- Co-occurring patterns of post-traumatic stress disorder and depression among flood victims: A latent profile analysis. [Journal Article]
- JHJ Health Psychol 2018 Mar 01; :1359105318763505
- This study examined the co-occurring patterns of post-traumatic stress disorder and depression. A sample of 187 victims completed self-report questionnaires after a major flood disaster. Results indi...
This study examined the co-occurring patterns of post-traumatic stress disorder and depression. A sample of 187 victims completed self-report questionnaires after a major flood disaster. Results indicated four classes: low symptoms group (49.7%), mild comorbid symptoms group (24.1%), serious comorbid symptoms group (3.2%), and medium comorbid symptoms group (23.0%). Male victims were less likely and older victims were more likely to belong to the medium comorbid symptoms group; victims with more serious trauma exposure and those using more maladaptive cognition emotional regulation strategies were more likely to belong to both the mild and medium comorbid symptoms groups.
- Glycyrrhizin Treatment Facilitates Extinction of Conditioned Fear Responses After a Single Prolonged Stress Exposure in Rats. [Journal Article]
- CPCell Physiol Biochem 2018 Mar 16; 45(6):2529-2539
- CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, these results suggested that SPS treatment may not only produce short term effects on the HMGB1/TLR4-mediated pro-inflammation, but alter the response of microglia and astrocytes to the exposure to fear associated contextual stimuli.
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- Healthcare provision and the psychological, somatic and social impact on people involved in the terror attacks in January 2015 in Paris: cohort study. [Journal Article]
- BJBr J Psychiatry 2018; 212(4):207-214
- CONCLUSIONS: We found severe psychological consequences, even in people who were less exposed. Declaration of interest None.