- Concurrent Treatment for Substance Use Disorder and Trauma-Related Comorbidities: A Review of Clinical Effectiveness and Guidelines [BOOK]
- BOOKCanadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health: Ottawa (ON)
- The purpose of this report is to review treatment options for patients with comorbid substance use disorder (SUD) and post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety, or depression by comparing (1) concurren...
The purpose of this report is to review treatment options for patients with comorbid substance use disorder (SUD) and post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety, or depression by comparing (1) concurrent treatments for SUD and the mental disorders with no treatment, usual care or active treatment for one condition only and (2) treatment for a single condition (SUD or the mental disorders) with no treatment, usual care or active treatment for the second disorder. Additionally, this review aims to review evidence-based guidelines regarding the treatments for patients with these comorbidities.
- Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, Anxiety, and Depression: A Review of Clinical Effectiveness [BOOK]
- BOOKCanadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health: Ottawa (ON)
- The purpose of this report is to summarize the evidence of clinical effectiveness of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) in adult patients with trauma-related post-traumatic stress disorder, anxi...
The purpose of this report is to summarize the evidence of clinical effectiveness of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) in adult patients with trauma-related post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety, or depression, in particular in military veterans.
- Blast-Induced "PTSD": Evidence from an animal model. [Review]
- NNeuropharmacology 2018 Sep 15
- A striking observation among veterans returning from the recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan has been the co-occurrence of blast-related mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and post-traumatic str...
A striking observation among veterans returning from the recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan has been the co-occurrence of blast-related mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). PTSD and mTBI might coexist due to additive effects of independent psychological and physical traumas experienced in a war zone. Alternatively blast injury might induce PTSD-related traits or damage brain structures that mediate responses to psychological stressors, increasing the likelihood that PTSD will develop following a subsequent psychological stressor. Rats exposed to repetitive low-level blasts consisting of three 74.5 kilopascal exposures delivered once daily for three consecutive days develop a variety of anxiety and PTSD-related behavioral traits that are present for at least 9 months after blast exposure. A single predator scent challenge delivered 8 months after the last blast exposure induces additional anxiety-related changes that are still present 45 days later. Because the blast injuries occur under general anesthesia, it appears that blast exposure in the absence of a psychological stressor can induce chronic PTSD-related traits. The reaction to a predator scent challenge delivered many months after blast exposure suggests that blast exposure in addition sensitizes the brain to react abnormally to subsequent psychological stressors. The development of PTSD-behavioral related traits in the absence of a psychological stressor suggests the existence of blast-induced "PTSD". Findings that PTSD-related behavioral traits can be reversed by BCI-838, a group II metabotropic glutamate receptor antagonist offers insight into pathogenesis and possible treatment options for blast-related brain injury.
- A systematic review of cognitive behavioural therapy for anxiety in adults with intellectual disabilities. [Review]
- JIJ Intellect Disabil Res 2018 Sep 18
- CONCLUSIONS: A range of presentations have been described although the area is still at a primarily descriptive stage. We discuss intervention structures and approaches that require further research.
- Prefrontal glutamate levels predict altered amygdala-prefrontal connectivity in traumatized youths. [Journal Article]
- PMPsychol Med 2018 Sep 18; :1-9
- CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that traumatic stress may influence amygdala-prefrontal neuronal connectivity through an effect on prefrontal glutamate and its compounds. Understanding the neurochemical underpinning of altered amygdala connectivity after trauma may ultimately lead to the discovery of new pharmacological agents which can prevent or treat stress-related mental illness.
- Recently resettled refugee women-at-risk in Australia evidence high levels of psychiatric symptoms: individual, trauma and post-migration factors predict outcomes. [Journal Article]
- BMBMC Med 2018 Sep 18; 16(1):149
- CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that recently arrived refugee women-at-risk are at high risk of psychiatric disorders. The results indicate a need for comprehensive psychiatric assessment to identify women in need of treatment very early after resettlement, with implications for medical practice, service delivery, and policy programs.
- Erratum: The study of service dogs for veterans with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: a scoping literature review. [Published Erratum]
- EJEur J Psychotraumatol 2018; 9(Suppl 3):1518199
- [This corrects the article DOI: 10.1080/20008198.2018.1503523.].
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1080/20008198.2018.1503523.].
- Role of Social Cognition in Post-traumatic Stress Disorder: A Review and Meta-Analysis. [Review]
- GBGenes Brain Behav 2018 Sep 16; :e12518
- Social functioning is a key component of recovery after a potentially traumatic experience, and the buffering role of the social support in trauma resilience and recovery has been very well documente...
Social functioning is a key component of recovery after a potentially traumatic experience, and the buffering role of the social support in trauma resilience and recovery has been very well documented. Factors contributing to resilience and recovery are notable because although most people will experience a traumatic event during their lifetimes, only 6-10% are diagnosed with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The relationship between an individual and their social environment is determined both by the quality of the social environment itself, and by the individual's perception and understanding of information conveyed by the other people around them. However, little research has considered the contribution of these internal social cognitive processes to PTSD risk or resilience. The current review draws on the existing literature on social cognitive functioning in trauma exposure and PTSD, identifying key questions and themes for future research. We utilized a meta-analytic approach to assess the evidence for alterations in social cognition in PTSD, finding a consistent large deficit in social cognitive performance in PTSD groups relative to trauma-exposed and healthy controls. We then reviewed the literature on the interaction of genes and the social environment, supporting the hypothesis that social cognitive deficits are a pre-existing risk factor for PTSD. Finally, we reviewed relevant neuroimaging findings, which suggest that alterations in social cognition affect the perception of threat cues in PTSD. Overall, research on social cognition and PTSD is still emerging, but existing findings suggest this is an important and understudied area for the understanding of PTSD.
- A trauma-focused approach for patients with tinnitus: the effectiveness of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing - a multicentre pilot trial. [Journal Article]
- EJEur J Psychotraumatol 2018; 9(1):1512248
- Background: While normal tinnitus is a short-term sensation of limited duration, in 10-15% of the general population it develops into a chronic condition. For 3-6% it seriously interferes with many ...
Background: While normal tinnitus is a short-term sensation of limited duration, in 10-15% of the general population it develops into a chronic condition. For 3-6% it seriously interferes with many aspects of life. Objective: The aim of this trial was to assess effectiveness of a trauma-focused approach, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR), in reducing tinnitus distress. Methods: The sample consisted of 35 adults with high levels of chronic tinnitus distress from five general hospitals in the Netherlands. Participants served as their own controls. After pre-assessment (T1), participants waited for a period of 3 months, after which they were assessed again (T2) before they received six 90 min manualized EMDR treatment sessions in which tinnitus-related traumatic or stressful events were the focus of treatment. Standardized self-report measures, the Tinnitus Functional Index (TFI), Mini-Tinnitus Questionnaire (Mini-TQ), Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90) and the Self-Rating Inventory List for Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (SRIP), were completed again halfway through treatment (T3), post-treatment (T4) and at 3 months' follow-up (T5). Results: Repeated measures analysis of variance revealed significant improvement after EMDR treatment on the primary outcome, TFI. Compared to the waiting-list condition, scores significantly decreased in EMDR treatment [t(34) = -4.25, p < .001, Cohen's dz = .72]. Secondary outcomes, Mini-TQ and SCL-90, also decreased significantly. The treatment effects remained stable at 3 months' follow-up. No adverse events or side effects were noted in this trial. Conclusions: This is the first study to suggest that EMDR is effective in reducing tinnitus distress. Randomized controlled trials are warranted.
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- Clinical outcome of maintenance electroconvulsive therapy in comorbid Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and major depressive disorder. [Journal Article]
- JPJ Psychiatr Res 2018 Sep 07; 105:132-136
- CONCLUSIONS: Maintenance ECT is associated with improved HRV, reduction of both major depression and PTSD symptoms, and a favorable clinical outcome.