- Expression of angiogenic factors and plexiform lesions in the lungs of broiler and layer chickens: A comparison. [Journal Article]
- PSPoult Sci 2018 Feb 14
- Plexiform lesions are characteristic histological changes of pulmonary arteries in human patients with severe pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and are regarded as angiogenic lesions. Meat-type b...
Plexiform lesions are characteristic histological changes of pulmonary arteries in human patients with severe pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and are regarded as angiogenic lesions. Meat-type broiler chickens are susceptible to PAH and can develop plexiform lesions spontaneously. Whether the lesion development in broilers is associated with PAH predisposition and lung angiogenic environment remains unclear. Moreover, little is known about the cellular origin of these structures. In this work, plexiform lesions were detected in both layer chickens (a strain known to be resistant to PAH) and broiler chickens aged between 1 and 6 wk with normal pulmonary arterial pressures. Within each of the sampled ages, the lesion density did not differ between strains, with an exception of wk 4 when broiler was higher than layer. In contrast to the trend of age-related decline in layers, lesion densities in broilers demonstrated bi-phasic alterations characterized by a gradual decrease during wk 1 to 3 followed by a sudden increase at wk 4. The mRNA of 6 angiogenic factors in the lung tissue, namely, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-2, angiopoietin (Ang)-1, angiopoietin receptor Tie-2, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), and interleukin (IL)-8, were differentially expressed between strains. However, none of them was found to be significantly correlated with the lesion density by strain and age-adjusted partial correlation analysis. An in vivo experiment revealed impaired differentiation of endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) into endothelial cells during the producing of plexiform lesions, as evidenced by increased expression of endothelial CD133, a maker of EPC, but reduced expression of CD31, a marker of mature endothelial cells, in the parent vessels of plexiform lesions compared to normal vessels. Collectively, it appears unlikely that the predisposition to PAH or intrapulmonary angiogenic environment contributes to the lesion development in broilers when compared with layers. It is suggested that the lesion development is associated with increased pulmonary arterial pressure, and that local EPC dysfunction may play a role in the process.
- Cor Pulmonale Revisited. From Ferrer and Harvey to the Present. [Journal Article]
- AAAnn Am Thorac Soc 2018; 15(Supplement_1):S42-S44
- The term cor pulmonale has traditionally been used as a synonym for right heart failure due to chronic respiratory diseases, although this condition is less frequently seen in the modern era because ...
The term cor pulmonale has traditionally been used as a synonym for right heart failure due to chronic respiratory diseases, although this condition is less frequently seen in the modern era because of the use of long-term oxygen therapy along with aggressive measures directed at optimizing ventilation and gas exchange. The mechanisms by which adaptation or maladaptation of right heart structure and function in the broader setting of pulmonary vascular disease, either intrinsic to the pulmonary circulation or due to respiratory diseases, have garnered considerable interest along with the development of medical and surgical treatments for pulmonary hypertension. Thus, the right heart is no longer considered an "innocent bystander" in pulmonary hypertension, but rather a key component in its pathophysiology. Furthermore, the status of right heart function is a major determinant of outcome. Accordingly, the right heart has become a potential, appealing target for novel therapies to treat hypertensive pulmonary vascular disease.
- THE ROLE OF FRACTALKINE AND MONOCYTE CHEMOATTRACTANT PROTEIN-1 IN THE PROGRESSION OF ASTHMA. [Journal Article]
- GMGeorgian Med News 2018; (274):125-130
- To improve the effectiveness of diagnosis and prediction of adverse asthma comorbid conditions based on research of clinical manifestations features, functional disorders of the airways and endotheli...
To improve the effectiveness of diagnosis and prediction of adverse asthma comorbid conditions based on research of clinical manifestations features, functional disorders of the airways and endothelial dysfunction. 79 patients were selected for the study. All the patients were divided into 3 groups: group 1 - patients with asthma (n-22); group II (n-24) - patients with asthma + diabetes mellitus type 2; group III (n-33) - patients with asthma + obesity + arterial hypertension (AH) and control group (n-17) - healthy people. All the patients underwent clinical examination. Spirography indicators were tested, and full patients' examination was conducted. The levels of fractalkine (CX3CL1) and Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein - 1(MCP-1) were determined by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test using Ray Bio® Human Fractalkine system manufactured by Ray Biotech, Inc., USA; "Human MCP-1" (eBioscience, Austria), respectively. Statistical processing of parameters of endothelial function, МСР-1 andCX3CL1, depending on comorbid pathology, has identified statistically significant elevated level of the separametersinall studied groups. The most pronounced changes of both parameters were registered in group 2 patients, indicative of the most significant manifestations of endothelial dysfunction in this patient group.Assessment of endothelium dysfunction markers depending on external respiration function was performed. It has been found out that МСР-1 affects vital pulmonary capacity (χ2=14.466; р=0.002) and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) (χ2=8.471; р=0.037). Besides, CX3CL1 exerts influence on these parameters as well (χ2=19.385, р=0.001); (χ2=11.476, р=0.009), respectively. The decrease in rate parameters, in particular, FEV1, MEF 25, MEF 50, and MEF 75, was identified in all patient groups. Based on these data, we can assume that patients with a combination of asthma and diabetes mellitus type 2 demonstrate more cases of endothelial malfunction, leading to the worsening of respiratory function, compared to the group with asthma, obesity and arterial hypertension and a group without comorbidity.
- Aberrant migration and surgical removal of a heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) from the femoral artery of a cat. [Case Reports]
- JVJ Vet Intern Med 2018 Feb 20
- A cat was evaluated for an acute-onset of right pelvic limb paresis. Thoracic radiographs revealed normal cardiac size and tortuous pulmonary arteries. Abdominal ultrasound identified a heartworm (HW...
A cat was evaluated for an acute-onset of right pelvic limb paresis. Thoracic radiographs revealed normal cardiac size and tortuous pulmonary arteries. Abdominal ultrasound identified a heartworm (HW) extending from the caudal abdominal aorta into the right external iliac artery and right femoral artery. The cat was HW-antigen positive. Echocardiography revealed a HW within the right branch of the main pulmonary artery and evidence of pulmonary hypertension. An agitated-saline contrast echocardiogram revealed a small right to left intracardiac shunt at the level of the atria. Surgical removal of the HW was performed with no substantial postoperative complications. There was return of blood flow and improved motor function to the limb. The cat remains mildly paretic on the affected limb with no other clinical signs.
- Sphingosine Kinases as Druggable Targets. [Journal Article]
- HEHandb Exp Pharmacol 2018 Feb 20
- There is substantial evidence that the enzymes, sphingosine kinase 1 and 2, which catalyse the formation of the bioactive lipid sphingosine 1-phosphate, are involved in pathophysiological processes. ...
There is substantial evidence that the enzymes, sphingosine kinase 1 and 2, which catalyse the formation of the bioactive lipid sphingosine 1-phosphate, are involved in pathophysiological processes. In this chapter, we appraise the evidence that both enzymes are druggable and describe how isoform-specific inhibitors can be developed based on the plasticity of the sphingosine-binding site. This is contextualised with the effect of sphingosine kinase inhibitors in cancer, pulmonary hypertension, neurodegeneration, inflammation and sickling.
- Concurrent variant type 3 autoimmune polyglandular syndrome and pulmonary arterial hypertension in a Japanese woman. [Journal Article]
- EJEndocr J 2018 Feb 16
- We describe a very rare case of concurrent variant type 3 autoimmune polyglandular syndrome (APS) and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). A previously healthy 65-year-old Japanese woman was referr...
We describe a very rare case of concurrent variant type 3 autoimmune polyglandular syndrome (APS) and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). A previously healthy 65-year-old Japanese woman was referred to our university hospital with a 2-month history of general fatigue and hyperglycemia. Laboratory tests revealed severe hyperglycemia (plasma glucose 543 mg/dL and HbA1c 10.7%) with ketonuria (3+). Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) and IA-2 antibodies were positive, and the serum C peptide level was markedly decreased to 0.2 ng/mL. Accordingly, type 1 diabetes was diagnosed. Hashimoto's thyroiditis was also diagnosed because she had a diffuse goiter and a mild hypothyroidism (TSH 8.20 μU/mL, and FT4 0.80 ng/mL) with positive autoantibodies for thyroid peroxidase and thyroglobulin. There was neither adrenal insufficiency nor hypocalcemia. In addition, chest X ray showed a suspicious PAH by a dilation of both pulmonary arteries, especially right descending artery, and right heart catheterization confirmed the presence of PAH. HLA Class II genotyping revealed DRB1-DQB1*0901-*0303, a common susceptibility haplotype in Japanese patients with type 3 APS or acute-onset type 1 diabetes. The combination of variant type 3 APS and PAH is extremely rare and to the best of knowledge, this is the first case reported in a Japanese patient.
- Regional variation in racial disparities among patients with peripheral artery disease. [Journal Article]
- JVJ Vasc Surg 2018 Feb 16
- CONCLUSIONS: Significant racial disparities exist in outcomes after lower extremity procedures in patients with PAD, with regional variation contributing to perioperative but not long-term outcome disparities. Underperforming regions should use these data to generate quality improvement projects, as understanding the etiology of these disparities is critical to improving the care of all patients with PAD.
- Pregnancy outcomes in psychiatric patients treated with passiflora incarnata. [Journal Article]
- CTComplement Ther Med 2018; 36:30-32
- Passiflora incarnata is marketed in many countries as anxiolytic herbal supplement. Herbal medicines are natural products, but it doesn't mean they are always safe, especially during pregnancy. Passi...
Passiflora incarnata is marketed in many countries as anxiolytic herbal supplement. Herbal medicines are natural products, but it doesn't mean they are always safe, especially during pregnancy. Passiflora incarnata extract was not teratogenic in experimental studies. However, there are no data available on possible effects on human pregnancy. Here we report five pregnant women with depression and/or anxiety who used passiflora incarnata in pregnancy. We observed one pregnancy resulting in neonatal death, two pregnancies with premature rupture of membranes, two infants with meconium aspiration syndrome and one infant with persistent pulmonary hypertension. No birth defects and no growth or developmental abnormalities for the live born infants were reported at 6 months of age. This observation is important since there have been no human reports about the use of passiflora incarnata in pregnant women. Pregnant women exposed to passiflora incarnata should be monitored, unless further data are available.
- Maternal and fetal outcomes in pregnancies with pulmonary hypertension: Experience of a tertiary center. [Journal Article]
- TJTaiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2018; 57(1):13-17
- CONCLUSIONS: The care of the pregnant women with PHT necessitates a well-planned, multidisciplinary approach focusing on close monitoring before, during and after delivery. This approach may contribute to reduction of poor maternal and fetal outcomes.
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- Hypercoagulability and Vascular Disease. [Review]
- HOHematol Oncol Clin North Am 2018; 32(2):237-245
- The presence of a high incidence of thrombotic events, mainly in nontransfusion-dependent β-thalassemia syndromes, has led to the identification of a hypercoagulable state in thalassemia patients. Th...
The presence of a high incidence of thrombotic events, mainly in nontransfusion-dependent β-thalassemia syndromes, has led to the identification of a hypercoagulable state in thalassemia patients. This article highlights the mechanisms leading to hypercoagulability in thalassemia. It also discusses the clinical experience and available evidence on prevention and management approaches.