- Derivation and Validation of an Objective Effort of Breathing Score in Critically Ill Children. [Journal Article]
- PCPediatr Crit Care Med 2018 Nov 02
- CONCLUSIONS: A scoring system was derived and validated, performed acceptably to predict increased effort of breathing or need for advanced respiratory support and may function best when used by a team.
- Value of measuring esophageal pressure to evaluate heart-lung interactions-applications for invasive hemodynamic monitoring. [Review]
- ATAnn Transl Med 2018; 6(18):351
- Evaluation of intrathoracic pressure is the cornerstone of the understanding of heart-lung interactions, but is not easily feasible at the bedside. Esophageal pressure (Pes) has been shown to be a go...
Evaluation of intrathoracic pressure is the cornerstone of the understanding of heart-lung interactions, but is not easily feasible at the bedside. Esophageal pressure (Pes) has been shown to be a good surrogate for intrathoracic pressure and can be more easily measured using a small esophageal catheter, but is not routinely employed. It can provide crucial information for the study of heart-lung interactions in both controlled and spontaneous ventilation. This review presents the physiological basis, the technical aspects and the value in clinical practice of the measurement of Pes.
- Pleth Variability Index to Assess Course of Illness in Children with Asthma. [Journal Article]
- JEJ Emerg Med 2018; 55(2):179-184
- CONCLUSIONS: Our study did not demonstrate a correlation between PVI and clinical course for asthmatics. PVI may be more clinically relevant in sicker children. Furthermore, it is possible that continuous monitoring of PVI may demonstrate more unique trends in relation to asthma severity versus single values of PVI. Additional studies are necessary to help clarify the relationship between PVI and the clinical course of children with SA.
- Respiratory waveform variation can prevent pulsus paradoxus measurement by sphygmomanometry. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Asthma 2018 Aug 29; :1-6
- CONCLUSIONS: PP in normal adults may exceed 10 mmHg, and RWV may be of sufficient magnitude to preclude manual PP measurement.
- Pulsus paradoxus. [Review]
- CRClin Respir J 2018; 12(8):2321-2331
- CONCLUSIONS: Legendary physician Sir William Osler truly said that "Medicine is learned by the bedside and not in the classroom." Bedside history taking and physical examination should be an integral component of clinical teaching curriculum imparted to medical students. Pulsus paradoxus is a valuable physical sign seen in many clinical conditions. Pulsus paradoxus is defined by an inspiratory fall in systolic blood pressure of greater than 10 mm Hg. Two prototype examples of pulsus paradoxus are cardiac tamponade and acute asthma. Exaggerated swings of intrapleural pressure, bi-ventricular interactions and increase afterload of the left ventricle are few of the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the causation of pulsus paradoxus. The sensitivity of pulsus paradoxus in the diagnosis of cardiac tamponade is very high. In acute asthma, it also correlates with the severity of airflow obstruction.
- Symptoms of massive cardiac tamponade during support of biventricular assist device. [Case Reports]
- IJInt J Artif Organs 2018; 41(5):245-246
- Typical symptoms of cardiac tamponade are jugular venous distension, pulsus paradoxus, hypotension, and rest dyspnea. However, these clinical symptoms can be masked in patients with ventricular assis...
Typical symptoms of cardiac tamponade are jugular venous distension, pulsus paradoxus, hypotension, and rest dyspnea. However, these clinical symptoms can be masked in patients with ventricular assist device and even more in patients supported with a biventricular-HeartWare ventricular assist device. Hereby, we report the case of a 30-year-old man supported with a biventricular-HeartWare ventricular assist device, who underwent a computed tomography scan due to suspect of ventricular assist device thrombosis. In the first scan, no pericardial effusion could be detected; however, a flow-limiting formation suggestive of a thrombus was localized in the outflow graft of the right ventricular assist device immediately before the anastomosis with pulmonary artery. Lysis therapy was initiated. On the same day, two episodes of sustained ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation without hemodynamic instability had to be promptly treated with antiarrhythmic drugs and electrical defibrillations. On the same day, a second computed tomography scan showed a massive pericardial effusion that required an emergency resternotomy.
- StatPearls [BOOK]
- BOOKStatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL)
- Pulsus paradoxus refers to an exaggerated fall in a patient’s blood pressure during inspiration by greater than 10 mm Hg. Pulsus paradoxus results from alterations in the mechanical forces imposed on...
Pulsus paradoxus refers to an exaggerated fall in a patient’s blood pressure during inspiration by greater than 10 mm Hg. Pulsus paradoxus results from alterations in the mechanical forces imposed on the chambers of the heart and pulmonary vasculature often due to pericardial disease, particularly cardiac tamponade and to a lesser degree constrictive pericarditis. However, it is important to understand that pulsus paradoxus may be seen in non-pericardial cardiac diseases such as right ventricular myocardial infarction and restrictive cardiomyopathy. Additionally, non-cardiac disease states can occasionally lead to pulsus paradoxus including pulmonary disease (severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [COPD], asthma, tension pneumothorax, large bilateral pleural effusions, pulmonary embolism), as well as any cause of cardiac compression (iatrogenic during surgery, marked obesity, pectus excavatum). Finally, pulsus paradoxus may also manifest secondary to severe hypovolemic shock.
- Cough as the sole manifestation of pericardial effusion. [Case Reports]
- BCBMJ Case Rep 2018 Feb 05; 2018
- A 59-year-old woman with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF) presented with severe non-productive cough, malaise, low-grade fever and AF flare-up 3 weeks following pulmonary vein isolation with radio...
A 59-year-old woman with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF) presented with severe non-productive cough, malaise, low-grade fever and AF flare-up 3 weeks following pulmonary vein isolation with radiofrequency catheter ablation. She denied chest pain or dyspnoea. Patient was haemodynamically stable. There was no pulsus paradoxus. Laboratories showed leucocytosis and elevated C-reactive protein. ECG showed sinus tachycardia. CT abdomen and pelvis showed a large pericardial effusion (PE). Shortly after admission, she developed AF with rapid ventricular response, responsive to intravenous amiodarone. Transthoracic echocardiogram revealed 2.4 cm posterior PE without tamponade physiology, non-amenable to pericardiocentesis via sub-xiphoid approach. Patient underwent left thoracoscopic pericardial window with removal of 250 cc bloody fibrinous fluid. Cough improved significantly and she was discharged on oral amiodarone and apixaban. Repeat CT chest after 2 weeks for recurrent cough showed a small PE, treated with oral prednisone for suspected postablation pericarditis, with complete resolution of cough. Amiodarone was stopped without recurrence of AF.
- Tamponade: Hemodynamic and Echocardiographic Diagnosis. [Review]
- ChestChest 2018; 153(5):1266-1275
- Cardiac tamponade is a medical emergency that can be readily reversed with timely recognition and appropriate intervention. The clinical diagnosis of cardiac tamponade requires synthesis of a constel...
Cardiac tamponade is a medical emergency that can be readily reversed with timely recognition and appropriate intervention. The clinical diagnosis of cardiac tamponade requires synthesis of a constellation of otherwise nonspecific features based on an understanding of the underlying pathophysiological characteristics. Although echocardiographic examination is a central component of diagnosis, alone it is insufficient to establish the physiological diagnosis of hemodynamically significant cardiac tamponade. The hemodynamic diagnosis of cardiac tamponade requires clinical evidence of low cardiac output and stroke volume in the setting of elevated cardiac filling pressures, with evidence of increased sympathetic tone (eg, tachycardia, peripheral vasoconstriction), and exclusion of other causes of shock as the primary problem (particularly cardiogenic shock). The hemodynamic features of tamponade are revealed by considering the effects of pericardial constraint. Pulsus paradoxus and loss of the normal "y" descent of a jugular venous pressure waveform may be appreciated on clinical examination. When a pulmonary artery catheter is placed, equalization of diastolic pressures across all chambers is observed. Echocardiographic examination confirms the size, location, and other characteristics of the causal pericardial collection. Several echocardiographic features support the hemodynamic diagnosis of tamponade, including early diastolic collapse of the right ventricle, late diastolic collapse of the right atrium, respiratory variation in mitral valve inflow (akin to pulsus paradoxus), and decreased early filling (E wave) of mitral valve inflow (related to loss of the y descent). Echocardiographic examination then supports decisions about the early treatment and drainage of the tamponading effusion.
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- Pericarditis. [Journal Article]
- AFAust Fam Physician 2017; 46(11):810-814
- CONCLUSIONS: Characteristic clinical findings in pericarditis include pleuritic chest pain and pericardial friction rub on auscultation of the left lower sternal border. Electrocardiography may reveal diffuse PR-segment depressions and diffuse ST-segment elevations with upward concavity. The most common aetiologies of pericarditis are idiopathic and viral, and the most common treatment for these are nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and colchicine. The complications of pericarditis include pericardial effusion, tamponade and myopericarditis. The presence of effusion, constriction or tamponade can be confirmed on echocardiography. Tamponade is potentially life-threatening and is diagnosed by the clinical findings of decreased blood pressure, elevated jugular venous pressure, muffled heart sounds on auscultation and pulsus paradoxus.