- Cough as the sole manifestation of pericardial effusion. [Journal Article]
- BCBMJ Case Rep 2018 Feb 05; 2018
- A 59-year-old woman with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF) presented with severe non-productive cough, malaise, low-grade fever and AF flare-up 3 weeks following pulmonary vein isolation with radio...
A 59-year-old woman with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF) presented with severe non-productive cough, malaise, low-grade fever and AF flare-up 3 weeks following pulmonary vein isolation with radiofrequency catheter ablation. She denied chest pain or dyspnoea. Patient was haemodynamically stable. There was no pulsus paradoxus. Laboratories showed leucocytosis and elevated C-reactive protein. ECG showed sinus tachycardia. CT abdomen and pelvis showed a large pericardial effusion (PE). Shortly after admission, she developed AF with rapid ventricular response, responsive to intravenous amiodarone. Transthoracic echocardiogram revealed 2.4 cm posterior PE without tamponade physiology, non-amenable to pericardiocentesis via sub-xiphoid approach. Patient underwent left thoracoscopic pericardial window with removal of 250 cc bloody fibrinous fluid. Cough improved significantly and she was discharged on oral amiodarone and apixaban. Repeat CT chest after 2 weeks for recurrent cough showed a small PE, treated with oral prednisone for suspected postablation pericarditis, with complete resolution of cough. Amiodarone was stopped without recurrence of AF.
- Tamponade: Hemodynamic and Echocardiographic Diagnosis. [Review]
- ChestChest 2017 Nov 11
- Cardiac tamponade is a medical emergency that can be readily reversed with timely recognition and appropriate intervention. The clinical diagnosis of cardiac tamponade requires synthesis of a constel...
Cardiac tamponade is a medical emergency that can be readily reversed with timely recognition and appropriate intervention. The clinical diagnosis of cardiac tamponade requires synthesis of a constellation of otherwise nonspecific features based on an understanding of the underlying pathophysiological characteristics. Although echocardiographic examination is a central component of diagnosis, alone it is insufficient to establish the physiological diagnosis of hemodynamically significant cardiac tamponade. The hemodynamic diagnosis of cardiac tamponade requires clinical evidence of low cardiac output and stroke volume in the setting of elevated cardiac filling pressures, with evidence of increased sympathetic tone (eg, tachycardia, peripheral vasoconstriction), and exclusion of other causes of shock as the primary problem (particularly cardiogenic shock). The hemodynamic features of tamponade are revealed by considering the effects of pericardial constraint. Pulsus paradoxus and loss of the normal "y" descent of a jugular venous pressure waveform may be appreciated on clinical examination. When a pulmonary artery catheter is placed, equalization of diastolic pressures across all chambers is observed. Echocardiographic examination confirms the size, location, and other characteristics of the causal pericardial collection. Several echocardiographic features support the hemodynamic diagnosis of tamponade, including early diastolic collapse of the right ventricle, late diastolic collapse of the right atrium, respiratory variation in mitral valve inflow (akin to pulsus paradoxus), and decreased early filling (E wave) of mitral valve inflow (related to loss of the y descent). Echocardiographic examination then supports decisions about the early treatment and drainage of the tamponading effusion.
- Pericarditis. [Journal Article]
- AFAust Fam Physician 2017; 46(11):810-814
- CONCLUSIONS: Characteristic clinical findings in pericarditis include pleuritic chest pain and pericardial friction rub on auscultation of the left lower sternal border. Electrocardiography may reveal diffuse PR-segment depressions and diffuse ST-segment elevations with upward concavity. The most common aetiologies of pericarditis are idiopathic and viral, and the most common treatment for these are nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and colchicine. The complications of pericarditis include pericardial effusion, tamponade and myopericarditis. The presence of effusion, constriction or tamponade can be confirmed on echocardiography. Tamponade is potentially life-threatening and is diagnosed by the clinical findings of decreased blood pressure, elevated jugular venous pressure, muffled heart sounds on auscultation and pulsus paradoxus.
- The value of dynamic preload variables during spontaneous ventilation. [Journal Article]
- COCurr Opin Crit Care 2017; 23(4):310-317
- CONCLUSIONS: Although originally intended to be used only during mechanical ventilation, 'dynamic parameters' may offer valuable clinical information in spontaneously breathing patients.
- CME: Die konstriktive Perikarditis – eine ungewöhnliche Form der schweren diastolischen Herzinsuffizienz. [Case Reports]
- PPraxis (Bern 1994) 2017; 106(12):617-628
- Cough induced syncope: A hint to cardiac tamponade diagnosis. [Journal Article]
- WJWorld J Cardiol 2017 May 26; 9(5):466-469
- We report a case of a 75-year-old male with history of lung adenocarcinoma who presented with shortness of breath and frequent episodes of cough-induced syncope. A large pericardial effusion was foun...
We report a case of a 75-year-old male with history of lung adenocarcinoma who presented with shortness of breath and frequent episodes of cough-induced syncope. A large pericardial effusion was found on echocardiogram suggestive of cardiac tamponade. Pericardiocentesis was done which improved the dyspnea and eventually resolved the syncope. There are only two other cases reported in the literature with cough-induced syncope in the setting of pericardial effusion or cardiac tamponade. Our clinical vignette also highlights the importance of pulsus paradoxus identification in patients with cough induced syncope to rule out cardiac tamponade since this is the most sensitive physical finding for its diagnosis.
- Cardiac tamponade as an initial presentation for systemic lupus erythematosus. [Case Reports]
- AJAm J Emerg Med 2017; 35(8):1213.e1-1213.e4
- Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune inflammatory disease which follows a relapsing and remitting course that can manifest in any organ system. While classic manifestations cons...
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune inflammatory disease which follows a relapsing and remitting course that can manifest in any organ system. While classic manifestations consist of arthralgia, myalgia, frank arthritis, a malar rash and renal failure to name a few, cardiac tamponade, however, is a far less common and far more dangerous presentation. We highlight the case of a 61year-old male with complaints of acute onset shortness of breath and generalized body aches associated with a fever and chills in the ER. A bedside echocardiogram revealed a significant pericardial effusion concerning for pericardial tamponade. An emergent pericardiocentesis performed drained 800mL of serosanguinous fluid. While denying a history of any rash, photosensitivity, oral ulcers, or seizures, his physical examination did reveal metacarpal phalangeal joint swelling along with noted pulsus paradoxus of 15-200mmHg. Subsequent lab work revealed ANA titer of 1:630 and anti-DS DNA antibody level of 256IU/mL consistent with SLE. This case highlights cardiac tamponade as a rare but life-threatening presentation for SLE and raises the need to keep it in the differential when assessing patients presenting with pertinent exam findings.
- Point-of-Care Diagnosis of Cardiac Tamponade Identified by the Flow Velocity Paradoxus. [Journal Article]
- JUJ Ultrasound Med 2017; 36(11):2197-2201
- The presentation of cardiac tamponade is a spectrum from occult to extreme. The clinical history, physical exam, electrocardiogram, and radiographic findings of tamponade have poor sensitivities and ...
The presentation of cardiac tamponade is a spectrum from occult to extreme. The clinical history, physical exam, electrocardiogram, and radiographic findings of tamponade have poor sensitivities and even worse specificities. We use a clinical scenario to demonstrate how point-of-care cardiac ultrasound can diagnose impending cardiac tamponade in a clinically stable patient. The ultrasound finding we recommend is the flow velocity paradoxus, in which respiratory variation causes significant changes in transvalvular inflow velocities, which are exaggerated when tamponade is present. The management of a pericardial effusion depends on its physiologic effect, and point-of-care ultrasound directly measures that effect and expedites patient care.
- A rare cause of constrictive pericarditis. [Case Reports]
- BCBMJ Case Rep 2017 Jan 18; 2017
- A 67-year-old man presented with 3 months of exertional dyspnoea and 1 week of oedema. Examination revealed elevated neck veins, pulsus paradoxus, muffled heart sounds, decreased breath sounds and pe...
A 67-year-old man presented with 3 months of exertional dyspnoea and 1 week of oedema. Examination revealed elevated neck veins, pulsus paradoxus, muffled heart sounds, decreased breath sounds and pedal oedema. Transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE) demonstrated cardiac tamponade, and chest X-ray showed pleural effusion. Pericardiocentesis, thoracocentesis, laboratory investigations and CT did not elucidate an underlying aetiology. Three weeks later, he presented with recurrent cardiac tamponade and pleural effusion. Pericardial window histology was benign. Pleural and pericardial fluids were again unrevealing. Three months later, he presented with worsening congestive heart failure. TTE, cardiac catheterisation and cardiac MRI were consistent with constrictive pericarditis. Preoperative workup did not identify an underlying cause. The patient underwent subtotal pericardiectomy. Intraoperative frozen section indicated malignancy. Pathology confirmed metastatic poorly differentiated signet ring adenocarcinoma of intestinal origin. He died 4 days postoperatively from multiorgan failure.
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- Pericardial Effusion due to Primary Malignant Pericardial Mesothelioma: A Common Finding but an Uncommon Cause. [Journal Article]
- CRCase Rep Med 2016; 2016:4810901
- This case report describes a 37-year-old female who was admitted to our Emergency Department because of shortness of breath. On physical examination, she had dyspnea and tachycardia and blood pressur...
This case report describes a 37-year-old female who was admitted to our Emergency Department because of shortness of breath. On physical examination, she had dyspnea and tachycardia and blood pressure was 80/50 mmHg with a pulsus paradoxus of 22 mmHg. Neck veins were distended, heart sounds were distant, and dullness was found on both lung bases. Her chest X-ray revealed bilateral pleural effusion and cardiomegaly. On both computed tomography and echocardiography the heart was of normal size and a large pericardial effusion was noted. The echocardiogram showed signs of impending tamponade, so the patient underwent an emergent pericardiocentesis. No infectious etiology was found and she was assumed to have viral pericarditis and was treated accordingly. However, when the pericardial effusion recurred and empirical therapy for tuberculosis failed, a pericardial window was performed. A typical staining pattern for mesothelioma was found on her pericardial biopsy specimen. Since no other mesodermal tissue was affected, a diagnosis of primary malignant pericardial mesothelioma was made. Chemotherapy was not effective and she passed away a year after the diagnosis was made. This case highlights the difficulties in diagnosing this uncommon disease in patients that present with the common finding of pericardial effusion.