- Caffeine-supplemented diet modulates oxidative stress markers and improves locomotor behavior in the lobster cockroach Nauphoeta cinerea. [Journal Article]
- CBChem Biol Interact 2018 Feb 25; 282:77-84
- The effects of caffeine supplementation is well documented in conventional animal models, however, in the lobster cockroaches Nauphoeta cinerea, they have not been reported. Thus, the aim of this stu...
The effects of caffeine supplementation is well documented in conventional animal models, however, in the lobster cockroaches Nauphoeta cinerea, they have not been reported. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the locomotor behavior and biochemical endpoints in the head of the nymphs of N. cinerea following 60 days exposure to food supplemented with 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 mg of caffeine/g of diet. The analysis of the locomotor behavior using the video-tracking software, Any-maze, for 12 min revealed that caffeine supplementation caused significant behavioral improvement. There was increase in distance travelled, velocity, frequency of rotation and turn angle (stereotypical behavior such as circling movements), and this was supported by the representative track plots of the path travelled by cockroaches in the open-field arena. In addition, caffeine supplementation markedly increased total thiol and non-protein thiol glutathione (GSH) levels in the heads of cockroaches, and this was in parallel with significant reduction of lipid peroxidation and free Fe(II) content. Taking together, our results indicate that long-term caffeine supplementation may exert preventive effects against oxidative stress and support the use of N. cinerea as an efficient alternative model to assess the efficacy of food molecules.
- Transcriptome analysis of Cyrtotrachelus buqueti in two cities in China. [Journal Article]
- GENEGene 2018 Mar 20; 647:1-12
- In order to reduce the Cyrtotrachelus buqueti population, which is a serious pest in the bamboo industry, a range of approaches is required, which will be dependent on diverse gene expression influen...
In order to reduce the Cyrtotrachelus buqueti population, which is a serious pest in the bamboo industry, a range of approaches is required, which will be dependent on diverse gene expression influenced by environmental factors. In this study, samples from two regions of China, Muchuan in Sichuan Province and Chishui in Guizhou Province, were investigated through RNA-seq. Approximately 44 million high-quality reads were generated and 94.2% of the data was mapped to the transcriptome. A total of 15,641 out of the 29,406 identified genes were predicted. Moreover, 348 genes were differentially expressed between the two groups of imagoes (77 upregulated and 271 downregulated). The functional analysis showed that these genes were significantly enriched in the ribosome and metabolic pathway categories. The candidate genes contributing to the reduction in C. buqueti included 41 genes involved in the ribosome constitution category, five in the one‑carbon pool pathway by folate category, and five heat shock protein genes. The downregulation of these candidate genes seems to have impaired metabolic processes, such as protein, DNA, RNA, and purine synthesis, as well as carbon and folate metabolism, subsequently resulting in the observed population reduction of C. buqueti. Furthermore, temperature, heavy metal content, and pH might influence the population by altering the expressions of genes involved in these metabolic processes.
- Kojic acid-mediated damage responses induce mycelial regeneration in the basidiomycete Hypsizygus marmoreus. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2017; 12(11):e0187351
- Mechanical damage can induce fruiting body production in fungi. In this study, the antioxidant kojic acid (KA) was found to enhance injured mycelial regeneration and increase fruiting body production...
Mechanical damage can induce fruiting body production in fungi. In this study, the antioxidant kojic acid (KA) was found to enhance injured mycelial regeneration and increase fruiting body production in Hypsizygus marmoreus. KA reduced the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are harmful to mycelia when excessively generated by mechanical damage. Moreover, KA increased catalase and superoxide dismutase activities and glutathione and ascorbic acid contents by up-regulating antioxidant gene expression. These results suggest that KA promotes mycelial regeneration in response to damage by activating a "stress signal" and enhances the ability of H. marmoreus to resist oxidative damage by invoking the antioxidant system. In addition, KA increased the content of extracellular ATP, which serves as a "stress signal" in response to injury, and modulated ROS signaling, decreasing NADPH oxidase gene expression and ROS levels in the mycelial-regeneration stage. KA treatment also up-regulated the MAPK, Ca2+ and oxylipin pathways, suggesting their involvement in the damage response. Furthermore, laccase and cellulase activities were stimulated by KA at different developmental stages. These results demonstrate that KA regulates gene expression and activates pathways for mycelial wound healing, regeneration of damaged mycelia and reproductive structure formation in the basidiomycete H. marmoreus.
- Metabolomics Approach To Understand Mechanisms of β-N-Oxalyl-l-α,β-diaminopropionic Acid (β-ODAP) Biosynthesis in Grass Pea (Lathyrus sativus L.). [Journal Article]
- JAJ Agric Food Chem 2017 Nov 29; 65(47):10206-10213
- A study was performed to identify metabolic processes associated with β-ODAP synthesis in grass pea using a metabolomics approach. GC-MS metabolomics was performed on seedlings at 2, 6, and 25 days a...
A study was performed to identify metabolic processes associated with β-ODAP synthesis in grass pea using a metabolomics approach. GC-MS metabolomics was performed on seedlings at 2, 6, and 25 days after sowing. A total of 141 metabolites were detected among the three time points representing much of grass pea primary metabolism, including amino acids, carbohydrates, purines, and others. Principal component analysis revealed unique metabolite profiles of grass pea tissues among the three time points. Fold change, hierarchical clustering, and orthogonal projections to latent structures-discriminant analyses, and biochemical pathway ontologies were used to characterize covariance of metabolites with β-ODAP content. The data indicates that alanine and nitrogen metabolism, cysteine and sulfur metabolism, and purine, pyrimidine, and pyridine metabolism were associated with β-ODAP metabolism. Our results reveal the metabolite profiles in grass pea development and provide insights into mechanisms of β-ODAP accumulation and degradation.
- Preslaughter Transport Effect on Broiler Meat Quality and Post-mortem Glycolysis Metabolism of Muscles with Different Fiber Types. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Agric Food Chem 2017 Nov 29; 65(47):10310-10316
- Preslaughter transport has been reported to decrease the quality of breast meat but not thigh meat of broilers. However, tissue-specific difference in glycogen metabolism between breast and thigh mus...
Preslaughter transport has been reported to decrease the quality of breast meat but not thigh meat of broilers. However, tissue-specific difference in glycogen metabolism between breast and thigh muscles of transported broilers has not been well studied. We thus investigated the differences in meat quality, adenosine phosphates, glycolysis, and bound key enzymes associated with glycolysis metabolism in skeletal muscles with different fiber types of preslaughter transported broilers during summer. Compared to a 0.5 h transport, a 3 h transport during summer decreased ATP content, increased AMP content and AMP/ATP ratio, and accelerated glycolysis metabolism via the upregulation of glycogen phosphorylase expression accompanied by increased activities of bound glycolytic enzymes (hexokinase, pyruvate kinase, and lactate dehydrogenase) in pectoralis major muscle, which subsequently increased the likelihood of pale, soft, and exudative-like breast meat. On the other hand, a 3 h transport induced only a moderate glycolysis metabolism in tibialis anterior muscle, which did not cause any noticeable changes in the quality traits of the thigh meat.
- Effects of dietary protein levels and 2-methylbutyrate on ruminal fermentation, nutrient degradability, bacterial populations and urinary purine derivatives in Simmental steers. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) 2017 Nov 02
- The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary crude protein (CP) levels and 2-methylbutyrate (MB) supplementation on ruminal fermentation, bacterial populations, microbial enzyme...
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary crude protein (CP) levels and 2-methylbutyrate (MB) supplementation on ruminal fermentation, bacterial populations, microbial enzyme activity and urinary excretion of purine derivatives (PD) in Simmental steers. Eight ruminally cannulated Simmental steers, averaging 18 months of age and 465 ± 8.6 kg of body weight (BW), were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design by a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Low protein (98.5 g CP/kg dry matter [LP] or high protein (128.7 g CP/kg dry matter [HP]) diets were fed with MB supplementation (0 g [MB-] or 16.8 g steer-1 day-1[MB+]). Steers were fed a total mixed ration with dietary corn straw to concentrate ratio of 50:50 (dry matter [DM] basis). The CP × MB interaction was observed for ruminal total VFA, molar proportions of acetate and propionate, acetate to propionate ratio, ammonia-N, effective degradability of neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and CP, microbial enzyme activity, bacterial populations and total PD excretion (p < .05). Ruminal pH decreased (p < .05), but ruminal total VFA concentration increased (p < .05) with increasing dietary CP level or MB supplementation. Acetate molar proportion increased (p = .043) with MB supplementation, but was not affected by dietary CP level. Propionate molar proportion decreased (p < .05) with increasing dietary CP level or MB supplementation. Consequently, acetate-to-propionate ratio increased (p = .001) with MB supplementation, but was not affected by dietary CP level. Ruminal ammonia-N content increased (p = .034) with increasing dietary CP level, but decreased (p = .012) with MB supplementation. The effective degradability of NDF and CP increased (p < .05) with increasing dietary CP level or MB supplementation. Microbial enzyme activity, bacterial populations and total PD excretion also increased (p < .05) with increasing dietary CP level or MB supplementation. The results indicated that ruminal fermentation, nutrient degradability, microbial enzyme activity, ruminal bacterial populations and microbial protein synthesis improved with increasing dietary CP level or MB supplementation in steers.
- Use of Metabolomics in Improving Assessment of Dietary Intake. [Review]
- CCClin Chem 2018; 64(1):82-98
- CONCLUSIONS: A wide range of technologies, databases, and computational tools are available to integrate nutritional metabolomics with dietary and phenotypic information. Biomarkers identified with the use of high-throughput metabolomics techniques include amino acids, acylcarnitines, carbohydrates, bile acids, purine and pyrimidine metabolites, and lipid classes. The most extensively studied food groups include fruits, vegetables, meat, fish, bread, whole grain cereals, nuts, wine, coffee, tea, cocoa, and chocolate. We identified 16 studies that evaluated metabolite signatures associated with dietary patterns. Dietary patterns examined included vegetarian and lactovegetarian diets, omnivorous diet, Western dietary patterns, prudent dietary patterns, Nordic diet, and Mediterranean diet. Although many metabolite biomarkers of individual foods and dietary patterns have been identified, those biomarkers may not be sensitive or specific to dietary intakes. Some biomarkers represent short-term intakes rather than long-term dietary habits. Nonetheless, nutritional metabolomics holds promise for the development of a robust and unbiased strategy for measuring diet. Still, this technology is intended to be complementary, rather than a replacement, to traditional well-validated dietary assessment methods such as food frequency questionnaires that can measure usual diet, the most relevant exposure in nutritional epidemiologic studies.
- Mycoprotein represents a bioavailable and insulinotropic non-animal-derived dietary protein source: a dose-response study. [Randomized Controlled Trial]
- BJBr J Nutr 2017; 118(9):673-685
- The anabolic potential of a dietary protein is determined by its ability to elicit postprandial rises in circulating essential amino acids and insulin. Minimal data exist regarding the bioavailabilit...
The anabolic potential of a dietary protein is determined by its ability to elicit postprandial rises in circulating essential amino acids and insulin. Minimal data exist regarding the bioavailability and insulinotropic effects of non-animal-derived protein sources. Mycoprotein is a sustainable and rich source of non-animal-derived dietary protein. We investigated the impact of mycoprotein ingestion, in a dose-response manner, on acute postprandial hyperaminoacidaemia and hyperinsulinaemia. In all, twelve healthy young men completed five experimental trials in a randomised, single-blind, cross-over design. During each trial, volunteers consumed a test drink containing either 20 g milk protein (MLK20) or a mass matched (not protein matched due to the fibre content) bolus of mycoprotein (20 g; MYC20), a protein matched bolus of mycoprotein (40 g; MYC40), 60 g (MYC60) or 80 g (MYC80) mycoprotein. Circulating amino acid, insulin and uric acid concentrations, and clinical chemistry profiles, were assessed in arterialised venous blood samples during a 4-h postprandial period. Mycoprotein ingestion resulted in slower but more sustained hyperinsulinaemia and hyperaminoacidaemia compared with milk when protein matched, with overall bioavailability equivalent between conditions (P>0·05). Increasing the dose of mycoprotein amplified these effects, with some evidence of a plateau at 60-80 g. Peak postprandial leucine concentrations were 201 (sem 24) (30 min), 118 (sem 10) (90 min), 150 (sem 14) (90 min), 173 (sem 23) (45 min) and 201 (sem 21 (90 min) µmol/l for MLK20, MYC20, MYC40, MYC60 and MYC80, respectively. Mycoprotein represents a bioavailable and insulinotropic dietary protein source. Consequently, mycoprotein may be a useful source of dietary protein to stimulate muscle protein synthesis rates.
- Improved LC-MS(n) characterization of hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and flavonols in different commercial mate (Ilex paraguariensis) brands. Quantification of polyphenols, methylxanthines, and antioxidant activity. [Journal Article]
- FCFood Chem 2018 Feb 15; 241:232-241
- Yerba mate is a beverage rich in bioactive compounds popular in South America. Polyphenols and methylxanthines were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed in four commercial brands of yerba mate, ...
Yerba mate is a beverage rich in bioactive compounds popular in South America. Polyphenols and methylxanthines were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed in four commercial brands of yerba mate, as well as the antioxidant capacity of the beverages. Using LC/MS(n) analysis, 58 polyphenols were observed of which 4-sinapoylquinic acid, di- and tri-methoxycinnamoylquinic acids, two isomers of trimethoxycinnamoylshikimic acid and four isomers of caffeoyl-2,7-anhydro-3-deoxy-2-octulopyranosonic acid were identified for the first time in mate. Additionally, 46 polyphenols and 2 methylxanthines were quantified by HPLC-DAD. Hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and flavonols comprised 90% and 10% of mate phenols, respectively, 3-caffeoylquinic (26.8-28.8%), 5-caffeoylquinic (21.1-22.4%), 4-caffeoylquinic (12.6-14.2%) and 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acids (9.5-11.3%) along with rutin (7.1-7.8%) were the most abundant polyphenols, whereas caffeine was the main methylxanthine (90%). Ilex paraguariensis is an important source of polyphenols with moderate methylxanthines content; therefore its high antioxidant capacity was mainly associated to its polyphenolic composition.
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- Oxidative damage of 18S and 5S ribosomal RNA in digestive gland of mussels exposed to trace metals. [Journal Article]
- ATAquat Toxicol 2017; 192:136-147
- Numerous studies have shown the ability of trace metals to accumulate in marine organisms and cause oxidative stress that leads to perturbations in many important intracellular processes, including p...
Numerous studies have shown the ability of trace metals to accumulate in marine organisms and cause oxidative stress that leads to perturbations in many important intracellular processes, including protein synthesis. This study is mainly focused on the exploration of structural changes, like base modifications, scissions, and conformational changes, caused in 18S and 5S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) isolated from the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis exposed to 40μg/L Cu, 30μg/L Hg, or 100μg/L Cd, for 5 or 15days. 18S rRNA and 5S rRNA are components of the small and large ribosomal subunit, respectively, found in complex with ribosomal proteins, translation factors and other auxiliary components (metal ions, toxins etc). 18S rRNA plays crucial roles in all stages of protein synthesis, while 5S rRNA serves as a master signal transducer between several functional regions of 28S rRNA. Therefore, structural changes in these ribosomal constituents could affect the basic functions of ribosomes and hence the normal metabolism of cells. Especially, 18S rRNA along with ribosomal proteins forms the decoding centre that ensures the correct codon-anticodon pairing. As exemplified by ELISA, primer extension analysis and DMS footprinting analysis, each metal caused oxidative damage to rRNA, depending on the nature of metal ion and the duration of exposure. Interestingly, exposure of mussels to Cu or Hg caused structural alterations in 5S rRNA, localized in paired regions and within loops A, B, C, and E, leading to a continuous progressive loss of the 5S RNA structural integrity. In contrast, structural impairments of 5S rRNA in mussels exposed to Cd were accumulating for the initial 5days, and then progressively decreased to almost the normal level by day 15, probably due to the parallel elevation of metallothionein content that depletes the pools of free Cd. Regions of interest in 18S rRNA, such as the decoding centre, sites implicated in the binding of tRNAs (A- and P-sites) or translation factors, and areas related to translation fidelity, were found to undergo significant metal-induced conformational alterations, leading either to loosening of their structure or to more compact folding. These modifications were associated with parallel alterations in the translation process at multiple levels, a fact suggesting that structural perturbations in ribosomes, caused by metals, pose significant hurdles in translational efficiency and fidelity.