- Transient Intraocular Pressure Fluctuations: Source, Magnitude, Frequency, and Associated Mechanical Energy. [Journal Article]
- IOInvest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2019 Jun 03; 60(7):2572-2582
- CONCLUSIONS: Transient IOP fluctuations occur frequently and comprise a large and significant portion of the total IOP loading in the eye and should, therefore, be considered in future studies of cell mechanotransduction, ocular biomechanics, and/or clinical outcomes where transient IOP fluctuations may be important. If IOP dynamics are similar in humans, clinical snapshot IOP measurements are insufficient to capture true IOP.
- Proteomic genotyping of fingermark donors with genetically variant peptides. [Journal Article]
- FSForensic Sci Int Genet 2019 May 28; 42:21-30
- Proteomic genotyping detects single amino acid polymorphisms to infer the genotype of corresponding non-synonymous SNPs. Like any DNA genotype, these inferences can be used to estimate random match p…
Proteomic genotyping detects single amino acid polymorphisms to infer the genotype of corresponding non-synonymous SNPs. Like any DNA genotype, these inferences can be used to estimate random match probability. Fingermarks are a common source of biological evidence that is sample limited and a highly variable source of identifying DNA. Genetically variant peptides from fingermarks, that contain single amino acid polymorphisms, are an additional source of identifying genetic information. To discover these peptide biomarkers epidermal corneocytes from 9 subjects were isolated, processed, digested with trypsin and applied to mass spectrometry. The resulting proteomic and matching exome datasets were used to discover, characterize and validate 60 genetically variant peptides. An average of 28.8 ± 4.4 genetically variant peptides were detected from each subject resulting in a total of 264 SNP allele inferences with 260 true and 4 false positives, a false discovery rate of 1.5%. Random match probabilities were estimated using the genotype frequencies from the matching major populations in the 1000 Genomes Project. Estimates ranged up to a value of 1 in 1.7 × 108, with a median probability of 1 in 2.4 × 106. Furthermore, the proteomically-inferred genotypes are likely to be compatible with the STR-based random match probability estimates since the closest STR locus was 2.2 Mb from the nearest GVP-inferred SNP. This project represents a novel mode of genetic information that can be obtained from fingermarks and has the potential to complement other methods of human identification including analysis of ridge patterns or touch DNA.
- Cytotoxic and neuroprotective activities of constituents from Alternaria alternate, a fungal endophyte of Psidium littorale. [Journal Article]
- BCBioorg Chem 2019 Jun 06; 90:103046
- Chemical investigation of the EtOAc extract of the plant-associated fungus Alternaria alternate in rice culture led to the isolation of a novel liphatic polyketone, alternin A (1), a new indole alkal…
Chemical investigation of the EtOAc extract of the plant-associated fungus Alternaria alternate in rice culture led to the isolation of a novel liphatic polyketone, alternin A (1), a new indole alkaloid (8), and a new sesquiterpene (11), together with 12 known compounds. Their structures were elucidated by the interpretation of extensive spectroscopic data, and the absolute configurations of 1-3 were established using calculations of ECD spectra, NMR data, and optical rotation values. Compound 1 possesses an unprecedented C25 liphatic polyketone skeleton. Compounds 5 and 10 exhibited potential cytotoxic activities against MCF-7 and HepG cells, and compounds 2, 7, and 9 exhibited potential neuroprotective activities in glutamate induced-PC12 injured cells.
- Illustration of the microbial community selected by optimized process and nutritional parameters resulting in enhanced biomethanation of rice straw without thermo-chemical pretreatment. [Journal Article]
- BTBioresour Technol 2019 Jun 11; 289:121639
- Effects of different process and nutritional parameters on microbial community structure and function were investigated to enhance the biomethanation of rice straw without any thermochemical pre-trea…
Effects of different process and nutritional parameters on microbial community structure and function were investigated to enhance the biomethanation of rice straw without any thermochemical pre-treatment. The study was performed in a mesophilic anaerobic digester with cattle dung slurry as inoculum. The highest methane yield of 274 ml g-1 volatile solids was obtained from particulate rice straw (1 mm size, 7.5% solids loading rate) at 37 °C, pH-7, when supplemented with urea (carbon: nitrogen ratio, 25:1) and zinc as trace element (100 µM) at 21 days hydraulic retention time. The optimization of conditions selected Clostridium, Bacteroides, and Ruminococcus as dominant hydrolytic bacteria and Methanosarcina as the methanogen. Analysis of metagenome and metatranscriptome revealed wide array of bacterial lignocellulolytic enzymes that efficiently hydrolyzed the rice straw. The methane yield was >80% of the theoretical yield, making this green process a sustainable choice for efficient extraction of energy from rice straw.
- Impacts of moisture sources on the isotopic inverse altitude effect and amount of precipitation in the Hani Rice Terraces region of the Ailao Mountains. [Journal Article]
- STSci Total Environ 2019 May 30; 687:470-478
- Generally, the isotopic composition of precipitation on the windward side of gigantic mountains has a negative altitude gradient. However, an inverse isotopic altitude effect occurs when there are di…
Generally, the isotopic composition of precipitation on the windward side of gigantic mountains has a negative altitude gradient. However, an inverse isotopic altitude effect occurs when there are diverse vapor sources. This paper takes the Quanfuzhuang River Basin (QRB), which lies in the Hani Rice Terraces region of the southern Ailao Mountains in southwest China, as the study area. The study analyzes the isotopic data of 42 precipitation samples collected between an elevation range from 1500 m to 2024 m a.s.l. during the rainy season (from May to October) of 2015. The results indicate that there is an inverse isotopic altitude effect of precipitation with a positive isotope altitude gradient of 0.47‰/100 m and 1.10‰/100 m for δ18O and δ2H, respectively, at the mountaintop, while the precipitation amount increases at related elevations. A mixture of over peak airflow and recycled vapor is responsible for the inverse altitude effect as well as increasing rainfall amount. The positive precipitation isotopic altitude gradient is primarily caused by the local water cycle, and the increased precipitation amount is mainly caused by over peak airflow. The inverse isotopic altitude effect is also found in the Colorado Rocky Mountains, the Central Hindu Kush Mountains and the Tianshan Mountains, and findings from those mountains support these findings on the influence of mixed moisture sources on isotopic inverse altitude effects.
- Phosphate addition diminishes the efficacy of wollastonite in decreasing Cd uptake by rice (Oryza sativa L.) in paddy soil. [Journal Article]
- STSci Total Environ 2019 May 31; 687:441-450
- Cadmium (Cd) contamination in paddy soils poses food security risks and public health concerns. Exploring effective strategies to reduce rice grain Cd is an urgent need. In this study, field plot exp…
Cadmium (Cd) contamination in paddy soils poses food security risks and public health concerns. Exploring effective strategies to reduce rice grain Cd is an urgent need. In this study, field plot experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of wollastonite application with or without phosphate (P) addition on Cd accumulation in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Co-application of P and wollastonite showed greater efficiency than wollastonite amendments alone in raising soil pH and CEC and decreasing soil Cd availability. Cd concentration in brown rice was decreased by 71% under the wollastonite treatment alone, but was decreased by only 29-39% when wollastonite was coupled with different P amendments. This seeming contradiction could be ascribed to the dramatic decline in the phytoavailability of manganese (Mn) and the increase in molar ratio of iron (Fe) to Mn (Fe/Mn) in Fe plaques on root surfaces in the presence of P additions. Significant negative correlations between Mn and Cd in rice plants and positive correlations between Fe/Mn in Fe plaque and Cd in rice plants indicated that P-induced soil Mn deficiency and reduced Mn in Fe plaque impeded the alleviation of Cd accumulation in rice. Application of wollastonite in Si-deficient paddy soils was effective in reducing rice Cd accumulation while boosting rice yield, but co-application of P and wollastonite was counterproductive and should be avoided. This work emphasized that a better understanding of the relationships between Cd and related mineral nutrient uptake would be helpful in developing more efficient measures to reduce rice grain Cd.
- The rice SUMO conjugating enzymes OsSCE1 and OsSCE3 have opposing effects on drought stress. [Journal Article]
- JPJ Plant Physiol 2019 Jun 11; 240:152993
- Posttranslational modification of proteins by the small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) protein is involved in diverse cellular processes. In sumoylation, SUMO-conjugating enzyme (SCE) conjugates S…
Posttranslational modification of proteins by the small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) protein is involved in diverse cellular processes. In sumoylation, SUMO-conjugating enzyme (SCE) conjugates SUMO to substrate proteins. Similarly to yeast and animals, Arabidopsis encodes a single SCE gene, but other plants encode at least two SCE genes. In this study, we report the molecular characterization of three Oryza sativa SCE genes. Their levels of expression are commonly upregulated by drought stress but are differentially regulated by hormones and sugars. Only the OsSCE1 gene showed photoperiod- and light-dependent diurnal oscillations in the leaves. Yeast two-hybrid assays showed that OsSCEs do not show SUMO isoform specificity. Three rice OsSCE proteins localize primarily to the nucleus. Interestingly, OsSCE1 is distributed in specific parts of the nucleus and shows sumoylation activities in the absence of a SUMO ligase in E. coli. In addition, overexpression of the OsSCE1 gene alters the biomass and grain yield parameters in transgenic rice plants. Overexpression of the OsSCE3 gene in transgenic rice plants enhances drought stress tolerance. In contrast, OsSCE1-OX transgenic rice plants are hypersensitive to drought stress. Our results suggest that these genes may be involved in different cellular processes.
- Repeated administration of synthetic cathinone 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone persistently increases impulsive choice in rats. [Journal Article]
- BPBehav Pharmacol 2019 Jun 17
- 3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) is a selective catecholamine reuptake inhibitor abused for its psychostimulant properties. This study examined if MDPV administration alters impulsive choice mea…
3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) is a selective catecholamine reuptake inhibitor abused for its psychostimulant properties. This study examined if MDPV administration alters impulsive choice measured by delay discounting in rats. Three groups of rats were tested in daily delay discounting sessions to determine the effects of acute cocaine (1.0-30.0 mg/kg), MDPV (0.1-3.0 mg/kg), or saline on mean adjusted delay (MAD). Dose-dependent decreases in MAD were elicited only by acute MDPV, which also suppressed operant responding at the highest dose. Next, rats received post-session injections (30.0 mg/kg cocaine, 3.0 mg/kg MDPV, or saline) every other day for a total of 10 injections. MAD increased during saline treatment, did not change during cocaine treatment, and was reduced during MDPV treatment. In dose-effect re-determinations, no acute drug effects on MAD were observed, but compared to the initial dose-effect determination, MDPV suppressed operant responding in more animals, with zero animals completing trials at the highest dose. All saline and MDPV-treated subjects were sacrificed, and striatal and cortical dopamine levels were quantified by HPLC. These studies indicate that administration of MDPV may increase impulsive choice acutely and persistently. These proimpulsive effects are possibly mediated by increases in striatal dopamine turnover.
- NF-YC12 is a key multi-functional regulator of accumulation of seed storage substances in rice. [Journal Article]
- JEJ Exp Bot 2019 Apr 11
- Starch and storage proteins, the primary storage substances of cereal endosperm, are a major source of food for humans. However, the transcriptional regulatory networks of the synthesis and accumulat…
Starch and storage proteins, the primary storage substances of cereal endosperm, are a major source of food for humans. However, the transcriptional regulatory networks of the synthesis and accumulation of storage substances remain largely unknown. Here, we identified a rice endosperm-specific gene, NF-YC12, that encodes a putative nuclear factor-Y transcription factor subunit C. NF-YC12 is expressed in the aleurone layer and starchy endosperm during grain development. Knockout of NF-YC12 significantly decreased grain weight as well as altering starch and protein accumulation and starch granule formation. RNA-sequencing analysis revealed that in the nf-yc12 mutant genes related to starch biosynthesis and the metabolism of energy reserves were enriched in the down-regulated category. In addition, starch and protein contents in seeds differed between NF-YC12-overexpression lines and the wild-type. NF-YC12 was found to interact with NF-YB1. ChIP-qPCR and yeast one-hybrid assays showed that NF-YC12 regulated the rice sucrose transporter OsSUT1 in coordination with NF-YB1 in the aleurone layer. In addition, NF-YC12 was directly bound to the promoters of FLO6 (FLOURY ENDOSPERM6) and OsGS1;3 (glutamine synthetase1) in developing endosperm. This study demonstrates a transcriptional regulatory network involving NF-YC12, which coordinates multiple pathways to regulate endosperm development and the accumulation of storage substances in rice seeds.
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- Effects of dietary fiber content and different fiber-rich ingredients on endogenous loss of fat and fatty acids in growing pigs. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Anim Sci Biotechnol 2019; 10:42
- CONCLUSIONS: The profile of loss in endogenous fatty acids did not change as dietary NDF increased in growing pigs and the endogenous losses of fatty acids (C16:0, C18:0, C18:1 and C18:2) fat, UFA and SFA increased linearly as NDF content increased in the diets of pigs. The endogenous losses of fat or fatty acids at the end of ileum were greater in growing pigs fed RH, CGM or WB diets. The endogenous losses of fat, fatty acids (C16:0 and C18:0) and SFA were greater over the entire intestinal tract in pigs fed CGM or WB diet, while these values were the lowest in growing pigs fed the DRB diet. The contribution in percentage losses of fat in the upper gut were greater than in the hindgut of growing pigs fed DRB and RH diets, while the contribution of losses of fat in the upper gut and hindgut were equal in growing pigs fed SBP, CGM and WB diets. In addition, the endogenous loss of individual or total UFA was less over the entire intestinal tract of growing pigs fed fiber diets than that at the end of ileum, and the greatest endogenous losses of fat, individual or total SFA were over the entire intestinal tract. Therefore, differences in fiber content and the nature of fiber-rich ingredients in diets of pigs have different effects to the endogenous losses of fat or fatty acids. Considering the requirement of fat or fatty acids of pigs, careful attention must be paid that the endogenous losses of fat and fatty acids when fiber ingredients are used in diets of pigs.