- Symmetrical drug-related intertriginous and flexural exanthema (SDRIFE) associated with pristinamycin, secnidazole, and nefopam, with a review of the literature. [Journal Article]
- CDContact Dermatitis 2018; 79(6):378-380
- Unusual Manifestations of Secondary Syphilis: Case Presentations. [Journal Article]
- ADActa Dermatovenerol Croat 2018; 26(2):186-188
- Dear Editor, Syphilis is an infection caused by Treponema pallidum. Without treatment, it goes through the following stages: primary, secondary, latent, and tertiary (1). The clinical picture of seco...
Dear Editor, Syphilis is an infection caused by Treponema pallidum. Without treatment, it goes through the following stages: primary, secondary, latent, and tertiary (1). The clinical picture of secondary syphilis is very variable (2,3). We present two rare cases of secondary syphilis, one with nodular lesions initially considered to be lymphoma and second with periostitis, which was initially interpreted as an osteoma. To date, only 15 cases with nodular lesions and 10 cases with periostitis in secondary syphilis have been reported in the literature. The first patient was a 59 year old man who presented in a private practice with nodular lesions on the face and axillary and inguinal folds (Figure 1, a, b). The initial diagnostic consideration was lymphoma. A biopsy specimen was taken, and the histopathological features revealed epidermal hyperplasia with papillomatosis, minimal spongiosis with many neutrophils and with a marked inflammatory infiltrate in dermis, consisting of lymphocytes, plasma cells, and neutrophils; the diagnosis of interfaced dermatitis was established (Figure 1, d, e). After one month, the patient presented to our clinic with numerous nodular lesions, some of them painful, located on the trunk and intertriginous folds, including the intergluteal cleft - the lesions in this area being suggestive of condylomata lata (Figure 1, c). The diagnosis of secondary syphilis was taken into consideration, and screening serum tests were performed and found reactive: a Venereal Diseases Research Laboratory (VDRL) titer of 1:64 and Treponema pallidum Hemaglutination Assay (TPHA) titer of 1:80. Hepatitis and anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibodies serology was negative. The biopsy was repeated and showed the same histopathological changes. In addition, Warthin-Starry staining was performed, revealing the presence of some spiral micro-organisms in the dermis corresponding to Treponema pallidum (Figure 1, f). A diagnosis of secondary syphilis was established, and the patient was treated with benzathine penicillin G 2.4 million units by intramuscular injection once a week for 2 consecutive weeks. The skin lesions regressed within 1 month, and serological tests showed a VDRL titer of 1:8 3 months after treatment. The second patient was a homosexual male, 35 years old, diagnosed with HIV infection, stage B2. He presented with bone pain in the calves and forearms, with insidious onset. He also presented with an associated erythematous maculo-papular rash on the trunk and limbs and generalized lymphadenopathy (Figure 2, a, b). The tibial crest and radius were sensitive to palpation. A right leg radiography was performed, raising suspicion of osteoid osteoma. The CT scan excluded the diagnosis of osteoma; taking into account the epidemiological context, the diagnosis of syphilis was suspected. The diagnosis was confirmed by leg ultrasound examination (2D US) which showed thickening of the compact tibial bone associated with subperiosteal destructive and proliferative changes (Figure 2, c, d) and by serology for syphilis: the VDRL titer was 1:32 and the TPHA titer was 1:80. The patient was treated with benzathine penicillin 2.4 million units, once a week, for 2 consecutive weeks, with clinical improvement. Syphilis continues to be a serious public health problem worldwide, even if it is a controllable disease due to diagnostic tests and effective and accessible treatment. According to the World Health Organization in 2008, the estimated number of new cases of sexually transmitted diseases in adults with syphilis is 10.6 million cases (4). The cases presented in this paper were characterized by unusual manifestations, requiring good collaboration between the dermatologist and other specialties. In the first case, the diagnosis of secondary syphilis was confirmed by positive serological, clinical, and histopathological findings. The main differential diagnosis of nodular syphilis includes lymphoma, sarcoidosis, Kaposi's sarcoma, atypical mycobacteriosis, deep fungal infections, leprosy, tuberculosis, leishmaniasis, and lymphomatoid papulosis (5). Another important differential diagnosis is between secondary and tertiary syphilis, especially when ulcerating nodules are present. Tertiary syphilis is characterized by unilateral, deep ulcerating nodules with necrotizing granulomas (6). Bone involvement during syphilis is mainly represented by polyarthritis, synovitis, osteitis, and periostitis (7,8). Syphilitic periostitis is characterized by localized or diffuse pain, particularly during the night, which is relieved by movement. The skull, the shoulder girdle, and the long bones are the most common sites of involvement (9). In conclusion, we presented two different cases of secondary syphilis that contribute to the clinical experience of rare cases presented in the literature, raising the awareness of dermatologists and other specialists about less specific clinical aspects of syphilis.
- First case of symmetrical drug-related intertriginous and flexural exanthema (SDRIFE) due to Berberine, an over-the-counter herbal glycemic control agent. [Letter]
- IJInt J Dermatol 2018; 57(9):e68-e70
- Systemic Contact Dermatitis. [Review]
- CRClin Rev Allergy Immunol 2018 May 15
- Systemic contact dermatitis (SCD) traditionally refers to a skin condition where an individual who is cutaneously sensitized to an allergen will subsequently react to that same allergen or a cross re...
Systemic contact dermatitis (SCD) traditionally refers to a skin condition where an individual who is cutaneously sensitized to an allergen will subsequently react to that same allergen or a cross reacting allergen via a different route. It occurs to allergens including metals, medications, and foods. The exact pathophysiology underlying this disease remains unknown, although it appears to be mediated by type 4 hypersensitivity reactions and possibly type 3 hypersensitivity reactions. The p-I concept (pharmacologic interaction with immunoreceptors) hypothesized that drugs are able to bind directly to a T cell receptor without first being presented by MHC (major histocompatibility complex) molecules and without prior metabolism, which would help explain why SCD can be seen on first exposure to medications. Nomenclature remains a challenge as SCD can be subcategorized using terms such as ACDS (allergic contact dermatitis syndrome) and its four clinical stages, Baboon syndrome, and SDRIFE (symmetrical drug-related intertriginous and flexural exanthema), which share many overlapping features. Food allergens may be responsible for uncontrolled or persistent symptoms in patients with contact dermatitis who do not respond to topical avoidance. With medications, symptoms may be induced by topical application versus systemic administration. Patch testing (PT) may be beneficial in diagnosing SCD caused by metals and many topical medications including corticosteroids, antimicrobials (ampicillin, bacitracin, erythromycin, neomycin, nystatin), NSAIDs (diclofenac, ibuprofen), anesthetics, and antihistamines (chlorphenamine, piperazine). Current treatment options include topical steroids and oral antihistamines for symptom relief and dietary avoidance to causative foods or metals.
- Tacrolimus-induced symmetric drug-related intertriginous and flexural exanthema (SDRIFE). [Case Reports]
- CDContact Dermatitis 2018; 78(6):414-416
- A review of cutaneous manifestations within glucagonoma syndrome: necrolytic migratory erythema. [Case Reports]
- IJInt J Dermatol 2018; 57(6):642-645
- Necrolytic migratory erythema (NME) is a rare skin disorder that is a cutaneous manifestation of the glucagonoma syndrome. It presents with annular eruptions of migrating erythematous papules and pla...
Necrolytic migratory erythema (NME) is a rare skin disorder that is a cutaneous manifestation of the glucagonoma syndrome. It presents with annular eruptions of migrating erythematous papules and plaques with superficial epidermal necrosis, central flaccid bullae, and crusted erosions located primarily in the intertriginous areas. Treatment with the long-acting somatostatin analog Octreotide is a potential therapy to help ameliorate skin symptoms. We present a case of a patient with a 1-year history of a pancreatic glucagonoma that developed an ulcerated, plaque-like, weeping rash over multiple areas of their body despite current treatment with Octreotide and stable pancreatic tumor staging. The patient had a similar rash when initially diagnosed with a glucagonoma, and it quickly improved after Octreotide treatment. Clinical examination and biopsy were consistent with necrolytic migratory erythema due to an underlying glucagonoma. This rare case adds to our understanding of the clinical presentation of NME, as well as highlights the relapsing and remitting course, even if the underlying pancreatic tumor is stable and the patient is undergoing treatment.
- Symmetrical Drug-related Intertriginous and Flexural Exanthema Induced by Doxycycline. [Journal Article]
- CCureus 2017 Nov 10; 9(11):e1836
- Symmetrical drug-related intertriginous and flexural exanthema (SDRIFE) is a cutaneous drug reaction characterized by erythema over the buttocks, thighs, groin, and flexural regions most commonly ass...
Symmetrical drug-related intertriginous and flexural exanthema (SDRIFE) is a cutaneous drug reaction characterized by erythema over the buttocks, thighs, groin, and flexural regions most commonly associated with the use of beta-lactam antibiotics. Although the exact pathophysiology of this disease remains unknown, it is theorized to be the result of a delayed hypersensitivity response presenting as a cutaneous eruption days to weeks after exposure to the drug. The treatment involves discontinuation of the suspected medication, symptomatic control of pruritus, and topical steroid therapy. A 51-year-old woman with homocystinuria and fibromyalgia was admitted with fevers, pancytopenia (later diagnosed to be acute myelogenous leukemia), and a targetoid cutaneous eruption in the setting of a recent tick bite. She was subsequently noted to have symmetric, pruritic, erythematous papules over the lateral neck, retroauricular regions, lateral aspects of the inframammary regions, medial upper arms, axillae, and the lower abdomen two weeks after starting doxycycline. Considering the morphology, distribution, and intense pruritis associated with the eruption, a diagnosis of SDRIFE was made. Doxycycline discontinuation along with topical steroid therapy resulted in the resolution of the eruption and pruritus. Given the widespread use of doxycycline, clinicians should be aware of this possible side effect.
- The recurrent intertriginous rash. [Case Reports]
- EJEur J Intern Med 2018; 53:e4-e5
- Symmetric Drug-related Intertriginous and Flexural Exanthema due to Itraconazole: An Uncommon Side Effect of a Commonly Used Drug. [Journal Article]
- IDIndian Dermatol Online J 2017 Nov-Dec; 8(6):501-503
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- Cutaneous Manifestations of Chikungunya Fever: Observations from an Outbreak at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Southeast Rajasthan, India. [Journal Article]
- IDIndian Dermatol Online J 2017 Sep-Oct; 8(5):336-342
- CONCLUSIONS: Wide varieties of the mucocutaneous manifestations were observed in our study, but the striking nose pigmentation was present irrespective of age and this peculiar pigmentation may be considered as a specific clinical marker of chikungunya fever. Chikungunya fever must be suspected in any patient with painful oro-genital and intertriginous aphthous-like lesions associated with febrile polyarthralgia with rash.