- Single-layer Metasurface with Controllable Multi-wavelength Functions. [Journal Article]
- NLNano Lett 2018 Feb 20
- In this paper, we report dispersion-engineered metasurfaces with distinct functionalities controlled by wavelength. Unlike previous approaches based on spatial multiplexing or vertical stacking of me...
In this paper, we report dispersion-engineered metasurfaces with distinct functionalities controlled by wavelength. Unlike previous approaches based on spatial multiplexing or vertical stacking of metasurfaces, we utilize a single phase profile with wavelength dependence encoded in the phase shifters' dispersion. We designed and fabricated a multiwavelength achromatic metalens (MAM) with achromatic focusing for blue (B), green (G), yellow (Y), and red (R) light; and two wavelength-controlled beam generators (WCBG): one focuses light with orbital angular momentum (OAM) states (l = 0,1,2) corresponding to three primary colors; the other produces ordinary focal spots (l = 0) for red and green light, while generating a vortex beam (l = 1) in the blue. A full color (RGB) hologram is also demonstrated in simulation. Our approach opens a path to applications ranging from near-eye displays and holography to compact multi-wavelength beam generation.
- Brimonidine Ophthalmic Solution 0.025% for Reduction of Ocular Redness: A Randomized Clinical Trial. [Journal Article]
- OVOptom Vis Sci 2018; 95(3):264-271
- CONCLUSIONS: The α2-adrenergic receptor agonist brimonidine has been reported to induce conjunctival blanching in cataract, strabismus, laser refractive, and filtration procedures. Clinicians are often faced with red eyes with no apparent underlying pathology. Low-dose brimonidine reduced ocular redness in such subjects with efficacy maintained over 1 month and negligible rebound redness.Brimonidine 0.025% appeared safe and effective for reduction of ocular redness, with an 8-hour duration of action, no evidence of tachyphylaxis, and negligible rebound redness.
- PINK1 Protects Auditory Hair Cells and Spiral Ganglion Neurons from Cisplatin-induced Ototoxicity via Inducing Autophagy and Inhibiting JNK Signaling Pathway. [Journal Article]
- FRFree Radic Biol Med 2018 Feb 16
- Phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN)-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) gene encodes a serine/threonine kinase, which acts as a molecular sensor of mitochondrial health necessary for mitochondrial ...
Phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN)-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) gene encodes a serine/threonine kinase, which acts as a molecular sensor of mitochondrial health necessary for mitochondrial quality control. The present study was designed to examine whether PINK1 expressed in C57BL/6 murine cochlea and HEI-OC1 cells and, if so, to investigate the possible mechanisms underlying the action of PINK1 in cisplatin-induced death of sensory hair cells (HCs) and spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) in vitro. The expression pattern of PINK1, formation of parkin particles, and autophagy were determined by immunofluorescent staining. The expressions of PINK1, LC3B, cleaved-caspase 3 and p-JNK were measured by Western blotting. The levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were evaluated by DCFH-DA and Mito-Sox Red staining. The mitochondrial membrane potential was detected by Tetramethylrhodamine methyl ester perchlorate (TMRM) and Rhodamine 123. Cell viability and apoptosis were examined by CCK8 assay, TUNEL staining and Annexin V Apoptosis Detection Kit, respectively. We found that PINK1 was widely expressed in the cytoplasm in HCs, SGNs, stria vascularis of C57BL/6 cochlea and HEI-OC1 cells and, notably, the expression level in cochlear HCs and SGNs of postnatal day 4 (P4) mice was higher than that in adult mice. Moreover, treatment with 30μM cisplatin elicited the formation of ROS, which, in turn, led to PINK1 activation, parkin recruitment, autophagy formation and JNK pathway relevant to apoptosis in HEI-OC1 cells, HCs, and SGNs. Meanwhile, co-treatment with ROS scavenger N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) or H2O2consumer catalase-polyethylene glycol (PEG-catalase) inhibited parkin recruitment, alleviated autophagy formation, and mitigated JNK pathway related apoptosis. In addition, PINK1 silencing resulted in a lower level of autophagy, but, a higher mortality in HEI-OC1 cells treated with cisplatin. Taken together, data from this work reveal that PINK1 possesses the protective effect via induction of autophagy and resistance of apoptosis under cisplatin stimulus in sensory HCs and SGNs, implying that PINK1 might serve as an important regulator of cisplatin-elicited ototoxicity.
- Genome-wide association study identifies seven novel susceptibility loci for primary open-angle glaucoma. [Journal Article]
- HMHum Mol Genet 2018 Feb 14
- Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is the leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide for which 15 disease-associated loci had been discovered. Among them, only 5 loci have been associated with...
Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is the leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide for which 15 disease-associated loci had been discovered. Among them, only 5 loci have been associated with POAG in Asians. We carried out a genome-wide association study and a replication study that included a total of 7,378 POAG cases and 36,385 controls from a Japanese population. After combining the GWAS and the two replication sets, we identified 11 POAG-associated loci, including 4 known (CDKN2B-AS1, ABCA1, SIX6 and AFAP1) and 7 novel loci (FNDC3B, ANKRD55-MAP3K1, LMX1B, LHPP, HMGA2, MEIS2 and LOXL1) at a genome-wide significance level (p < 5.0 x 10-8), bringing the total number of POAG-susceptibility loci to 22. The 7 novel variants were subsequently evaluated in a multi-ethnic population comprising non-Japanese East Asians (1,008 cases, 591 controls), Europeans (5,008 cases, 35,472 controls), and Africans (2,341 cases, 2,037 controls). The candidate genes located within the new loci were related to ocular development (LMX1B, HMGA2, and MAP3K1) and glaucoma-related phenotypes (FNDC3B, LMX1B, and LOXL1). Pathway analysis suggested epidermal growth factor receptor signaling might be involved in POAG pathogenesis. Genetic correlation analysis revealed the relationships between POAG and systemic diseases, including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. These results improve our understanding of the genetic factors that affect the risk of developing POAG and provide new insight into the genetic architecture of POAG in Asians.
- Quantitative comparisons between optical coherence tomography angiography and matched histology in the human eye. [Journal Article]
- EEExp Eye Res 2018 Feb 12; 170:13-19
- The aim was to quantitatively compare retinal vascular detail as seen on optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) and matched histology in the human eye. 13 normal human donor eyes were used. ...
The aim was to quantitatively compare retinal vascular detail as seen on optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) and matched histology in the human eye. 13 normal human donor eyes were used. The central retinal artery was cannulated after which human packed red blood cells were perfused through the retinal vasculature. Retinal vessels were imaged using a custom-built OCTA device during red blood cell perfusion. The eye was subsequently perfused with endothelial cell antibodies and the flat-mounted retina studied histologically using a confocal scanning laser microscope. Qualitative and quantitative comparisons of retinal vascular information as seen on OCTA and histology from the same region of interest were performed. Gradable OCTA images were acquired from 4 of 13 eyes with mean postmortem-to-OCTA imaging time of 4.5 ± 1.3 h 23 pairs of OCTA-histology matched images were evaluated. The retinal arteries and veins had similar pixel intensity on OCTA images. The diameter of retinal veins was significantly greater than its paired artery on OCTA (P < 0.001). The density of vascular structures on OCTA (40.2% ± 10.1%) was significantly less than matched histology (52.1% ± 9.3%, P < 0.001). Mean capillary diameter on OCTA (10.2 ± 2.4 μm) was significantly greater than histology (8.2 ± 2.4 μm; P < 0.001). This is the first study to directly compare OCTA against histology from the same human eye. OCTA visualizes many of the vascular structures in the human retinal circulation but does not exactly match what is seen on histologic examination.
- [Hygiene and the spectral energtic light pattern]. [Journal Article]
- GSGig Sanit 2017; 96(2):101-6
- There are considered methodological bases of multicriteria synthesis of a spectral energetic pattern for the evaluation of the excessive share of blue and red light in the spectrum of artificial ener...
There are considered methodological bases of multicriteria synthesis of a spectral energetic pattern for the evaluation of the excessive share of blue and red light in the spectrum of artificial energy sources. The basis of this methodology is relied upon on the hygienic approach to the spectrum analysis of solar and led light. Relying upon on "photobiological paradox of vision" according to M. A. Ostrovsky, conditions of "melanopsin cross" and mechanisms of adverse impact of light on vision, all the spectral-energy characteristics of solar light were divided into subspaces. The border between them became a spectral energy pattern for the evaluation of artificial sources on the security of their impact on eye and human health according to criteria of the excessive dose of blue or red light. On two examples there was shown the effectiveness and clarity of this estimation with the using of the spectral energetic pattern of light.
- A signal-on, colorimetric determination of deoxyribonuclease I activity utilizing the photoinduced synthesis of gold nanoparticles. [Journal Article]
- NNanoscale 2018 Feb 15
- A simple, colorimetric method is developed for the determination of deoxyribonuclease I (DNase I) activity based on the novel finding that DNase I can promote the photoinduced synthesis of gold nanop...
A simple, colorimetric method is developed for the determination of deoxyribonuclease I (DNase I) activity based on the novel finding that DNase I can promote the photoinduced synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). In the absence of DNase I, a phosphorothioate (PS) DNA probe remains intact and captures Au(iii) through a strong Au-thiol interaction, which prevents the photoinduced synthesis of AuNPs, leaving the sample in a colorless state. On the other hand, in the presence of DNase I, the PS DNA probe is cleaved into small fragments that are removed via a simple purification process. The resulting solution, after the incubation with HAuCl4and threonine (Thr), forms AuNPs by UV light irradiation with the aid of Thr which acts as a catalyst for the Au(iii) reduction process. As a result, a red-colored suspension is produced. By monitoring the color changes of the samples with the naked eye, the DNase I activity was conveniently determined. In addition, the clinical utility of this simple, yet highly efficient colorimetric strategy was verified by reliably quantifying the DNase I activities in a bovine urine sample. Importantly, the working principle designed for the determination of DNase I activity was successfully expanded for the detection of target nucleic acids, ensuring the universal applicability of the developed assay system.
- Effects of Laser Physical Parameters on Lesion Size in Retinal Photocoagulation Surgery: Clinical OCT and Experimental Study. [Journal Article]
- JBJ Biomed Phys Eng 2017; 7(4):355-364
- CONCLUSIONS: This study showed shorter pulses provide decrease in duration of laser surgery with significantly reduced pain. Results and calculations described in this article can help clinicians adjusting the required total coagulated area, the number of lesions and pattern density.
- Validity of the Red Reflex Exam in the Newborn Eye Screening Test Cohort. [Journal Article]
- OSOphthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina 2018 Feb 01; 49(2):103-110
- CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates the ability of wide-angle fundus imaging to detect fundus abnormalities not otherwise identified by standard newborn red reflex screening prior to hospital discharge. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2018;49:103-110.].
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- Is this a worrisome red eye? Episcleritis in the primary care setting. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Community Hosp Intern Med Perspect 2018; 8(1):46-48
- Episcleritis is the inflammation of the thin, loose, highly vascular connective tissue layer that lies between the conjunctiva and sclera. Incidence is less than 1/1000. It is more common in women an...
Episcleritis is the inflammation of the thin, loose, highly vascular connective tissue layer that lies between the conjunctiva and sclera. Incidence is less than 1/1000. It is more common in women and those between 40 and 50 years of age. Most cases are idiopathic. It is classified into simple and nodular. Most attacks resolve within 1-3 months. The nodular type tends to be more recurrent and painful. It presents with acute onset of redness, lacrimation, and photophobia. The diagnosis of is essentially clinical, and eye pain or tenderness should raise the concern for scleritis. Ophthalmological referral is recommended to rule out scleritis. Bloodwork to diagnose associated systemic rheumatological disease may be helpful. Cold compresses and artificial tears provide symptomatic relief. Topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and steroids are used for persistent symptoms. Rarely, systemic steroids may be necessary. Immunosuppressive treatment to control an underlying autoimmune disorder is the last resort for resistant cases.