- Prolonged-Release Oxycodone/Naloxone Improves Anal Sphincter Relaxation Compared to Oxycodone Plus Macrogol 3350. [Randomized Controlled Trial]
- DDDig Dis Sci 2017; 62(11):3156-3166
- CONCLUSIONS: Relaxation of the internal anal sphincter was significantly better after PR oxycodone/naloxone treatment compared to PR oxycodone plus macrogol 3350. These findings highlight that OIBD may require specific therapy against the complex, pan-intestinal effects of opioids.
- Van Wyk-Grumbach Syndrome with Kocher-Debré-Sémélaigne Syndrome: Case Report of a Rare Association. [Journal Article]
- ETEur Thyroid J 2017; 6(1):47-51
- CONCLUSIONS: VWGS and KDSS are rare presentations of juvenile hypothyroidism, and their association is even rarer. Early diagnosis and prompt replacement therapy can avoid unnecessary investigations and surgical interventions.
- Classification of Involuntary Movements in Dogs: Myoclonus and Myotonia. [Review]
- JVJ Vet Intern Med 2017; 31(4):979-987
- Myoclonus is a sudden brief, involuntary muscle jerk. Of all the movement disorders, myoclonus is the most difficult to encapsulate into any simple framework. On the one hand, a classification system...
Myoclonus is a sudden brief, involuntary muscle jerk. Of all the movement disorders, myoclonus is the most difficult to encapsulate into any simple framework. On the one hand, a classification system is required that is clinically useful to aid in guiding diagnosis and treatment. On the other hand, there is need for a system that organizes current knowledge regarding biological mechanisms to guide scientific research. These 2 needs are distinct, making it challenging to develop a robust classification system suitable for all purposes. We attempt to classify myoclonus as "epileptic" and "nonepileptic" based on its association with epileptic seizures. Myotonia in people may be divided into 2 clinically and molecularly defined forms: (1) nondystrophic myotonias and (2) myotonic dystrophies. The former are a group of skeletal muscle channelopathies characterized by delayed skeletal muscle relaxation. Many distinct clinical phenotypes are recognized in people, the majority relating to mutations in skeletal muscle voltage-gated chloride (CLCN1) and sodium channel (SCN4A) genes. In dogs, myotonia is associated with mutations in CLCN1. The myotonic dystrophies are considered a multisystem clinical syndrome in people encompassing 2 clinically and molecularly defined forms designated myotonic dystrophy types 1 and 2. No mutation has been linked to veterinary muscular dystrophies. We detail veterinary examples of myotonia and attempt classification according to guidelines used in humans. This more precise categorization of myoclonus and myotonia aims to promote the search for molecular markers contributing to the phenotypic spectrum of disease. Our work aimed to assist recognition for these 2 enigmatic conditions.
- Effect of nasal noninvasive respiratory support methods on pharyngeal provocation-induced aerodigestive reflexes in infants. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2016 Jun 01; 310(11):G1006-14
- The pharynx is a locus of provocation among infants with aerodigestive morbidities manifesting as dysphagia, life-threatening events, aspiration-pneumonia, atelectasis, and reflux, and such infants o...
The pharynx is a locus of provocation among infants with aerodigestive morbidities manifesting as dysphagia, life-threatening events, aspiration-pneumonia, atelectasis, and reflux, and such infants often receive nasal respiratory support. We determined the impact of different oxygen delivery methods on pharyngeal stimulation-induced aerodigestive reflexes [room air (RA), nasal cannula (NC), and nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP)] while hypothesizing that the sensory motor characteristics of putative reflexes are distinct. Thirty eight infants (28.0 ± 0.7 wk gestation) underwent pharyngoesophageal manometry and respiratory inductance plethysmography to determine the effects of graded pharyngeal stimuli (n = 271) on upper and lower esophageal sphincters (UES, LES), swallowing, and deglutition-apnea. Comparisons were made between NC (n = 19), nCPAP (n = 9), and RA (n = 10) groups. Importantly, NC or nCPAP (vs. RA) had: 1) delayed feeding milestones (P < 0.05), 2) increased pharyngeal waveform recruitment and duration, greater UES nadir pressure, decreased esophageal contraction duration, decreased distal esophageal contraction amplitude, and decreased completely propagated esophageal peristalsis (all P < 0.05), and 3) similarly developed UES contractile and LES relaxation reflexes (P > 0.05). We conclude that aerodigestive reflexes were similarly developed in infants using noninvasive respiratory support with adequate upper and lower aerodigestive protection. Increased concern for GERD is unfounded in this population. These infants may benefit from targeted oromotor feeding therapies and safe pharyngeal bolus transit to accelerate feeding milestones.
- Delayed grip relaxation and altered modulation of intracortical inhibition with aging. [Journal Article]
- EBExp Brain Res 2016; 234(4):985-95
- Grip relaxation is a voluntary action that requires an increase in short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) in healthy young adults, rather than a simple termination of excitatory drive. The wa...
Grip relaxation is a voluntary action that requires an increase in short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) in healthy young adults, rather than a simple termination of excitatory drive. The way aging affects this voluntary inhibitory action and timing of grip relaxation is currently unknown. The objective of this study was to examine aging-related delays in grip relaxation and SICI modulation for the flexor digitorum superficialis muscle during grip relaxation. The main finding was that young adults increased SICI to relax their grips, whereas older adults did not increase SICI with a prolonged grip relaxation time (p < 0.05 for both SICI modulation and grip relaxation time). A secondary experiment showed that both young and older adults did not change H reflex excitability during grip relaxation. Our data suggest that grip relaxation is mediated by increased cortical inhibitory output in young adults, and aging-related impairment in increasing cortical inhibitory output may hamper timely cessation of muscle activity. Our data also suggest a lesser role of the spinal circuits in grip muscle relaxation. This knowledge may contribute to understanding of aging-related movement deterioration and development of interventions for improving modulation of SICI to improve muscle relaxation and movement coordination.
- Diabetic neuropathy in the gut: pathogenesis and diagnosis. [Review]
- DDiabetologia 2016; 59(3):404-8
- The activity of the digestive tract is usually regulated to match its content: physiological stimuli in the gut induce modulatory reflexes that control digestive function so that digestion is normall...
The activity of the digestive tract is usually regulated to match its content: physiological stimuli in the gut induce modulatory reflexes that control digestive function so that digestion is normally not perceived. However, under certain circumstances, digestive stimuli may activate sensory afferents and give rise to conscious sensations. Both reflex and sensory signals are modulated by a balance of excitatory and inhibitory mechanisms. Patients with diabetes may develop a neuropathy affecting the control of gastric and/or intestinal motor function and the sensory innervation as well. During fasting the stomach is contracted and relaxes to accommodate a meal. After ingestion the stomach progressively recontracts and this contraction gently produces gastric emptying. Impairment of excitatory pathways affects the contraction of the stomach, which may result in delayed gastric emptying and vomiting of retained food. Conversely, alteration of the inhibitory neural pathways results in impaired relaxation of the stomach in response to a meal; in this case increased wall tension may produce early satiation, fullness and nausea. Diabetic neuropathy may distort the control of intestinal motility, which can lead to diverse symptoms such as diarrhoea, constipation, intestinal distension and abdominal pain. Neuropathy in diabetes may also affect the sensory nerves of the gut, and depending on which pathways are involved, perception may be increased or reduced. In summary, in patients with diabetic neuropathy, disorders of gut motor function are associated with sensory abnormalities, and the combination of impaired pathways determines the clinical consequences. This review summarises a presentation given at the 'Diagnosis and treatment of autonomic diabetic neuropathy in the gut' symposium at the 2015 annual meeting of the EASD. It is accompanied by another mini-review on a topic from this symposium (by Hans Törnblom, DOI: 10.1007/s00125-015-3829-9 ) and a commentary by the Session Chair, Péter Kempler (DOI: 10.1007/s00125-015-3826-y ).
- Long-term moderate exercise accelerates the recovery of stress-evoked cardiovascular responses. [Journal Article]
- SStress 2016; 19(1):125-32
- Psychological stress is an important global health problem. It is well documented that stress increases the incidences of various cardiovascular disorders. Regular exercise is known to reduce resting...
Psychological stress is an important global health problem. It is well documented that stress increases the incidences of various cardiovascular disorders. Regular exercise is known to reduce resting blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR). This study was designed to clarify the effects of long-term exercise on stress-evoked cardiovascular responses and to emphasize post-stress recovery effects. Male Wistar rats underwent 8 weeks of moderate treadmill training, with cardiovascular responses, autonomic nervous system activities and local Fos reactivity changes in the cardiovascular regulation center were monitored before, during and after immobilization stress. A spectral analysis of cardiovascular parameters was used to examine autonomic nervous activities. We found that long-term exercise (i) lowered resting BP, HR and sympathetic activity, but increased resting parasympathetic activity and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS); (ii) accelerated post-stress recovery of stress-evoked cardiovascular and sympathetic responses along with increased BRS and (iii) accelerated post-stress recovery of stress-evoked neuron activations in the paraventricular nucleus, but delayed it in the nucleus of the tractus solitarius. We conclude that, in rats, long-term exercise accelerated recovery of stress-evoked cardiovascular responses differentially altering hypothalamic and medullar neuron activities.
- Gestational and postnatal modulation of esophageal sphincter reflexes in human premature neonates. [Journal Article]
- PRPediatr Res 2015; 78(5):540-6
- CONCLUSIONS: Using GA as categorical or continuous variable, vagus-mediated mechano-sensitive and liquid-sensitive reflex characteristics of UESCR and LESRR are distinct; LESRR differs with varying intrauterine maturation suggesting inhibitory modulation progresses with advancing maturation.
- Increased long-latency reflex activity as a sufficient explanation for childhood hypertonic dystonia: a neuromorphic emulation study. [Journal Article]
- JNJ Neural Eng 2015; 12(3):036010
- CONCLUSIONS: Although our model is a highly simplified and limited representation of reflex pathways, it shows that increased activity of the LLSR is by itself sufficient to cause many of the features of hypertonic dystonia.
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- Elderly patients with severe hypothyroidism often present with variable symptoms that may be masked or potentiated by co-morbid conditions. Characteristic symptoms may include fatigue, weight gain, c...
Elderly patients with severe hypothyroidism often present with variable symptoms that may be masked or potentiated by co-morbid conditions. Characteristic symptoms may include fatigue, weight gain, cold intolerance, hoarseness, constipation, and myalgias. Neurologic symptoms may include ataxia, depression, and mental status changes ranging from mild confusion to overt dementia. Clinical findings that may raise suspicion of thyroid hormone deficiency include hypothermia, bradycardia, goitrous enlargement of the thyroid, cool dry skin, myxedema, delayed relaxation of deep tendon reflexes, a pericardial or abdominal effusion, hyponatremia, and hypercholesterolemia.