- An ex vivo salivary lubrication system to mimic xerostomic conditions and to predict the lubricating properties of xerostomia relieving agents. [Journal Article]
- SRSci Rep 2018 Jun 14; 8(1):9087
- Advances in medical research has resulted in successful treatment of many life-threatening infectious diseases as well as autoimmune and lifestyle-related diseases, increasing life-expectancy of both...
Advances in medical research has resulted in successful treatment of many life-threatening infectious diseases as well as autoimmune and lifestyle-related diseases, increasing life-expectancy of both the developed and developing world. As a result of a growing ageing population, the focus has also turned on chronic diseases which seriously affect the quality of older patient life. Xerostomia (dry mouth) is one such condition, which leads to bad oral health and difficulty in consumption of dry foods and speech. Saliva substitutes are used to ease symptoms. However, they often don't work properly and objective comparison of saliva substitutes to mimic natural salivary functions does not exist. The study thus aims to develop an ex vivo friction assay simulating dry mouth conditions and facilitating objective comparison of saliva substitutes. A reciprocating sliding tongue-enamel system was developed and compared to a PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane)-PDMS friction system. The tongue-enamel system, but not the PDMS-PDMS model, showed high mucin-containing saliva (unstimulated and submandibular/sublingual saliva) to give higher Relief than mucin-poor lubricants (water, parotid saliva, Dentaid Xeros) and correlated well (r = 0.97) with in vivo mouth feel. The tongue-enamel friction system mimicked dry mouth conditions and relief and seems suited to test agents meant to lubricate desiccated oral surfaces.
- Prayer and Faith: Spiritual Coping among American Indian Women Cancer Survivors. [Journal Article]
- HSHealth Soc Work 2018 Jun 12
- Although cancer disparities among American Indian (AI) women are alarming, research on spiritual coping among this population is virtually nonexistent. This is particularly problematic, given the imp...
Although cancer disparities among American Indian (AI) women are alarming, research on spiritual coping among this population is virtually nonexistent. This is particularly problematic, given the importance of medical practitioners' discussing the topic with cancer patients, along with the centrality of spirituality to many AI patients. The purpose of this article was to explore AI women cancer survivors' spiritual coping with their experiences. Using a community-based participatory research approach, this qualitative descriptive study included a sample of 43 AI women cancer survivors (n = 14 breast cancer, n = 14 cervical cancer, and n = 15 colon and other types of cancer). Qualitative content analysis revealed that most participants (76 percent, n = 32) cited prayer as an important part of their cancer recovery and coping strategies. Many participants expressed how prayer and spirituality connected them to family, to faith communities, and to others. In addition to prayer, over a third (36 percent, n = 15) of participants emphasized faith as a recovery and coping strategy. Results indicate that most women drew great comfort, strength, hope, and relief from their spiritual and faith traditions, indicating that religious and spiritual practices may be an important protective factor against the strain of the cancer experience.
- Mixed-type femoroacetabular impingement associated with subspine impingement: recognizing the trifocal femoropelvic impingement. [Journal Article]
- RBRev Bras Ortop 2018 May-Jun; 53(3):389-394
- To describe the arthroscopic surgical technique for subspine impingement (SSI) of the anterior inferior iliac spine (AIIS) associated with mixed type femoroacetabular impingement (FAI), through two s...
To describe the arthroscopic surgical technique for subspine impingement (SSI) of the anterior inferior iliac spine (AIIS) associated with mixed type femoroacetabular impingement (FAI), through two standard arthroscopic portals (anterolateral and distal mid-anterior) in two patients with trifocal impingement. The authors report the cases of two young male patients, aged 32 and 36 years old, with trifocal femoropelvic impingement (TFPI). The technique consists of segmental capsulectomy, arthroscopic dissection of the AIIS, partial release of the direct head of the rectus femoris, resection of the AIIS projection with a burr and with fluoroscopic aid, correction of the pincer deformity, repair of the labrum with bioabsorbable anchors, and femoral osteoplasty. Details of the diagnostic workup and of the surgical technique are provided and discussed. In these cases, full range of motion was regained after surgery, as well as complete relief of pain, which was sustained in the last follow-up, one year post-operatively. Radiographs show adequate correction of the deformities in all three impingement sites. Simultaneous correction of the three sites (cam, pincer, and subspinal) provided full relief of symptoms and allowed return to work and sports. The authors propose that when approaching the symptomatic SSI, the possibility of concomitant FAI should always be considered and, in those cases, the approach must be comprehensive.
- Nanoscale Electrical Potential and Roughness of a Calcium Phosphate Surface Promotes the Osteogenic Phenotype of Stromal Cells. [Journal Article]
- MMaterials (Basel) 2018 Jun 09; 11(6)
- Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and osteoblasts respond to the surface electrical charge and topography of biomaterials. This work focuses on the connection between the roughness of calcium phosphate (...
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and osteoblasts respond to the surface electrical charge and topography of biomaterials. This work focuses on the connection between the roughness of calcium phosphate (CP) surfaces and their electrical potential (EP) at the micro- and nanoscales and the possible role of these parameters in jointly affecting human MSC osteogenic differentiation and maturation in vitro. A microarc CP coating was deposited on titanium substrates and characterized at the micro- and nanoscale. Human adult adipose-derived MSCs (hAMSCs) or prenatal stromal cells from the human lung (HLPSCs) were cultured on the CP surface to estimate MSC behavior. The roughness, nonuniform charge polarity, and EP of CP microarc coatings on a titanium substrate were shown to affect the osteogenic differentiation and maturation of hAMSCs and HLPSCs in vitro. The surface EP induced by the negative charge increased with increasing surface roughness at the microscale. The surface relief at the nanoscale had an impact on the sign of the EP. Negative electrical charges were mainly located within the micro- and nanosockets of the coating surface, whereas positive charges were detected predominantly at the nanorelief peaks. HLPSCs located in the sockets of the CP surface expressed the osteoblastic markers osteocalcin and alkaline phosphatase. The CP multilevel topography induced charge polarity and an EP and overall promoted the osteoblast phenotype of HLPSCs. The negative sign of the EP and its magnitude at the micro- and nanosockets might be sensitive factors that can trigger osteoblastic differentiation and maturation of human stromal cells.
- Decision Support Tool Improves Real and Perceived Anesthesiology Resident Relief Equity. [Journal Article]
- A&AAnesth Analg 2018 Jun 05
- CONCLUSIONS: A DST systematizing the relief process for anesthesiology residents was associated with a lower frequency of residents working beyond 5:30 PM in the OR on 2 consecutive days. The DST improved the perceived ability to make equitable relief decisions by on-call senior residents and residents being relieved. Success with this tool allows for broader applications in resident education, enabling enhanced monitoring of resident experiences and support for OR assignment decisions.
- DFN-02 (Sumatriptan 10 mg With a Permeation Enhancer) Nasal Spray vs Placebo in the Acute Treatment of Migraine: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study. [Journal Article]
- HHeadache 2018; 58(5):676-687
- CONCLUSIONS: DFN-02 was shown to be effective, well tolerated, and safe in the acute treatment of episodic migraine. Additional studies are needed to confirm these preliminary results. (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02856802).
- Sublingual sufentanil for postoperative pain relief: first clinical experiences. [Journal Article]
- JPJ Pain Res 2018; 11:987-992
- The sublingual sufentanil tablet system (SSTS) is a novel hand-held patient-controlled analgesia device developed for treatment of moderate-to-severe postoperative pain. Here we present the first res...
The sublingual sufentanil tablet system (SSTS) is a novel hand-held patient-controlled analgesia device developed for treatment of moderate-to-severe postoperative pain. Here we present the first results of its clinical use.
- Parenteral opioids for maternal pain management in labour. [Review]
- CDCochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 Jun 05; 6:CD007396
- CONCLUSIONS: Though most evidence is of low- or very-low quality, for healthy women with an uncomplicated pregnancy who are giving birth at 37 to 42 weeks, parenteral opioids appear to provide some relief from pain in labour but are associated with drowsiness, nausea, and vomiting in the woman. Effects on the newborn are unclear. Maternal satisfaction with opioid analgesia was largely unreported. The review needs to be examined alongside related Cochrane reviews. More research is needed to determine which analgesic intervention is most effective, and provides greatest satisfaction to women with acceptable adverse effects for mothers and their newborn.
- The Somatostatin Receptor-4 Agonist J-2156 Alleviates Mechanical Hypersensitivity in a Rat Model of Breast Cancer Induced Bone Pain. [Journal Article]
- FPFront Pharmacol 2018; 9:495
- In the majority of patients with breast cancer in the advanced stages, skeletal metastases are common, which may cause excruciating pain. Currently available drug treatments for relief of breast canc...
In the majority of patients with breast cancer in the advanced stages, skeletal metastases are common, which may cause excruciating pain. Currently available drug treatments for relief of breast cancer-induced bone pain (BCIBP) include non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and strong opioid analgesics along with inhibitors of osteoclast activity such as bisphosphonates and monoclonal antibodies such as denosumab. However, these medications often lack efficacy and/or they may produce serious dose-limiting side effects. In the present study, we show that J-2156, a somatostatin receptor type 4 (SST4 receptor) selective agonist, reverses pain-like behaviors in a rat model of BCIBP induced by unilateral intra-tibial injection of Walker 256 breast cancer cells. Following intraperitoneal administration, the ED50 of J-2156 for the relief of mechanical allodynia and mechanical hyperalgesia in the ipsilateral hindpaws was 3.7 and 8.0 mg/kg, respectively. Importantly, the vast majority of somatosensory neurons in the dorsal root ganglia including small diameter C-fibers and medium-large diameter fibers, that play a crucial role in cancer pain hypersensitivities, expressed the SST4 receptor. J-2156 mediated pain relief in BCIBP-rats was confirmed by observations of a reduction in the levels of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK), a protein essential for central sensitization and persistent pain, in the spinal dorsal horn. Our results demonstrate the potential of the SST4 receptor as a pharmacological target for relief of BCIBP and we anticipate the present work to be a starting point for further mechanism-based studies.
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- Relationship between novel design modifications and heat stress relief in structural firefighters' protective clothing. [Journal Article]
- AEAppl Ergon 2018; 70:260-268
- The purpose of this study was to investigate design modifications in structural firefighter turnout suits for their ability to reduce heat stress during firefighting activities. A secondary aim of th...
The purpose of this study was to investigate design modifications in structural firefighter turnout suits for their ability to reduce heat stress during firefighting activities. A secondary aim of this research established a benchmark for the manikin heat loss value necessary to achieve significant improvements in physiological comfort. Eight professional firefighters participated in five simulated exercise sessions wearing a control turnout suit and one of four turnout prototypes: Single Layer, Vented, Stretch, and Revolutionary. Physiological responses (internal core body temperature, skin temperature, physiological strain, heart rate, and sweat loss) were measured when wearing each turnout suit prototype. Results demonstrated a significant increase in work time and significant reductions in heat stress (core temperature, skin temperature, and physiological strain) when participants wore the Single Layer, Vented, and Revolutionary prototypes. An estimated garment heat loss value of 150 W/m2 was determined in order to achieve a significant reduction in heat stress.