- A glycomics approach to discover novel renal biomarkers in birds by administration of cisplatin and diclofenac to chickens. [Journal Article]
- PSPoult Sci 2018 Feb 14
- Avian species have a unique renal structure and abundant blood flow into the kidneys. Although many birds die due to nephrotoxicity caused by chemicals, there are no early biomarkers for renal lesion...
Avian species have a unique renal structure and abundant blood flow into the kidneys. Although many birds die due to nephrotoxicity caused by chemicals, there are no early biomarkers for renal lesions. Uric acid level in blood, which is generally used as a renal biomarker, is altered when the kidney function is damaged by over 70%. Therefore, early biomarkers for kidney injury in birds are needed. In humans, glycomics has been at the forefront of biological and medical sciences, and glycans are used as biomarkers of diseases, such as carcinoma. In this study, a glycomics approach was used to screen for renal biomarkers in chicken. First, a chicken model of kidney damage was generated by injection of diclofenac or cisplatin, which cause acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) and acute tubular necrosis (ATN), respectively. The nephrotoxicity levels were determined by a blood chemical test and histopathological analysis. The plasma N-glycans were then analyzed to discover renal biomarkers in birds. Levels of 14 glycans increased between pre- and post administration in kidney-damaged chickens in the diclofenac group, and some of these glycans had the same presumptive composition as those in human renal carcinoma patients. Glycan levels did not change remarkably in the cisplatin group. It is possible that there are changes in glycan expression due to AIN, but they do not reflect ATN. Although further research is needed in other species of birds, glycans are potentially useful biomarkers for AIN in avian species.
- Seasonality of acute kidney injury incidence and mortality among hospitalized patients. [Journal Article]
- NDNephrol Dial Transplant 2018 Feb 15
- CONCLUSIONS: AKI is more common among hospitalized patients and patients with AKI are more severely ill in winter.
- Evaluation of the Management of Severe Trauma Kidney Injury and Long Term Renal Function in Children. [Journal Article]
- JTJ Trauma Acute Care Surg 2018 Feb 17
- CONCLUSIONS: among the 21 children managed for a STKI IV or V, 11 required a therapeutic procedure, one of them a nephrectomy. The DMSA scintigraphy performed after at least 6 months from the trauma, found an injured renal function at 39.4% for the 11/16 SKI IV analyzed, and 17% for the 4/5 SKI V analyzed, which confirms the currently conservative management.
- Case 251: Nontraumatic Drug-associated Rhabdomyolysis of Head and Neck Muscles. [Journal Article]
- RRadiology 2018; 286(3):1088-1092
- History A 21-year-old man with a history of abuse of multiple drugs and mild cognitive impairment who initially underwent treatment for excited delirium developed respiratory arrest shortly after adm...
History A 21-year-old man with a history of abuse of multiple drugs and mild cognitive impairment who initially underwent treatment for excited delirium developed respiratory arrest shortly after admission and was successfully resuscitated. Unenhanced computed tomography (CT) of the head and neck and contrast material-enhanced CT of the chest, abdomen, pelvis, and complete spine were performed shortly after the initial treatment. Head and neck magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was performed 24 hours after admission. No other abnormalities were noted. There were no fractures, and there was no vascular injury in the head and neck region. The patient had no external neck injuries, congestion, or petechiae suggesting neck compression. He had no history of chronic or recurrent pain or skin rash. Urine testing was positive for cocaine, cannabis, and methamphetamine. Serum creatine kinase level was initially high (31 117 U/L [520 μkat/L]; normal, 1000 U/L [16.7 μkat/L]). Corrected calcium level was 2.22 mmol/L, and ionized calcium level was 1.09 mmol/L (lower end of the normal range). There was no acute renal failure at the initial phase, but serum creatinine levels reached 180 µmol/L 24 hours after admission, and creatine kinase peaked at 61 000 U/L [1019 μkat/L]. Urine was initially red, but the patient was not tested for myoglobinuria.
- Evaluation of the application of high volume hemofiltration in sepsis combined with acute kidney injury. [Journal Article]
- EREur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2018; 22(3):715-720
- CONCLUSIONS: The application of HVHF in children with sepsis combined with acute kidney injury has a better safety and effectiveness.
- Protective Effects of the Complement Inhibitor Compstatin CP40 in Hemorrhagic Shock. [Journal Article]
- SShock 2018 Feb 14
- Trauma-induced hemorrhagic shock (HS) plays a decisive role in the development of immune, coagulation, and organ dysfunction often resulting in a poor clinical outcome. Imbalanced complement activati...
Trauma-induced hemorrhagic shock (HS) plays a decisive role in the development of immune, coagulation, and organ dysfunction often resulting in a poor clinical outcome. Imbalanced complement activation is intricately associated with the molecular danger response and organ damage after HS. Thus, inhibition of the central complement component C3 as turnstile of both inflammation and coagulation is hypothesized as a rational strategy to improve the clinical course after HS.Applying intensive care conditions, anaesthetized, monitored, and protectively ventilated non-human primates (NHP; cynomolgus monkeys) received a pressure-controlled severe HS (60 min at MAP 30 mmHg) with subsequent volume resuscitation. Thirty min after HS, animals were randomly treated with either an analog of the C3 inhibitor compstatin (i.e., Cp40) in saline (n = 4) or with saline alone (n = 4). The observation period lasted 300 min after induction of HS.We observed improved kidney function in compstatin Cp40-treated animals after HS as determined by improved urine output, reduced damage markers and a tendency of less histopathological signs of acute kidney injury. Sham-treated animals revealed classical signs of mucosal edema, especially in the ileum and colon reflected by worsened microscopic intestinal injury scores. In contrast, Cp40-treated HS animals exhibited only minor signs of organ edema and significantly less intestinal damage. Furthermore, early systemic inflammation and coagulation dysfunction were both ameliorated by Cp40.The data suggest that therapeutic inhibition of C3 is capable to significantly improve immune, coagulation and organ function and to preserve organ-barrier integrity early after traumatic HS. C3-targeted complement inhibition may therefore reflect a promising therapeutic strategy in fighting fatal consequences of HS.
- Volume Resuscitation in Patients With High-Voltage Electrical Injuries. [Journal Article]
- APAnn Plast Surg 2018 Feb 15
- Volume resuscitation of patients with high-voltage electrical injuries (>1000 V) is a more complex challenge than standard burn resuscitation. High voltages penetrate deep tissues. These deep injurie...
Volume resuscitation of patients with high-voltage electrical injuries (>1000 V) is a more complex challenge than standard burn resuscitation. High voltages penetrate deep tissues. These deep injuries are not accounted for in resuscitation formulae dependent on percentage of cutaneous burn. Myonecrosis occurring from direct electrical injury and secondary compartment syndromes can result in rhabdomyolysis, compromising renal function and urine output. Urine output is the primary end point, with a goal of 1 mL/kg/h for adult patients with high-voltage electrical injuries. As such, secondary resuscitation end points of laboratory values, such as lactate, base deficit, hemoglobin, and creatinine, as well as hemodynamic monitoring, such as mean arterial pressure and thermodilution techniques, can become crucial in guiding optimum administration of resuscitation fluids. Mannitol and bicarbonates are available but have limited support in the literature. High-voltage electrical injury patients often develop acute kidney injury requiring dialysis and have increased risks of chronic kidney disease and mortality. Continuous venovenous hemofiltration is a well-supported adjunct to clear the myoglobin load that hemodialysis cannot from circulation.
- Alteration of renal excretion pathways in gentamicin-induced renal injury in rats. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Appl Toxicol 2018 Feb 20
- The kidney plays a major part in the elimination of many drugs and their metabolites, and drug-induced kidney injury commonly alters either glomerular filtration or tubular transport, or both. Howeve...
The kidney plays a major part in the elimination of many drugs and their metabolites, and drug-induced kidney injury commonly alters either glomerular filtration or tubular transport, or both. However, the renal excretion pathway of drugs has not been fully elucidated at different stages of renal injury. This study aimed to evaluate the alteration of renal excretion pathways in gentamicin (GEN)-induced renal injury in rats. Results showed that serum cystatin C, creatinine and urea nitrogen levels were greatly increased by the exposure of GEN (100 mg kg-1), and creatinine concentration was increased by 39.7% by GEN (50 mg kg-1). GEN dose-dependently upregulated the protein expression of rOCT1, downregulated rOCT2 and rOAT1, but not affected rOAT2. Efflux transporters, rMRP2, rMRP4 and rBCRP expressions were significantly increased by GEN(100), and the rMATE1 level was markedly increased by GEN(50) but decreased by GEN(100). GEN(50) did not alter the urinary excretion of inulin, but increased metformin and furosemide excretion. However, GEN(100) resulted in a significant decrease of the urinary excretion of inulin, metformin and p-aminohippurate. In addition, urinary metformin excretions in vivo were significantly decreased by GEN(100), but slightly increased by GEN(50). These results suggested that GEN(50) resulted in the induction of rOCTs-rMATE1 and rOAT3-rMRPs pathway, but not changed the glomerular filtration rate, and GEN(100)-induced acute kidney injury caused the downregulated function of glomerular filtration -rOCTs-rMATE1 and -rOAT1-rMRPs pathway.
- Acute haemolysis, DIC and renal failure after transfusion of uncross-matched blood during trauma resuscitation: illustrative case and literature review. [Journal Article]
- TMTransfus Med 2018 Feb 19
- CONCLUSIONS: Although emergency transfusion of uncross-matched blood is commonly practiced at trauma centres worldwide, with low risk of acute HTR (<1/1000), our well-documented patient case demonstrates the potential for acute HTR with severe complications.
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- NGAL (Neutrophil Gelatinase-associated Lipocalin) is an Early Predictor of Acute Kidney Injury after Cardiac Surgery and Variation of NGAL Values in Homogenous Study Subject. [Journal Article]
- MMMymensingh Med J 2018; 27(1):212-215
- Isolated CABG (coronary artery bypass grafting) has the lowest incidence of AKI (Acute Kidney Injury), followed by valvular surgery and then, combined CABG with valvular surgery. Due to the differenc...
Isolated CABG (coronary artery bypass grafting) has the lowest incidence of AKI (Acute Kidney Injury), followed by valvular surgery and then, combined CABG with valvular surgery. Due to the difference in baseline characteristics and in surgery type, the range of incidence is between 8.9 and 39% based on RIFLE (Risk Injury failure loss end stage kidney disease) or AKIN (Acute Kidney Injury Network) criteria. The advent of novel biomarkers of kidney injury has opened a new era of early detection and prognosis prediction for AKI. NGAL is a small molecule of 178 amino acids that belongs to the super family of lipocalins, which are proteins specialized in binding and transporting small hydrophobic molecules. The expression of NGAL raises 1000 fold in humans and rodents in response to renal tubular injury and it appears so rapidly in the urine and serum that it is useful as an early biomarker of renal failure. The role of plasma NGAL to classify AKI severity and predict the need for RRT (renal replacement therapy) after cardiac surgery has been suggested. Although study subjects were more or less from same cohort (All undergone cardiac surgery), previous studies showed that NGAL raised differently in different proportion. NGAL as an early AKI marker has successfully passed through the pre-clinical, assay development and initial clinical testing stages. It is badly need to enter in a consensus about the cutoff value of NGAL which should help the physician about leveling a case as AKI or non AKI and their consequence management.