- [Pharmacological Properties of Loop Diuretics and Their Clinical Effects]. [Journal Article]
- KKardiologiia 2018; (1):72-83
- Edematous states caused by an excessesive extracellular fluid retention are major components of cardiovascular and renal disorders including chronic kidney disease, nephrotic syndrome, and heart fail...
Edematous states caused by an excessesive extracellular fluid retention are major components of cardiovascular and renal disorders including chronic kidney disease, nephrotic syndrome, and heart failure. The use of diuretic drugs from various groups including loop duiretics are important means of pharmacological correction of these clinical conditions. Moreover, diuretics used to lower bood pressure as a part of antihypertensive treatment, reduce cardiovascular events. The response of patients to the dose of a diuretic is reflected by a sigmoid dose-response curve which can be affected by changes of sodium content in the body. Loop diuretics may fail to control salt and water retention despite the use of appropriate doses. The main reasons for loop diuretic resistance may be determined by further reduction of glomerular filtration rate and reduced peak concentration of loop diuretics in primary urine. Chronic treatment with loop diuretics can cause compensatory hyperthrophy of epithelial cells along the ascending limb of the loop of Henle and thus decrease of its diuretic effect. The principles of avoiding this phenomenon are the restriction of sodium intake, correction of doses, timing and frequency of drug administration, and use of combination diuretic therapy. Loop diuretic - related adverse events that involve uricaemia and ototoxicity also should be taken into consideration.
- [Treatment of hyperkalemia: 2.0 version]. [Journal Article]
- RMRev Med Suisse 2018 Feb 21; 14(595):406-410
- Hyperkaliaemia is a serious electrolyte disorder that is favored by many comorbidities, such as chronic renal failure or some treatments such as renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockers. The new...
Hyperkaliaemia is a serious electrolyte disorder that is favored by many comorbidities, such as chronic renal failure or some treatments such as renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockers. The new oral treatments by chelation of intestinal potassium have demonstrated : 1) their effectiveness in the management of serum potassium by maintaining the treatments at optimal dosages ; 2) their safety of use by the absence of serious side effect and 3) the ease of use with a daily intake.
- Glecaprevir + pibrentasvir for treatment of hepatitis C. [Journal Article]
- EOExpert Opin Pharmacother 2018 Feb 21
- Introduction Glecaprevir/pibrentasvir is a fixed-dose combination regimen of a new generation NS3/4A inhibitor and an NS5A inhibitor with potent antiviral activity against all hepatitis C virus (HCV)...
Introduction Glecaprevir/pibrentasvir is a fixed-dose combination regimen of a new generation NS3/4A inhibitor and an NS5A inhibitor with potent antiviral activity against all hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes. This regimen offers a shorter course of therapy (8 weeks) for selected patients regardless of genotype and has demonstrated high virological efficacy for retreatment of individuals who previously failed an NS5A containing regimen. Glecaprevir and pibrentasvir are minimally excreted by the kidneys; thus this regimen can safely be used in individuals with severe chronic kidney disease, including those undergoing hemodialysis. Areas covered This review covers the mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics, clinical applications, efficacy, and safety profile of glecaprevir/pibrentasvir. It also covers key phase 2 and 3 clinical trials that led to licensure of this regimen. Expert opinion Glecaprevir/pibrentasvir is the latest antiviral regimen licensed in the United States for treatment of HCV infection. Although several other direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) are currently available, glecaprevir/pibrentasvir has some unique characteristics that expand treatment options for HCV infection, including patients with comorbidities such as advanced stage chronic kidney disease (CKD) or prior treatment failure to antiviral regimens containing other DAAs.
- Isolated vascular "v" lesions in liver allografts: How to approach this unusual finding. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Transplant 2018 Feb 21
- According to the Banff criteria for kidney allografts, isolated vascular or "v" lesions are defined as intimal inflammation, age-inappropriate fibro-intimal hyperplasia, or both, without the presence...
According to the Banff criteria for kidney allografts, isolated vascular or "v" lesions are defined as intimal inflammation, age-inappropriate fibro-intimal hyperplasia, or both, without the presence of associated interstitial T cell-mediated rejection (TCMR). In general, these lesions portend a worse outcome for kidney allografts, particularly in those where the "v" lesions are identified in patients with co-existent donor specific antibodies (DSA) or later after transplantation. Although affected arteries are rarely sampled in liver allograft biopsies, we identified 9 patients at a mean of 1,805 days post-transplantation and compared these to matched controls. The majority (5/9) of study patient biopsies showed inflammatory arteritis was associated with focal or diffuse C4d positivity, which was not observed in matched controls. One "v" lesion patient progressed to rejection-related graft failure and two developed moderate/severe TCMR in subsequent biopsies, whereas no rejection-related deaths or graft failures were detected in controls. In conclusion, patients with liver allograft isolated "v" lesions should undergo further evaluation and closer follow-up for impending TCMR and/or underlying co-existent chronic antibody-mediated rejection (AMR). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Decreased Renal Function Is Associated with Elevated CHA2DS2VASC and R2CHADS2 Scores in Non-Valvular Atrial Fibrillation Patients Presenting with Stroke. [Journal Article]
- CCureus 2017 Dec 11; 9(12):e1935
- Introduction Atrial fibrillation (AF), the most common cardiac arrhythmia, affects approximately 2.3 million patients in the United States, costing around $26 billion. Atrial fibrillation is associat...
Introduction Atrial fibrillation (AF), the most common cardiac arrhythmia, affects approximately 2.3 million patients in the United States, costing around $26 billion. Atrial fibrillation is associated with a two- to seven-fold increased risk of stroke, one of the most serious complications. Chronic kidney disease affects approximately 13% of the US population and has been associated with higher rates of AF than the general population. In patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), the risk of stroke increases as the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) decreases, especially in CKD stages three and four. Several risks stratification scores such as CHADS2 (congestive heart failure, hypertension, age, diabetes mellitus, stroke), CHA2DS2VASc (congestive heart failure, hypertension, age, diabetes mellitus, stroke, vascular disease, age, sex), and R2CHADS2 (renal failure, congestive heart failure, age, diabetes, stroke) scores are used for stroke risk assessment in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF). This study investigates the association between renal functions and risk stratification scoring systems in patients with non-valvular AF presenting with stroke. Methods Using the convenience sampling method, 171 subjects were selected from the eligible population (n = 386). A Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient was calculated to determine the association between the GFR and each of the CHA2DS2VASc and R2CHADS2 scores. In addition, a Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient was calculated to determine the association between the CHA2DS2VASc and R2CHADS2 scores. Results The selected population represented 44.3% of the eligible subjects. Of these, 88% were Caucasian, 60% were female, and the mean age was 78 years. The mean CHA2DS2VASc score was six (range 2-9). The mean eGFR was 69.77 (range 6-108). Both the mode and the median CHA2DS2VASc score was four (range 2-8). A weak, but significant, negative correlation was found between renal function (eGFR) and the CHA2DS2VASc score (r = -0.263; p = 0.0005). There was a stronger negative correlation between the eGFR and R2CHADS2score (r = -0.70; p < 0.00001). The CHA2DS2VASc and R2CHADS2scoring schemes were significantly and positively correlated (r = 0.627; p < 0.00001). Discussion In NVAF patients presenting with stroke, renal failure is associated with higher CHA2DS2VASc and R2CHADS2 scores. One must consider renal failure (end-stage or non-end stage renal failure) as an additional potential risk factor for stroke when recommending anticoagulation in non-valvular atrial fibrillation.
- Quel pourrait être le futur de la prise en charge de l’anémie dans l’insuffisance rénale chronique ? [Journal Article]
- NTNephrol Ther 2017; 13(6S):S7-S10
- Erythropoietin (EPO) plays an essential role in the regulation of erythropoiesis. Its production is under the control of the Hypoxia Inducible Factor (HIF) protein whose stability varies according to...
Erythropoietin (EPO) plays an essential role in the regulation of erythropoiesis. Its production is under the control of the Hypoxia Inducible Factor (HIF) protein whose stability varies according to the oxygen level. During chronic renal failure, EPO deficiency is the main cause of anemia, but other factors such as iron deficiency and inflammatory syndrome are also involved. More recently, it is hypothesized that other factors such an excess of GDF-11 production may be also involved. Thus, beside Epo treatment HIF and GDF-11 are potentially new therapeutic targets in anemia of chronic kidney disease.
- Interactions cardiorénales. [Journal Article]
- NTNephrol Ther 2017; 13(6S):S11-S15
- Hypertension is common in patients with chronic renal disease particularly those with diabetes. It is sometimes resistant to the pharmacological treatment. The mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist s...
Hypertension is common in patients with chronic renal disease particularly those with diabetes. It is sometimes resistant to the pharmacological treatment. The mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist spironolactone may be indicated here. The mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists have a Class 1, Level A indication for the treatment of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. There is an associated risk of worsening renal function and of hyperkalemia which does not hinder their clinical benefit. However, an appropriate biological monitoring is warranted, along with potential dose adaptations. Cardiorenal syndrome significantly worses the prognosis of congestive heart failure. The use of ultrafiltration can be effective when conventional treatments failed. Its place in the front line needs to be evaluated.
- The Nile Rat (Arvicanthis niloticus) as a Superior Carbohydrate-Sensitive Model for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). [Review]
- NNutrients 2018 Feb 18; 10(2)
- Type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a multifactorial disease involving complex genetic and environmental interactions. No single animal model has so far mirrored all the characteristics or complicati...
Type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a multifactorial disease involving complex genetic and environmental interactions. No single animal model has so far mirrored all the characteristics or complications of diabetes in humans. Since this disease represents a chronic nutritional insult based on a diet bearing a high glycemic load, the ideal model should recapitulate the underlying dietary issues. Most rodent models have three shortcomings: (1) they are genetically or chemically modified to produce diabetes; (2) unlike humans, most require high-fat feeding; (3) and they take too long to develop diabetes. By contrast, Nile rats develop diabetes rapidly (8-10 weeks) with high-carbohydrate (hiCHO) diets, similar to humans, and are protected by high fat (with low glycemic load) intake. This review describes diabetes progression in the Nile rat, including various aspects of breeding, feeding, and handling for best experimental outcomes. The diabetes is characterized by a strikinggenetic permissivenessinfluencing hyperphagia and hyperinsulinemia; random blood glucose is the best index of disease progression; and kidney failure with chronic morbidity and death are outcomes, all of which mimic uncontrolled T2DM in humans. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), also described in diabetic humans, results from hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol accumulation associated with rising blood glucose. Protection is afforded by low glycemic load diets rich in certain fibers or polyphenols. Accordingly, the Nile rat provides a unique opportunity to identify the nutritional factors and underlying genetic and molecular mechanisms that characterize human T2DM.
- Case 251: Nontraumatic Drug-associated Rhabdomyolysis of Head and Neck Muscles. [Journal Article]
- RRadiology 2018; 286(3):1088-1092
- History A 21-year-old man with a history of abuse of multiple drugs and mild cognitive impairment who initially underwent treatment for excited delirium developed respiratory arrest shortly after adm...
History A 21-year-old man with a history of abuse of multiple drugs and mild cognitive impairment who initially underwent treatment for excited delirium developed respiratory arrest shortly after admission and was successfully resuscitated. Unenhanced computed tomography (CT) of the head and neck and contrast material-enhanced CT of the chest, abdomen, pelvis, and complete spine were performed shortly after the initial treatment. Head and neck magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was performed 24 hours after admission. No other abnormalities were noted. There were no fractures, and there was no vascular injury in the head and neck region. The patient had no external neck injuries, congestion, or petechiae suggesting neck compression. He had no history of chronic or recurrent pain or skin rash. Urine testing was positive for cocaine, cannabis, and methamphetamine. Serum creatine kinase level was initially high (31 117 U/L [520 μkat/L]; normal, 1000 U/L [16.7 μkat/L]). Corrected calcium level was 2.22 mmol/L, and ionized calcium level was 1.09 mmol/L (lower end of the normal range). There was no acute renal failure at the initial phase, but serum creatinine levels reached 180 µmol/L 24 hours after admission, and creatine kinase peaked at 61 000 U/L [1019 μkat/L]. Urine was initially red, but the patient was not tested for myoglobinuria.
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- Variation of renal function over time is associated with major bleeding in patients treated with direct oral anticoagulants for atrial fibrillation. [Journal Article]
- JTJ Thromb Haemost 2018 Feb 20
- CONCLUSIONS: Variation of renal function over time is associated with the risk for MB in AF patients treated with DOACs in real-life. Identification of intervening clinical conditions associated with variation in renal function is essential to reduce the risk of MB and to make DOACs treatment further safe. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.