- Altered Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness and Choroid Thickness in Patients with Migraine. [Journal Article]
- ENEur Neurol 2018 Nov 13; 80(3-4):130-137
- CONCLUSIONS: The changes in the ocular posterior structure may serve as evidence of the trigeminovascular system mechanism underlying migraine and transneuronal retrograde degeneration of the primary visual cortex, which reflects the cortical spreading depression.
- Metabolomics in the study of retinal health and disease. [Review]
- PRProg Retin Eye Res 2018 Nov 10
- Metabolomics is the qualitative and quantitative assessment of the metabolites (small molecules < 1.5 kDa) in body fluids. The metabolites are the downstream of the genetic transcription and translat...
Metabolomics is the qualitative and quantitative assessment of the metabolites (small molecules < 1.5 kDa) in body fluids. The metabolites are the downstream of the genetic transcription and translation processes and also downstream of the interactions with environmental exposures; thus, they are thought to closely relate to the phenotype, especially for multifactorial diseases. In the last decade, metabolomics has been increasingly used to identify biomarkers in disease, and it is currently recognized as a very powerful tool with great potential for clinical translation. The metabolome and the associated pathways also help improve our understanding of the pathophysiology and mechanisms of disease. While there has been increasing interest and research in metabolomics of the eye, the application of metabolomics to retinal diseases has been limited, even though these are leading causes of blindness. In this manuscript, we perform a comprehensive summary of the tools and knowledge required to perform a metabolomics study, and we highlight essential statistical methods for rigorous study design and data analysis. We review available protocols, summarize the best approaches, and address the current unmet need for information on collection and processing of tissues and biofluids that can be used for metabolomics of retinal diseases. Additionally, we critically analyze recent work in this field, both in animal models and in human clinical disease, including diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration. Finally, we identify opportunities for future research applying metabolomics to improve our current assessment and understanding of mechanisms of vitreoretinal diseases.
- Clinical outcomes after more conservative management of patent ductus arteriosus in preterm infants. [Journal Article]
- JPJ Pediatr (Rio J) 2018 Nov 10
- CONCLUSIONS: A conservative approach in preterm infants with patent ductus arteriosus can avoid medical and surgical treatments, without a significant impact in survival-without-morbidity. However, two-thirds of preterm infants under 26 weeks are still treated.
- Programming Error Led to Underestimate of Effect Sizes in Study of Association of Maternal Preeclampsia and Risk of Infant Retinopathy of Prematurity. [Journal Article]
- JOJAMA Ophthalmol 2018 Oct 25
- Automated macular segmentation with spectral domain optical coherence tomography in the fellow eyes of patients with unilateral retinal vein occlusion. [Journal Article]
- IOInt Ophthalmol 2018 Nov 12
- CONCLUSIONS: The fellow eyes of unilateral RVO patients did not show major structural differences compared with the controls; however, they revealed significant sectoral thinning in many retinal layers when compared with the eyes of healthy subjects without systemic diseases. Central macula was thinner in the fellow eyes of patients with branch RVO compared to that in central RVO.
- Quality of life assessment in patients with HNF1A-MODY and GCK-MODY. [Journal Article]
- EEndocrine 2018 Nov 12
- CONCLUSIONS: MODY has a smaller negative impact on QoL compared to T1DM. Mode of treatment further stratifies QoL decline for HNF1A-MODY subjects.
- General Semiparametric Shared Frailty Model: Estimation and Simulation with frailtySurv. [Journal Article]
- JSJ Stat Softw 2018; 86
- The R package frailtySurv for simulating and fitting semi-parametric shared frailty models is introduced. Package frailtySurv implements semi-parametric consistent estimators for a variety of frailty...
The R package frailtySurv for simulating and fitting semi-parametric shared frailty models is introduced. Package frailtySurv implements semi-parametric consistent estimators for a variety of frailty distributions, including gamma, log-normal, inverse Gaussian and power variance function, and provides consistent estimators of the standard errors of the parameters' estimators. The parameters' estimators are asymptotically normally distributed, and therefore statistical inference based on the results of this package, such as hypothesis testing and confidence intervals, can be performed using the normal distribution. Extensive simulations demonstrate the flexibility and correct implementation of the estimator. Two case studies performed with publicly available datasets demonstrate applicability of the package. In the Diabetic Retinopathy Study, the onset of blindness is clustered by patient, and in a large hard drive failure dataset, failure times are thought to be clustered by the hard drive manufacturer and model.
- Managing diabetes and liver disease association. [Review]
- AJArab J Gastroenterol 2018 Nov 09
- There is strong association between liver diseases and diabetes (DM) which is higher than expected by a chance association of two very common disorders. It can be classified into three categories: Li...
There is strong association between liver diseases and diabetes (DM) which is higher than expected by a chance association of two very common disorders. It can be classified into three categories: Liver disease related to diabetes, hepatogenous diabetes (HD), and liver disease occurring coincidentally with DM. The criteria for the diagnosis of diabetes associating liver disease are the same for primary diabetes. Two hours post glucose load is a better screening test for HD. HbA1c may not be suitable for diagnosis or monitoring of diabetes associating advanced liver disease. Apart from the increased cardiovascular risk in patients with type 2 DM (T2 DM) and NAFLD, the cardiovascular and retinopathy risk is low in HD. Patients with metabolic derangement should be screened for NAFLD which in turn may predict T2 DM development. Similarly, patients with established T2 DM should also be screened for NAFLD which further contributes to diabetes worsening. Diabetes is a significant risk factor for progression of the chronic liver disease. It is associated with poor patient survival. Treatment of diabetes associating liver disease appears beneficial. Metformin, if tolerated and not contraindicated, is recommended as a first-line therapy for patients with diabetes and chronic liver disease (CLD). If the hepatic disease is severe, insulin secretagogues should be avoided because of the increased risk of hypoglycaemia. Pioglitazone may be useful in patients with fatty liver disease. DPP-4 inhibitors showed effectiveness and safety for the treatment of T2 DM in CLD patients up to those with child B stage. GLP-1 receptor agonists and SGLT-2 inhibitors exhibit positive effects on weight and are associated with minimal risk of hypoglycaemia. Insulin must be used with caution, as hypoglycaemia may be a problem. Insulin analogues are preferred in the context of hypoglycaemia Statins can be used to treat dyslipidaemia in NAFLD, also the use of angiotensin II receptor antagonist for hypertension is safe and beneficial Given the clear association between diabetes mellitus and hepatocellular carcinoma, the strict control of glycaemia with insulin sensitizers can be essential in its prevention. The addition of DM to the currently used scores (Child-Pugh and MELD scores) may enhance the sensitivity and the specificity for prediction of morbidity and mortality rates in cirrhotic patients. In the new era of directly acting antiviral agents (DAAs) for HCV treatment, it is recommended to follow up lipid profile and blood sugar levels following SVR in order to adjust doses of medications used in diabetic (SVR is associated with reduction in insulin requirements) and dyslipidaemic patients (rebound increase in the lipid profile after clearing the virus may increase risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD)). The issues of post liver transplant diabetes and relation between DM and chronic HBV are highlighted. This narrative review and Consensus-based practice guidance (under revision and criticism) are based on a formal review and analysis of the recently published world literature on the topic (Medline search up to September 2017); and the experience of the authors and independent reviewers.
- Association between diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetes and the ICAM-1 rs5498 polymorphism: a meta-analysis of case-control studies. [Journal Article]
- BOBMC Ophthalmol 2018 Nov 12; 18(1):297
- CONCLUSIONS: Our meta-analyses provide no evidence of the association of rs5498 with DR in type 2 diabetic patients.
New Search Next
- Stemming retinal regeneration with pluripotent stem cells. [Review]
- PRProg Retin Eye Res 2018 Nov 09
- Cell replacement therapy is a promising treatment for irreversible retinal cell death in diverse diseases, such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD), Stargardt's disease, retinitis pigmentosa (R...
Cell replacement therapy is a promising treatment for irreversible retinal cell death in diverse diseases, such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD), Stargardt's disease, retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and glaucoma. These diseases are all characterized by the degeneration of one or two retinal cell types that cannot regenerate spontaneously in humans. Aberrant retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells can be observed through optical coherence tomography (OCT) in AMD patients. In RP patients, the morphological and functional abnormalities of RPE and photoreceptor layers are caused by a genetic abnormality. Stargardt's disease or juvenile macular degeneration, which is characterized by the loss of the RPE and photoreceptors in the macular area, causes central vision loss at an early age. Loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) can be observed in patients with glaucoma. Once the retinal cell degeneration is triggered, no treatments can reverse it. Transplantation-based approaches have been proposed as a universal therapy to target patients with various concomitant diseases. Both the replacement of dead cells and neuroprotection are strategies used to rescue visual function in animal models of retinal degeneration. Diverse retinal cell types derived from pluripotent stem cells, including RPE cells, photoreceptors, RGCs and even retinal organoids with a layered structure, provide unlimited cell sources for transplantation. In addition, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multifunctional and protect degenerating retinal cells. The aim of this review is to summarize current findings from preclinical and clinical studies. We begin with a brief introduction to retinal degenerative diseases and cell death in diverse diseases, followed by methods for retinal cell generation. Preclinical and clinical studies are discussed, and future concerns about efficacy, safety and immunorejection are also addressed.