- Evaluation of Retromode Imaging for Use in Hydroxychloroquine Retinopathy. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Ophthalmol 2018 Aug 14
- CONCLUSIONS: Retromode imaging may be useful for detecting HCQ retinopathy. However, its excellent sensitivity but limited specificity is suggestive of a supplementary role in screening HCQ retinopathy, particularly for early detection.
- Casein kinase-II inhibition promotes retinal ganglion cell survival and axonal regeneration. [Journal Article]
- EEExp Eye Res 2018 Aug 14
- Neuron survival is critical for the maintenance of central nervous system physiology upon diseases or injury. We previously demonstrated that the blockage of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt and Jan...
Neuron survival is critical for the maintenance of central nervous system physiology upon diseases or injury. We previously demonstrated that the blockage of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt and Janus kinase/STAT3 pathways promotes retinal ganglion cell (RGC) survival and axonal regeneration via macrophage activation; yet, the complexity of the inflammatory regulation for neural repair indicates the involvement of additional unresolved signaling pathways. Here we report the effects and underlying mechanism of casein kinase-II (CK2) inhibition on RGC survival and axonal regeneration in rats after optic nerve (ON) injury. Adult rats received intravitreal injection of CK2 inhibitors, TBB (4,5,6,7-Tetrabromo-2-azabenzimidazole) and DMAT (2-Dimethylamino-4,5,6,7-tetrabromo-1H-benzimidazole), after ON transection and peripheral nerve (PN) grafting. Intravitreal application of TBB and DAMT effectively suppressed the CK2 phosphorylation activity in the retina, and enhanced RGC survival and axonal regeneration in vivo. Meanwhile, the numbers of infiltrating macrophages were increased. Removal of macrophages by clodronate liposomes significantly abolished the CK2 inhibition-induced RGC survival and axonal regeneration. Clodronate liposomes also weakened the RGC protective effects by TBB and DMAT in vitro. In summary, this study revealed that inhibition of CK2 enhances RGC survival and axonal regeneration via macrophage activation in rats. CK2 could be a therapeutic target for RGC protection after ON injury.
- Evaluation of risk factors associated with diabetic foot ulcers in Saudi Arabia. [Journal Article]
- CDCurr Diabetes Rev 2018 Aug 16
- CONCLUSIONS: The issues of loss of protective sensation, vascular insufficiency, deformity, previous amputations, and dermatological abnormalities of the lower limbs were found to be most common among the foot ulceration patients. The study findings thus recommend regular foot examination, following of basic hygiene habits, encouragement of the use of appropriate footwear, patient education about foot ulcers, and prompt treatment for minor injuries to prevent further ulceration in DM patients.
- Presence of diabetic retinopathy is associated with worse 10 year mortality among Indigenous Australians in central Australia: the Central Australian Ocular Health Study. [Journal Article]
- CEClin Exp Ophthalmol 2018 Aug 16
- CONCLUSIONS: The presence of any DR among those with DM, was associated with a 75% greater 10 year all-cause mortality rate and were more likely to die from renal failure or stroke. We recommend that whenever DR is noted among Indigenous Australians with DM, that they be immediately referred for investigation and management of risk factors which might predispose to renal failure and stroke. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Paeoniflorin attenuates atRAL-induced oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and endoplasmic reticulum stress in retinal pigment epithelial cells via triggering Ca2+/CaMKII-dependent activation of AMPK. [Journal Article]
- APArch Pharm Res 2018 Aug 16
- Abnormal accumulation of the free-form all-trans-retinal (atRAL), a major intermediate of human visual cycle, is considered to be a key cause of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) dysfunction in the pa...
Abnormal accumulation of the free-form all-trans-retinal (atRAL), a major intermediate of human visual cycle, is considered to be a key cause of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) dysfunction in the pathogenesis of retinal degenerative diseases such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Paeoniflorin (PF), a monoterpene glucoside isolated from Paeonia lactiflora Pall., has been used in clinical treatment of retinal degenerative diseases in China for several years; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate the protective effect of PF against atRAL toxicity in human ARPE-19 cells and its molecular mechanism. The results of our study showed that the pre-treatment of PF dose-dependently attenuated atRAL-induced cell injury by the reduction of Nox1/ROS-associated oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and GRP78-PERK-eIF2α-ATF4-CHOP-regulated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in ARPE-19 cells. Additionally, our data showed that PF mainly exerted its activity via triggering calcium-calmodulin dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII)-mediated activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). AMPK inhibition significantly reversed the protective effect of PF against atRAL toxicity in ARPE-19 cells. Overall, our findings provided the novel mechanism of PF protecting human RPE cells, which may prevent the progression of retinal degenerative diseases.
- Neurophysiological Evidence for a Compensatory Activity during a Simple Oddball Task in Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus. [Journal Article]
- JDJ Diabetes Res 2018; 2018:8105407
- CONCLUSIONS: The deterioration on a sensory level, enhanced activity during cognitive processing, and balanced behavioral response support the view that neuroplasticity counterbalances the neural impairment by enhanced cognitive processing to achieve normal behavioral performance in T1D adolescents.
- The All-Cause Mortality and a Screening Tool to Determine High-Risk Patients among Prevalent Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients. [Journal Article]
- JDJ Diabetes Res 2018; 2018:4638327
- CONCLUSIONS: The elderly and underweight T2DM patients with complications have higher risk for mortality within five years. The model has moderate accuracy; the prognostic model can be used as a screening tool to classify T2DM patients who are at higher risk for mortality within five years.
- Sustained and targeted episcleral delivery of celecoxib in a rabbit model of retinal and choroidal neovascularization. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Retina Vitreous 2018; 4:31
- CONCLUSIONS: In this rabbit model of retinal and subretinal neovascularization, episcleral celecoxib delivery was demonstrated to significantly inhibit neovascularization. It was also noticed, although not statistically significant, an apparent effect of episcleral celecoxib on preventing tractional retinal detachment secondary to epiretinal fibrovascular proliferation. The transscleral delivery of celecoxib combined with sustained-release strategy may have impact in the treatment of retinal and choroidal proliferative diseases.
- Cardiovascular benefits of GLP-1 agonists in type 2 diabetes: a comparative review. [Review]
- CSClin Sci (Lond) 2018 Aug 16; 132(15):1699-1709
- Type 2 diabetes (T2D) carries risks of both cardiovascular (CV) (myocardial infarction, stroke, and peripheral vascular disease) and microvascular (retinopathy/nephropathy/neuropathy) complications. ...
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) carries risks of both cardiovascular (CV) (myocardial infarction, stroke, and peripheral vascular disease) and microvascular (retinopathy/nephropathy/neuropathy) complications. Glucose-lowering is an effective strategy for preventing microvascular complications, but the extent to which it can reduce CV complications is less certain. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) agonists are potent glucose-lowering agents but also have potentially beneficial effects on other traditional (body weight, blood pressure (BP), and LDL cholesterol) and non-traditional risk factors (low grade inflammation and endothelial dysfunction). The results of four large CV outcome trials with GLP-1 agonists are now available. These have compared lixisenatide (ELIXA), liraglutide (LEADER), semaglutide (SUSTAIN-6), and long-acting exenatide (EXSCEL) with placebo and standard of care over 2-4 years; four others (including with dulaglutide and albiglutide) are ongoing. LEADER and SUSTAIN-6 have demonstrated reductions in rates of major adverse CV events with active GLP-1 treatment but ELIXA and EXSCEL have not. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms by which GLP-1 receptor agonists act on the CV system and the design and conduct of these trials. Contrary to the assertions that (a) all GLP-1 agonists reduce CV disease in T2D but to different extents or (b) the magnitude of CV protection is predominantly related to glucose-lowering, we argue that CV benefit is specific to agents that provide longer acting agonism at the GLP-1 receptor. The mechanisms involve reduction in body weight and BP, and lowering of LDL-cholesterol and glucose, but pleiotropic effects-including suppression of low grade inflammation, vasodilation, and natriuresis-are also likely relevant.
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- Proliferative diabetic retinopathy imaged by near-infrared reflectance. [Journal Article]
- ASArch Soc Esp Oftalmol 2018 Aug 13