- Seroprevalence and current infections of canine vector-borne diseases in Nicaragua. [Journal Article]
- PVParasit Vectors 2018 Nov 12; 11(1):585
- CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that canine vector-borne diseases are widespread in Nicaragua and that dogs may constitute a reservoir for human infection with E. canis, A. phagocytophilum and D. immitis. Thus, the use of repellents or acaricides to protect dogs from vector-borne diseases is strongly recommended.
- Survey and Phylogenetic Analysis of Rodents and Important Rodent-Borne Zoonotic Pathogens in Gedu, Bhutan. [Journal Article]
- KJKorean J Parasitol 2018; 56(5):521-525
- Rodents are well-known reservoirs and vectors of many emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases, but little is known about their role in zoonotic disease transmission in Bhutan. In this study, a c...
Rodents are well-known reservoirs and vectors of many emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases, but little is known about their role in zoonotic disease transmission in Bhutan. In this study, a cross-sectional investigation of zoonotic disease pathogens in rodents was performed in Chukha district, Bhutan, where a high incidence of scrub typhus and cases of acute undifferentiated febrile illness had been reported in people during the preceding 4-6 months. Twelve rodents were trapped alive using wire-mesh traps. Following euthanasia, liver and kidney tissues were removed and tested using PCR for Orientia tsutsugamushi and other bacterial and rickettsial pathogens causing bartonellosis, borreliosis, human monocytic ehrlichiosis, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, leptospirosis, and rickettsiosis. A phylogenetic analysis was performed on all rodent species captured and pathogens detected. Four out of the 12 rodents (33.3%) tested positive by PCR for zoonotic pathogens. Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Bartonella grahamii, and B. queenslandensis were identified for the first time in Bhutan. Leptospira interrogans was also detected for the first time from rodents in Bhutan. The findings demonstrate the presence of these zoonotic pathogens in rodents in Bhutan, which may pose a risk of disease transmission to humans.
- New Zealand rickettsia-like organism (NZ-RLO) and Tenacibaculum maritimum: Distribution and phylogeny in farmed Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). [Journal Article]
- JFJ Fish Dis 2018 Nov 08
- A total of 777 fish from three growing regions of New Zealand Chinook salmon farms comprising of five sites were tested. Quantitative PCR was used to determine the distribution of New Zealand rickett...
A total of 777 fish from three growing regions of New Zealand Chinook salmon farms comprising of five sites were tested. Quantitative PCR was used to determine the distribution of New Zealand rickettsia-like organism and Tenacibaculum maritimum. Genetic information from these bacteria were then compared with strains reported worldwide. Using this information, suggested associations of pathogens with clinically affected fish were made. NZ-RLO was detected in two of the three regions, and T. maritimum was detected in all regions. Three strains of NZ-RLO were identified during this study. Based on analysis of the ITS rRNA gene, NZ-RLO1 appears to be part of an Australasian grouping sharing high similarity with the Tasmanian RLO, NZ-RLO2 was shown to be the same as an Irish strain, and NZ-RLO3 was shown be closely related to two strains from Chile. Based on multi-locus sequence typing, the New Zealand T. maritimum was the same as Australian strains. NZ-RLOs were detected more frequently in fish with skin ulcers than fish without skin ulcers. While additional research is required to investigate the pathogenicity of these organisms, this is the first time that NZ-RLOs have been associated with the development of clinical infections in farmed Chinook salmon.
- Fatal case of co-infected of rickettiosis and dengue virus in Mexico [Journal Article]
- RMRev Med Inst Mex Seguro Soc 2018 Oct 25; 56(3):320-322
- CONCLUSIONS: In rickettsial endemic zones, treatment with doxycycline should be employed in patients with similar symptoms, even though there is evidence of the presence of other etiologic agents.
- Efficacy of oral rabies vaccination in individual age groups of juvenile red foxes. [Journal Article]
- VMVet Microbiol 2018; 226:59-63
- Although juvenile red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) are considered a single age group, essential for monitoring the effectiveness of the oral rabies vaccination (ORV), there appear to be significant differen...
Although juvenile red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) are considered a single age group, essential for monitoring the effectiveness of the oral rabies vaccination (ORV), there appear to be significant differences among age subgroups. Herein, a subset of 335 foxes aged 0-1 year that had not consumed bait in previous campaign were collected for monitoring the effectiveness of the first seven ORV campaigns in Greece, carried out from 2013 to 2017. These juveniles were additionally assigned to three individual 4-month age groups, according to the exact date on which they were killed. The aim was to identify differences in seroconversion rate and bait uptake level and determine whether reconsideration is needed in the way that ORV monitoring is being implemented and evaluated. Statistically significant differences were observed following the analysis of mandible bone, teeth and blood samples obtained from 1-4 and 5-8-month old foxes as compared to the respective samples derived from 9-12-month old animals, whereas no differences were revealed in samples between foxes aged 1-4 and 5-8 months. Hunting juveniles during the whole period of spring ORV campaigns monitoring should be reevaluated and even discouraged. On the contrary, juvenile foxes hunted for the evaluation of autumn campaigns, aged > 8 months, had similar assessment rates to adult individuals and are equally helpful for assessing the efficacy of an ORV campaign. Taking the above into consideration and by distinguishing recent and old tetracycline uptake, ORV monitoring and evaluation could be performed in an alternative, more comprehensive way.
- Dermacentor reticulatus in Berlin/Brandenburg (Germany): Activity patterns and associated pathogens. [Journal Article]
- TTTicks Tick Borne Dis 2018 Oct 18
- Dermacentor reticulatus is one of the most important European tick species. However, its spatial distribution, seasonality and regional vector role are not well known. This study aimed to gather info...
Dermacentor reticulatus is one of the most important European tick species. However, its spatial distribution, seasonality and regional vector role are not well known. This study aimed to gather information about abundance patterns of questing ticks and associated pathogens in unfed female adult D. reticulatus in the Berlin/Brandenburg area. Using the flagging method, questing ticks were collected at four sites in 2010-2012 and 2000 D. reticulatus were analysed regarding infection with Rickettsia, Babesia, Borrelia and Anaplasmataceae by conventional or real-time PCR. Dermacentor reticulatus showed a bimodal activity pattern: highest numbers of adult ticks were recorded between March and end of May (mean 50 ticks/h) and from mid-August until end of November (mean 102 ticks/h). During summer, almost complete inactivity was observed (mean 0.4 ticks/h). Sporadic samplings from December to February revealed tick activity also during winter (mean 47 ticks/h), which was characterised by large fluctuations. Using negative binomial regression analysis, significant influences of the variables sampling site, season and temperature on the abundance of questing D. reticulatus were determined. The parameters relative humidity and year were not of significant importance. PCR analyses showed an average prevalence of 64% for Rickettsia sp. Large differences in pathogen frequencies were observed between sampling sites (31.4-78.3%). Regression analysis demonstrated a significant influence of the sampling site but not of season and year. Examinations regarding other pathogen groups indicated prevalences of 0.25% (Borrelia sp.) and 0.05% (Anaplasmataceae) but absence of Babesia sp. Sequencing of positive samples revealed infections with Rickettsia raoultii, Borrelia miyamotoi, Borrelia afzelii and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. The study shows stable populations of D. reticulatus in Berlin/Brandenburg. People should be aware of ticks throughout the year since Ixodes ricinus is co-endemic and active in spring, summer and autumn while adult D. reticulatus are active throughout the year and even in winter during periods of frost as long as it is warming up during the day. Prevalence of R. raoultii in the present study is among the highest described for D. reticulatus. Borrelia miyamotoi was detected for the first time in D. reticulatus, illustrating the importance of screening studies to evaluate the pathogen structure in D. reticulatus populations.
- Ticks, rickettsial and erlichial infection in small mammals from Atlantic forest remnants in northeastern Brazil. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Parasitol Parasites Wildl 2018; 7(3):380-385
- We evaluated infection by Rickettsia spp. and Ehrlichia spp in small mammals and their ticks from two Atlantic forest conservation areas in the state of Rio Grande do Norte, northeastern Brazil. A to...
We evaluated infection by Rickettsia spp. and Ehrlichia spp in small mammals and their ticks from two Atlantic forest conservation areas in the state of Rio Grande do Norte, northeastern Brazil. A total of 39 small mammals were captured during 2012-2013, encompassing 33 marsupials (29 Didelphis albiventris, four Monodelphis domestica), three Cricetidae rodents (two Necromys lasiurus, one Rattus rattus), one Caviomorpha rodent (Thrichomys apereoides) and two armadillos (Euphractus sexcinctus). The ticks Amblyomma auricularium, Ixodes loricatus, and Ornithodoros mimon were collected from D. albiventris, whereas only A. auricularium was collected from armadillos. Through immunofluorescence assay with Rickettsia spp. antigens, 6/28 (21%) D. albiventris and the single R. rattus specimen reacted to at least one rickettsial antigen, with highest seroprevalence and endpoint titers to Rickettsia amblyommatis. A total of 150 ticks (126 A. auricularium, nine I. loricatus, 15 O. mimon) was tested for rickettsial infection by PCR, which detected only R. amblyommatis in most of the A. auricularium ticks. Lung and spleen samples were collected from small mammals (two N. lasiurus, six D. albiventris, three M. domestica, one T. apereoides, one R. rattus) and were tested by PCR for Anaplasmataceae agents. The spleen from one D. albiventris contained a new ehrlichial agent, here named as Ehrlichia sp. strain Natal. Phylogenetic analysis inferred from the dsb gene of Ehrlichia spp. indicates that this novel agent is potentially a new species. Future studies should monitor the possible role of rickettsial and/or ehrlichial microorganisms as agents of emerging diseases in these degraded areas of Atlantic forest, just as has occurred with other agents in degraded areas of this biome in southeastern Brazil.
- Ehrlichia Infections, North Carolina, USA, 2016. [Journal Article]
- EIEmerg Infect Dis 2018; 24(11):2087-2090
- Nearly two thirds of persons suspected of having tickborne illness in central North Carolina, USA, were not tested for Ehrlichia. Failure to test may have resulted in a missed diagnosis for ≈13% of t...
Nearly two thirds of persons suspected of having tickborne illness in central North Carolina, USA, were not tested for Ehrlichia. Failure to test may have resulted in a missed diagnosis for ≈13% of these persons, who were therefore substantially less likely to receive antimicrobial treatment and to have follow-up testing performed.
- Rickettsia typhi as Cause of Fatal Encephalitic Typhus in Hospitalized Patients, Hamburg, Germany, 1940-1944. [Journal Article]
- EIEmerg Infect Dis 2018; 24(11):1982-1987
- We evaluated formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue specimens from 7 patients who died with encephalitic typhus in Hamburg, Germany, during World War II. The archived specimens included only central...
We evaluated formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue specimens from 7 patients who died with encephalitic typhus in Hamburg, Germany, during World War II. The archived specimens included only central nervous system tissues >70 years old that had been stored at room temperature. We demonstrated successful detection of Rickettsia typhi DNA by a nested qPCR specific to prsA in 2 patients. These results indicate that R. typhi infections contributed to typhus outbreaks during World War II. Immunohistochemical analyses of brain tissue specimens of R. typhi DNA-positive and -negative specimens showed perivascular B-cell accumulation. Around blood vessels, nodular cell accumulations consisted of CD4-positive and CD8-positive T cells and CD68-positive microglia and macrophages; neutrophils were found rarely. These findings are similar to those of previously reported R. prowazekii tissue specimen testing. Because R. typhi and R. prowazekii infections can be clinically and histopathologically similar, molecular analyses should be performed to distinguish the 2 pathogens.
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- Spotted Fever Group Rickettsiae in Inner Mongolia, China, 2015-2016. [Journal Article]
- EIEmerg Infect Dis 2018; 24(11):2105-2107
- We found Rickettsia raoultii infection in 6/261 brucellosis-negative patients with fever of unknown origin in brucellosis-endemic Inner Mongolia, China. We further identified Hyalomma asiaticum ticks...
We found Rickettsia raoultii infection in 6/261 brucellosis-negative patients with fever of unknown origin in brucellosis-endemic Inner Mongolia, China. We further identified Hyalomma asiaticum ticks associated with R. raoultii, H. marginatum ticks associated with R. aeschlimannii, and Dermacentor nuttalli ticks associated with both rickettsiae species in the autonomous region.