- Exploring Alternative Strategies for the Identification of Potent Compounds Using Support Vector Machine and Regression Modeling. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Chem Inf Model 2018 Dec 14
- Support vector regression (SVR) is a premier approach for the prediction of compound potency. Given the conceptual link between support vector machine (SVM) and SVR modeling, SVR is capable of accoun...
Support vector regression (SVR) is a premier approach for the prediction of compound potency. Given the conceptual link between support vector machine (SVM) and SVR modeling, SVR is capable of accounting for continuous and discontinuous structure-activity relationships (SARs) in potency prediction, which further extends the classical quantitative SAR (QSAR) paradigm. In the context of virtual compound screening, compound potency prediction can be applied to identify the most potent compounds that are available or enrich database selection sets with potent compounds. To these ends, we have evaluated new potency prediction strategies. Conventional (direct) potency prediction using SVR was compared to two-stage SVM-SVR modeling and potency prediction using SVR models trained in the presence of active and inactive compounds, a previously unconsidered approach. The latter models were found to maximize the recall of potent compounds but were least accurate in predicting high potency values. For this purpose, direct SVR predictions were preferred. However, the best balance between accurate potency predictions and enrichment of potent compounds in database selection sets was achieved by combined SVM-SVR modeling. Taken together, our findings further extend current approaches for compound potency prediction in virtual compound screening.
- Recent Advances in AIV Biosensors Composed of Nanobio Hybrid Material. [Review]
- MMicromachines (Basel) 2018 Dec 09; 9(12)
- Since the beginning of the 2000s, globalization has accelerated because of the development of transportation systems that allow for human and material exchanges throughout the world. However, this gl...
Since the beginning of the 2000s, globalization has accelerated because of the development of transportation systems that allow for human and material exchanges throughout the world. However, this globalization has brought with it the rise of various pathogenic viral agents, such as Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Zika virus, and Dengue virus. In particular, avian influenza virus (AIV) is highly infectious and causes economic, health, ethnical, and social problems to human beings, which has necessitated the development of an ultrasensitive and selective rapid-detection system of AIV. To prevent the damage associated with the spread of AIV, early detection and adequate treatment of AIV is key. There are traditional techniques that have been used to detect AIV in chickens, ducks, humans, and other living organisms. However, the development of a technique that allows for the more rapid diagnosis of AIV is still necessary. To achieve this goal, the present article reviews the use of an AIV biosensor employing nanobio hybrid materials to enhance the sensitivity and selectivity of the technique while also reducing the detection time and high-throughput process time. This review mainly focused on four techniques: the electrochemical detection system, electrical detection method, optical detection methods based on localized surface plasmon resonance, and fluorescence.
- Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) strain infection in macaques results in high bacilli burdens in airways, driving broad innate/adaptive immune responses. [Journal Article]
- EMEmerg Microbes Infect 2018 Dec 12; 7(1):207
- Tuberculosis (TB) has become the most deadly infectious diseases due to epidemics of HIV/AIDS and multidrug-resistant/extensively drug-resistant TB (MDR-/XDR-TB). Although person-to-person transmissi...
Tuberculosis (TB) has become the most deadly infectious diseases due to epidemics of HIV/AIDS and multidrug-resistant/extensively drug-resistant TB (MDR-/XDR-TB). Although person-to-person transmission contributes to MDR-TB, it remains unknown whether infection with MDR strains resembles infection with drug-sensitive (DS) TB strains, manipulating limited or broad immune responses. To address these questions, macaques were infected with MDR strain V791 and a drug-sensitive Erdman strain of TB. MDR bacilli burdens in the airway were significantly higher than those of the Erdman control after pulmonary exposure. This productive MDR strain infection upregulated the expression of caspase 3 in macrophages/monocytes and induced appreciable innate-like effector responses of CD3-negative lymphocytes and Ag-specific γδ T-cell subsets. Concurrently, MDR strain infection induced broad immune responses of T-cell subpopulations producing Th1, Th17, Th22, and CTL cytokines. Furthermore, MDR bacilli, like the Erdman strain, were capable of inducing typical TB disease characterized by weight loss, lymphocytopenia, and severe TB lesions. For the first time, our results suggest that MDR-TB infection acts like DS to induce high bacterial burdens in the airway (transmission advantage), innate/adaptive immune responses, and disease processes. Because nonhuman primates are biologically closer to humans than other species, our data may provide useful information for predicting the effects of primary MDR strain infection after person-to-person transmission. The findings also support the hypothesis that a vaccine or host-directed adjunctive modality that is effective for drug-sensitive TB is likely to also impact MDR-TB.
- A Novel Measure of Non-coding Genome Conservation Identifies Genomic Regulatory Blocks Within Primates. [Journal Article]
- BBioinformatics 2018 Dec 07
- Clusters of extremely conserved non-coding elements (CNEs) mark genomic regions devoted to cis-regulation of key developmental genes in Metazoa. We have recently shown that their span coincides with ...
Clusters of extremely conserved non-coding elements (CNEs) mark genomic regions devoted to cis-regulation of key developmental genes in Metazoa. We have recently shown that their span coincides with that of topologically associating domains (TADs), making them useful for estimating conserved TAD boundaries in the absence of Hi-C data. The standard approach - detecting CNEs in genome alignments and then establishing the boundaries of their clusters - requires tuning of several parameters and breaks down when comparing closely related genomes.
- Replication of MERS and SARS coronaviruses in bat cells offers insights to their ancestral origins. [Journal Article]
- EMEmerg Microbes Infect 2018 Dec 10; 7(1):209
- Previous findings of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV)-related viruses in bats, and the ability of Tylonycteris-BatCoV HKU4 spike protein to utilize MERS-CoV receptor, human dip...
Previous findings of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV)-related viruses in bats, and the ability of Tylonycteris-BatCoV HKU4 spike protein to utilize MERS-CoV receptor, human dipeptidyl peptidase 4 hDPP4, suggest a bat ancestral origin of MERS-CoV. We developed 12 primary bat cell lines from seven bat species, including Tylonycteris pachypus, Pipistrellus abramus and Rhinolophus sinicus (hosts of Tylonycteris-BatCoV HKU4, Pipistrellus-BatCoV HKU5, and SARS-related-CoV respectively), and tested their susceptibilities to MERS-CoVs, SARS-CoV, and human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E). Five cell lines, including P. abramus and R. sinicus but not T. pachypus cells, were susceptible to human MERS-CoV EMC/2012. However, three tested camel MERS-CoV strains showed different infectivities, with only two strains capable of infecting three and one cell lines respectively. SARS-CoV can only replicate in R. sinicus cells, while HCoV-229E cannot replicate in any bat cells. Bat dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) sequences were closely related to those of human and non-human primates but distinct from dromedary DPP4 sequence. Critical residues for binding to MERS-CoV spike protein were mostly conserved in bat DPP4. DPP4 was expressed in the five bat cells susceptible to MERS-CoV, with significantly higher mRNA expression levels than those in non-susceptible cells (P = 0.0174), supporting that DPP4 expression is critical for MERS-CoV infection in bats. However, overexpression of T. pachypus DPP4 failed to confer MERS-CoV susceptibility in T. pachypus cells, suggesting other cellular factors in determining viral replication. The broad cellular tropism of MERS-CoV should prompt further exploration of host diversity of related viruses to identify its ancestral origin.
- Origin and evolution of pathogenic coronaviruses. [Review]
- NRNat Rev Microbiol 2018 Dec 10
- Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) are two highly transmissible and pathogenic viruses that emerged in humans at the ...
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) are two highly transmissible and pathogenic viruses that emerged in humans at the beginning of the 21st century. Both viruses likely originated in bats, and genetically diverse coronaviruses that are related to SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV were discovered in bats worldwide. In this Review, we summarize the current knowledge on the origin and evolution of these two pathogenic coronaviruses and discuss their receptor usage; we also highlight the diversity and potential of spillover of bat-borne coronaviruses, as evidenced by the recent spillover of swine acute diarrhoea syndrome coronavirus (SADS-CoV) to pigs.
- Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of quinoline-indole derivatives as anti-tubulin agents targeting the colchicine binding site. [Journal Article]
- EJEur J Med Chem 2018 Nov 29; 163:428-442
- A series of novel isocombretastatin A-4 (isoCA-4) analogs were designed and synthesized by replacing 3,4,5-trimethoylphenyl and isovanillin of isoCA-4 with quinoline and indole moieties, respectively...
A series of novel isocombretastatin A-4 (isoCA-4) analogs were designed and synthesized by replacing 3,4,5-trimethoylphenyl and isovanillin of isoCA-4 with quinoline and indole moieties, respectively. The structure activity relationships (SARs) of these synthesized quinoline-indole derivatives have been intensively investigated. Two compounds 27c and 34b exhibited the most potent activities against five cancer cell lines with IC50 values ranging from 2 to 11 nM, which were comparable to those of Combretastatin A-4 (CA-4, 1). Further mechanism investigations revealed that 34b effectively inhibited the microtubule polymerization by binding to the colchicine site of tubulin. Further cellular mechanism studies elucidated that 34b disrupted cell microtubule networks, arrested the cell cycle at G2/M phase, induced apoptosis and depolarized mitochondria of K562 cells. Moreover, 34b displayed potent anti-vascular activity in both wound healing and tube formation assays. Importantly, 27c and 34b significantly inhibited tumor growth in H22 xenograft models without apparent toxicity, suggesting that 27c and 34b deserve further research as potent antitumor agents for cancer therapy.
- Design, synthesis and structure-activity relationship optimization of phenanthridine derivatives as new Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway agonists. [Journal Article]
- BCBioorg Chem 2018 Nov 19; 84:285-294
- Phenanthridine derivativeHLY78 has previously been identified as the first Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway agonist that targets the DAX domain of axin. However, due to the relatively weak activation...
Phenanthridine derivativeHLY78 has previously been identified as the first Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway agonist that targets the DAX domain of axin. However, due to the relatively weak activation on the Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway, HLY78 is insufficient for further pharmacological study. Herein, the structural optimization of HLY78 and analyses of the structure-activity relationships (SARs) of HLY78-derived phenanthridine derivatives as agonists of the Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway are presented. In this work, 36 derivatives were designed and synthesized with some derivatives exhibiting stronger Wnt activity than the activity of HLY78. In particular, one of them, 8-((1,3-dimethy-pyrazol-5-yl)methoxy)-5-ethyl-4-methyl-5,6-dihydro-phenanthridin-9-ol, exhibited strong Wnt active activity and is 10 times more potent than HLY78. The following SAR analysis suggests that a pyrazole group, especially at the C-8 position, is important for Wnt activation; a methyl group at the C-4position seems to be more beneficial for Wnt activation than ethyl; and oxidation of the C-6 position reduces the Wnt activation.
- Turning natural products into insecticide candidates: Design and semisynthesis of novel fraxinellone-based N-(1,3-thiazol-2-yl)carboxamides against two crop-threatening insect pests. [Journal Article]
- BMBioorg Med Chem Lett 2018 Dec 03
- To improve the insecticidal activities of fraxinellone, two series of fraxinellone-based N-(1,3-thiazol-2-yl)carboxamides containing 25 compounds were prepared by structural modification. Their struc...
To improve the insecticidal activities of fraxinellone, two series of fraxinellone-based N-(1,3-thiazol-2-yl)carboxamides containing 25 compounds were prepared by structural modification. Their structures were determined by melting point, optical rotation, IR, 1H NMR and ESI-MS. The steric configurations of compounds 6i, 7d and 7i were unambiguously confirmed by X-ray diffraction further. The bioassay showed that compounds 6b and 6i exhibited more potent larvicidal and growth inhibitory activities against Plutella xylostella Linnaeus and Mythimna separata Walker, respectively. Moreover, compounds 6b and 6i also displayed low cytotoxicity to noncancerous mammalian cells. The structure-activity relationships (SARs) of all target compounds were also observed.
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- Basal position of two new complete mitochondrial genomes of parasitic Cymothoida (Crustacea: Isopoda) challenges the monophyly of the suborder and phylogeny of the entire order. [Journal Article]
- PVParasit Vectors 2018 Dec 10; 11(1):628
- CONCLUSIONS: Our results did not recover the suborders Cymothoida and Oniscidea Latreille, 1802 as monophyletic, with parasitic and free-living cymothoidans forming separate clades. Furthermore, two parasitic cymothoidans formed the sister-clade to all other isopods, separated from Epicaridea Latreille, 1825, which challenges currently prevalent isopod phylogeny. Additional mt genomes of parasitic and free-living isopods might confer a sufficient phylogenetic resolution to enable us to resolve their relationships, and ultimately allow us to better understand the evolutionary history of the entire isopod order.