- A systematic review of risk of HIV transmission through biting or spitting: implications for policy. [Journal Article]
- HMHIV Med 2018 Apr 23
- CONCLUSIONS: There is no risk of transmitting HIV through spitting, and the risk through biting is negligible. Post-exposure prophylaxis is not indicated after a bite in all but exceptional circumstances. Policies to protect emergency workers should be developed with this evidence in mind.
- Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome in an HIV-infected patient on antiretroviral treatment: what is the risk factor? [Journal Article]
- BCBMJ Case Rep 2018 Jan 04; 2018
- Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a rare but well-described syndrome associated with a high morbidity and a substantial mortality. We present an illustrative case of an HIV-infec...
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a rare but well-described syndrome associated with a high morbidity and a substantial mortality. We present an illustrative case of an HIV-infected but virologically suppressed patient who complained of visual impairment accompanied by severe headache and epileptic seizures. The cerebral CT scan and the follow-up cranial MRI confirmed the diagnosis of PRES. Unlike the cases of HIV-infected patients with PRES published so far, our patient suffered neither from advanced immunodeficiency nor from opportunistic infection or from any other evident predisposing factor. This case highlights that the absence of classical risk factors does not exclude the diagnosis of PRES. We discuss the hypothesis that in accordance with the new pathophysiological theory, persistent HIV-associated cerebrovascular reactivity in combination with endothelial dysfunction may represent an undetected risk factor for the development of PRES in virologically and immunologically stable patients.
- Cryptococcal cerebellitis in no-VIH patient. [Journal Article]
- CMColomb Med (Cali) 2017 Jun 30; 48(2):94-97
- CONCLUSIONS: The cryptococcosis has different presentations, it´s a disease whose incidence has been increasing since the advent of the HIV / AIDS pandemy, however the commitment of the encephalic parenchyma and in particular the cerebellum is considered rare. In this way we are facing the first case of cryptococcal cerebellitis in our midst.
- Progressive dementia with seizures in an HIV infected lady. [Case Reports]
- PAPan Afr Med J 2017; 27:242
- Hospital-based Retrospective Study of Cryptococcal Meningitis in a Large Cohort from India. [Journal Article]
- AIAnn Indian Acad Neurol 2017 Jul-Sep; 20(3):225-228
- CONCLUSIONS: Cryptococcal meningitis is common in patients with AIDS. Effective and early antifungal treatment carries a good prognosis. On rapid evolution of the disease, decreased CSF cell count and protein heralds poor prognosis and warrants initiation of early specific treatment.
- Nocardia beijingensis brain abscesses in an HIV-infected individual. [Journal Article]
- IIDCases 2017; 9:65-69
- We describe a case of a 50-year-old Hispanic man diagnosed with HIV/AIDS who presented with a generalized tonic clonic seizure and ring enhancing cerebral lesions on imaging. He was initially treated...
We describe a case of a 50-year-old Hispanic man diagnosed with HIV/AIDS who presented with a generalized tonic clonic seizure and ring enhancing cerebral lesions on imaging. He was initially treated for CNS toxoplasmosis but presented to the hospital with another tonic clonic seizure despite prescribed therapy. Brain biopsy was performed which revealed Nocardia beijingensis. He was treated with intravenous meropenem and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole for six weeks followed by long term oral trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole with radiographic and clinical improvement.
- Molecular diagnosis of central nervous system opportunistic infections and mortality in HIV-infected adults in Central China. [Journal Article]
- ARAIDS Res Ther 2017; 14:24
- CONCLUSIONS: CNS OIs are frequent and multiple pathogens often coexist in CSF. Cryptococcal meningitis is the most prevalent CNS disorders among AIDS. The utility of molecular diagnostics for pathogen identification combined with the knowledge provided by the investigation may improve the diagnosis of AIDS related OIs in resource-limited developing countries, but the cost-efficacy remains to be further evaluated.
- Epidemiological surveillance of herpes viral encephalitis in Cordoba, Colombia. [Journal Article]
- RSRev Salud Publica (Bogota) 2016; 18(4):581-591
- Objective To establish an epidemiological surveillance of viral herpes encephalitis in major hospitals of Monteria, Cordoba. Methods From September 2009 to December 2011, a descriptive study of cases...
Objective To establish an epidemiological surveillance of viral herpes encephalitis in major hospitals of Monteria, Cordoba. Methods From September 2009 to December 2011, a descriptive study of cases of viral encephalitis was made in three hospitals in the city of Monteria. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from 118 patients were included in the study. Clinical aspects, as well as cytochemical and microbiological analysis (Gram stain and culture) of CSF, were used for selecting the patients. Virus detection was performed by using multiplex nested PCR for Herpes simplex virus 1 and 2, Epstein Barr virus, Cytomegalovirus and Varicella zoster virus. Results Viral DNA of herpesvirus was detected in the CSFs of 30 (25.4 %) participants, as follows: 22 (18.6 %) Herpes simplex 1 and 2 viruses, 4 (3.3 %) Cytomegalovirus and 1 (0.8 %) Varicella zoster virus. Co-infections were observed in 3 patients (2.5 %), 1 case by HSV-VZV and 2 cases by CMV/HSV. The clinical manifestations of the patients included: headache (18.6 %), fever (14.4 %), asthenia (10.1 %), seizures (9.3 %), vomiting (8.4 %), and stiff neck (5.9 %). Thirty percent of the patients also had HIV-AIDS. A case fatality rate of 20 % was observed for the patients. Conclusions This paper shows that herpesvirus is a cause of infection of the CNS in patients from Cordoba. This study contributes to the epidemiology of encephalitis, as well as to patient management.
- Neurological manifestations of HIV-AIDS at a tertiary care institute in North Eastern India. [Journal Article]
- NINeurol India 2017 Jan-Feb; 65(1):64-68
- CONCLUSIONS: CNS tuberculosis was the most common secondary infection seen in HIV patients followed by cryptococcal meningitis. A high index of clinical suspicion of neurological involvement in HIV patients helps in the early diagnosis and early institution of specific treatment, which in turn decreases the morbidity and mortality considerably.
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- HIV positive patient with HSV-2 encephalitis: case report. [Case Reports]
- IMInfez Med 2016 Sep 01; 24(3):245-9
- Incidence of brain infections in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) positive patients is reduced after the availability of current high active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Herpes Simplex Virus typ...
Incidence of brain infections in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) positive patients is reduced after the availability of current high active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Herpes Simplex Virus type 2 (HSV-2) is an infrequent cause of encephalitis in HIV patients despite it is frequently involved in sexual transmitted infections. Here, we report a case of HSV-2 encephalitis occurring in a patient without full suppression of HIV replication within the brain. A 38 year-old HIV infected man was admitted to our department because of recurrent generalized seizure and fever during the previous 24 hours. Eight months before our observation the patient was switched from a protease inhibitor based regimen to a rilpivirine-based regimen without any evidence of HIV-RNA replication in the plasma. When the patient was admitted in our hospital, he was febrile and moderately confused, no deficit of cranial nerves was reported, motility was conserved, but he was unable to walk. Laboratory examinations performed at admission demonstrated an increase of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) protein and cells with lymphocyte prevalence, and normal CSF glucose. HSV-2-DNA and HIV-RNA were present within CSF at admission. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance imaging of the brain revealed lesions of the medial part of both temporal lobes including hippocampus without any sign of bleeding. A 21-day course of acyclovir therapy was administered with consistent improvement of clinical findings and disappearance of HSV-2-DNA within CSF. After the episode, HAART was switched to a regimen with high CSF penetrability containing abacavir, lamivudine, darunavir and ritonavir. Twelve months after HSV-2 encephalitis neurologic evaluation was normal, but symptoms of depression were reported, HIV-RNA remained undetectable both in the plasma and CSF, and CD4+ lymphocytes were above 500/μL. No opportunistic infection was reported. Patients switched to regimen well tolerated such those containing rilpivirine, that have poor drug concentration within CSF could be considered at risk for opportunistic infection of the brain. Further larger investigation needs to confirm this finding.