- A cross-sectional comparative study of perceived stigma between patients with epilepsy and patients living with HIV/AIDS in Accra, Ghana. [Journal Article]
- EBEpilepsy Behav 2018; 89:1-7
- CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that epilepsy is associated with a high stigma perception. The perceived stigma was greater than stigma in PLWHAs in Accra. Stigma was affected by unemployment, ethnicity (Ewe and Guan), and uncontrolled seizures. Increasing age reduced perceived stigma and the management of patients with epilepsy in a psychiatric facility might have impacted negatively on the perceived stigma.
- Successful prevention of perinatal HIV transmission utilizing direct observation therapy in the setting of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. [Journal Article]
- IIDCases 2018; 14:e00454
- We report a case of a 22-year-old G1P0010 African-American female with poorly controlled perinatally acquired HIV/AIDS and recent diagnosis of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) by magn...
We report a case of a 22-year-old G1P0010 African-American female with poorly controlled perinatally acquired HIV/AIDS and recent diagnosis of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). She presented to a tertiary care facility for prenatal care and direct observation therapy after poor medication adherence during pregnancy. After multiple attempts at outpatient ART management, the patient was admitted at 35 weeks' gestation for direct observation therapy for both antiretroviral therapy and anti-seizure medication. Viral load at that time was 22,487 copies/mL and she was admitted and started on a salvage regimen which included: dolutegravir, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine, darunavir, ritonavir, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole for Pneumocystis jirovecii prophylaxis. The patient remained on direct observation therapy throughout her two-week hospital stay with final viral load of 1211 copies/mL, CD4 284/uL at time of delivery at 37 weeks' gestation, with minimal seizure activity. The infant received postnatal antiretroviral therapy including three doses of zidovudine and nevirapine with negative HIV PCR at birth, 2, 4, and 6 months postpartum and is currently HIV negative.
- A systematic review of risk of HIV transmission through biting or spitting: implications for policy. [Journal Article]
- HMHIV Med 2018 Apr 23
- CONCLUSIONS: There is no risk of transmitting HIV through spitting, and the risk through biting is negligible. Post-exposure prophylaxis is not indicated after a bite in all but exceptional circumstances. Policies to protect emergency workers should be developed with this evidence in mind.
- Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome in an HIV-infected patient on antiretroviral treatment: what is the risk factor? [Case Reports]
- BCBMJ Case Rep 2018 Jan 04; 2018
- Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a rare but well-described syndrome associated with a high morbidity and a substantial mortality. We present an illustrative case of an HIV-infec...
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a rare but well-described syndrome associated with a high morbidity and a substantial mortality. We present an illustrative case of an HIV-infected but virologically suppressed patient who complained of visual impairment accompanied by severe headache and epileptic seizures. The cerebral CT scan and the follow-up cranial MRI confirmed the diagnosis of PRES. Unlike the cases of HIV-infected patients with PRES published so far, our patient suffered neither from advanced immunodeficiency nor from opportunistic infection or from any other evident predisposing factor. This case highlights that the absence of classical risk factors does not exclude the diagnosis of PRES. We discuss the hypothesis that in accordance with the new pathophysiological theory, persistent HIV-associated cerebrovascular reactivity in combination with endothelial dysfunction may represent an undetected risk factor for the development of PRES in virologically and immunologically stable patients.
- Cryptococcal cerebellitis in no-VIH patient. [Case Reports]
- CMColomb Med (Cali) 2017 Jun 30; 48(2):94-97
- CONCLUSIONS: The cryptococcosis has different presentations, it´s a disease whose incidence has been increasing since the advent of the HIV / AIDS pandemy, however the commitment of the encephalic parenchyma and in particular the cerebellum is considered rare. In this way we are facing the first case of cryptococcal cerebellitis in our midst.
- Progressive dementia with seizures in an HIV infected lady. [Case Reports]
- PAPan Afr Med J 2017; 27:242
- Hospital-based Retrospective Study of Cryptococcal Meningitis in a Large Cohort from India. [Journal Article]
- AIAnn Indian Acad Neurol 2017 Jul-Sep; 20(3):225-228
- CONCLUSIONS: Cryptococcal meningitis is common in patients with AIDS. Effective and early antifungal treatment carries a good prognosis. On rapid evolution of the disease, decreased CSF cell count and protein heralds poor prognosis and warrants initiation of early specific treatment.
- Nocardia beijingensis brain abscesses in an HIV-infected individual. [Journal Article]
- IIDCases 2017; 9:65-69
- We describe a case of a 50-year-old Hispanic man diagnosed with HIV/AIDS who presented with a generalized tonic clonic seizure and ring enhancing cerebral lesions on imaging. He was initially treated...
We describe a case of a 50-year-old Hispanic man diagnosed with HIV/AIDS who presented with a generalized tonic clonic seizure and ring enhancing cerebral lesions on imaging. He was initially treated for CNS toxoplasmosis but presented to the hospital with another tonic clonic seizure despite prescribed therapy. Brain biopsy was performed which revealed Nocardia beijingensis. He was treated with intravenous meropenem and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole for six weeks followed by long term oral trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole with radiographic and clinical improvement.
- Molecular diagnosis of central nervous system opportunistic infections and mortality in HIV-infected adults in Central China. [Journal Article]
- ARAIDS Res Ther 2017; 14:24
- CONCLUSIONS: CNS OIs are frequent and multiple pathogens often coexist in CSF. Cryptococcal meningitis is the most prevalent CNS disorders among AIDS. The utility of molecular diagnostics for pathogen identification combined with the knowledge provided by the investigation may improve the diagnosis of AIDS related OIs in resource-limited developing countries, but the cost-efficacy remains to be further evaluated.
New Search Next
- Epidemiological surveillance of herpes viral encephalitis in Cordoba, Colombia. [Journal Article]
- RSRev Salud Publica (Bogota) 2016; 18(4):581-591
- Objective To establish an epidemiological surveillance of viral herpes encephalitis in major hospitals of Monteria, Cordoba. Methods From September 2009 to December 2011, a descriptive study of cases...
Objective To establish an epidemiological surveillance of viral herpes encephalitis in major hospitals of Monteria, Cordoba. Methods From September 2009 to December 2011, a descriptive study of cases of viral encephalitis was made in three hospitals in the city of Monteria. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from 118 patients were included in the study. Clinical aspects, as well as cytochemical and microbiological analysis (Gram stain and culture) of CSF, were used for selecting the patients. Virus detection was performed by using multiplex nested PCR for Herpes simplex virus 1 and 2, Epstein Barr virus, Cytomegalovirus and Varicella zoster virus. Results Viral DNA of herpesvirus was detected in the CSFs of 30 (25.4 %) participants, as follows: 22 (18.6 %) Herpes simplex 1 and 2 viruses, 4 (3.3 %) Cytomegalovirus and 1 (0.8 %) Varicella zoster virus. Co-infections were observed in 3 patients (2.5 %), 1 case by HSV-VZV and 2 cases by CMV/HSV. The clinical manifestations of the patients included: headache (18.6 %), fever (14.4 %), asthenia (10.1 %), seizures (9.3 %), vomiting (8.4 %), and stiff neck (5.9 %). Thirty percent of the patients also had HIV-AIDS. A case fatality rate of 20 % was observed for the patients. Conclusions This paper shows that herpesvirus is a cause of infection of the CNS in patients from Cordoba. This study contributes to the epidemiology of encephalitis, as well as to patient management.